Stress management

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Stress management refers to the wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's levels of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.

In this context, the term 'stress' refers only to a stress with significant negative consequences, or distress in the terminology advocated by Hans Selye, rather than what he calls eustress, a stress whose consequences are helpful or otherwise positive.

Stress produces numerous symptoms which vary according to persons, situations, and severity. These can include physical health decline as well as depression. The process of stress management is named as one of the keys to a happy and successful life in modern society.[1] Although life provides numerous demands that can prove difficult to handle, stress management provides a number of ways to manage anxiety and maintain overall well-being.

Despite stress often being thought of as a subjective experience, levels of stress are readily measureable using various physiological tests, similar to those used in polygraphs.

Many practical stress management techniques are available, some for use by health practitioners and others for self-help, which may help an individual to reduce stress, provide positive feelings of being in control of one's life and promote general well-being.

The effectiveness of the different stress management techniques can be difficult to assess, as few of them have received significant attention from researchers. Consequently, the amount and quality of evidence for the various techniques varies widely. Some are accepted as effective treatments for use in psychotherapy, whilst others with less evidence favouring them are considered alternative therapies. Many professional organisations exist to promote and provide training in conventional or alternative therapies.

There are several models of stress management, each with distinctive explanations of mechanisms for controlling stress. Much more research is necessary to provide a better understanding of which mechanisms actually operate and are effective in practice.

Historical foundations[edit]

Walter Cannon and Hans Selye used animal studies to establish the earliest scientific basis for the study of stress. They measured the physiological responses of animals to external pressures, such as heat and cold, prolonged restraint, and surgical procedures, then extrapolated from these studies to human beings.[2][3]

Subsequent studies of stress in humans by Richard Rahe and others established the view that stress is caused by distinct, measureable life stressors, and further, that these life stressors can be ranked by the median degree of stress they produce (leading to the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale). Thus, stress was traditionally conceptualized to be a result of external insults beyond the control of those experiencing the stress. More recently, however, it has been argued that external circumstances do not have any intrinsic capacity to produce stress, but instead their effect is mediated by the individual's perceptions, capacities, and understanding.

Models[edit]

Transactional model[edit]

Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman suggested in 1984 that stress can be thought of as resulting from an “imbalance between demands and resources” or as occurring when “pressure exceeds one's perceived ability to cope”. Stress management was developed and premised on the idea that stress is not a direct response to a stressor but rather one's resources and ability to cope mediate the stress response and are amenable to change, thus allowing stress to be controllable.[4]

Among the many stressors mentioned by employees, these are the most common:

  • The way employees are treated by their bosses/supervisors or company
  • Lack of job security
  • Company policies
  • Coworkers who don't do their fair share
  • Unclear expectations
  • Poor communication
  • Not enough control over assignments
  • Inadequate pay or benefits
  • Urgent deadlines
  • Too much work
  • Long hours
  • Uncomfortable physical conditions
  • Relationship conflicts
  • Coworkers making careless mistakes
  • Dealing with rude customers
  • Lack of cooperation
  • How the company treats coworkers[5]

In order to develop an effective stress management programme it is first necessary to identify the factors that are central to a person controlling his/her stress, and to identify the intervention methods which effectively target these factors. Lazarus and Folkman's interpretation of stress focuses on the transaction between people and their external environment (known as the Transactional Model). The model contends that stress may not be a stressor if the person does not perceive the stressor as a threat but rather as positive or even challenging. Also, if the person possesses or can use adequate coping skills, then stress may not actually be a result or develop because of the stressor. The model proposes that people can be taught to manage their stress and cope with their stressors. They may learn to change their perspective of the stressor and provide them with the ability and confidence to improve their lives and handle all of types of stressors.

Health realization/innate health model[edit]

The health realization/innate health model of stress is also founded on the idea that stress does not necessarily follow the presence of a potential stressor. Instead of focusing on the individual's appraisal of so-called stressors in relation to his or her own coping skills (as the transactional model does), the health realization model focuses on the nature of thought, stating that it is ultimately a person's thought processes that determine the response to potentially stressful external circumstances. In this model, stress results from appraising oneself and one's circumstances through a mental filter of insecurity and negativity, whereas a feeling of well-being results from approaching the world with a "quiet mind".[6][7]

This model proposes that helping stressed individuals understand the nature of thought—especially providing them with the ability to recognize when they are in the grip of insecure thinking, disengage from it, and access natural positive feelings—will reduce their stress.

Techniques[edit]

High demand levels load the person with extra effort and work. A new time schedule is worked up, and until the period of abnormally high, personal demand has passed, the normal frequency and duration of former schedules is limited.

Many techniques cope with the stresses life brings. Some of the following ways induce a lower than usual stress level, temporarily, to compensate the biological tissues involved; others face the stressor at a higher level of abstraction:

Techniques of stress management will vary according to the philosophical paradigm.[9] [10]

Stress prevention & resilience[edit]

Although many techniques have traditionally been developed to deal with the consequences of stress considerable research has also been conducted on the prevention of stress, a subject closely related to psychological resilience-building. A number of self-help approaches to stress-prevention and resilience-building have been developed, drawing mainly on the theory and practice of cognitive-behavioural therapy.[11]

Measuring stress[edit]

Levels of stress can be measured. One way is through the use of psychological testing: the Holmes and Rahe Stress Scale is used to rate stressful life events, while the DASS contains a scale for stress based on self-report items. Changes in blood pressure and galvanic skin response can also be measured to test stress levels, and changes in stress levels. A digital thermometer can be used to evaluate changes in skin temperature, which can indicate activation of the fight-or-flight response drawing blood away from the extremities. Cortisol is the main hormone released during a stress response and measuring cortisol from hair will give a 60-90 baseline stress level of an individual. This method of measuring stress is currently the most popular method in the clinic.

Effectiveness[edit]

Stress management has physiological and immune benefits.[12]

Positive outcomes are observed using a combination of non-drug interventions:[13]

Types of stress[edit]

Acute stress[edit]

Acute stress is the most common form of stress among humans worldwide. Acute stress deals with the pressures of the near future or dealing with the very recent past. This type of stress is often misinterpreted for being a negative connotation. While this is the case in some circumstances, it is also a good thing to have some acute stress in life. Running or any other form of exercise is considered an acute stressor. Some exciting or exhilarating experiences such as riding a roller coaster is an acute stress but is usually very fun. Acute stress is a short term stress and in result, does not have enough time to do the damage that long term stress causes.[14]

Chronic stress[edit]

Chronic stress is unlike acute stress. It has a wearing effect on people that can become a very serious health risk if it continues over a long period of time. Chronic stress can lead to memory loss, damage spacial recognition and produce a decreased drive of eating. The severity varies from person to person and also sex difference can be an underlying factor. Women are able to take longer durations of stress than men without showing the same maladaptive changes. Men can deal with shorter stress duration better than women can but once males hit a certain threshold, the chances of them developing mental issues increases drastically.[15]

In the workplace[edit]

Stress in the workplace is a commonality throughout the world in every business.[citation needed] Managing that stress becomes vital in order to keep up job performance as well as relationship with co-workers and employers. For some workers, changing the work environment relieves work stress. Making the environment less competitive between employees decreases some amounts of stress. However, each person is different and some people like the pressure to perform better.
Salary can be an important concern of employees. Salary can affect the way people work because they can aim for promotion and in result, a higher salary. This can lead to chronic stress.[citation needed]
Cultural differences have also shown to have some major effects on stress coping problems. Eastern Asian employees may deal with certain work situations differently from how a Western North American employee would.[citation needed]

In order to manage stress in the workplace, employers can provide stress managing programs such as therapy, communication programs, and a more flexible work schedule.[16]

Medical Environment Stress[edit]

A study was done on the stress levels in general practitioners and hospital consultants in 1994. Over 500 medical employees participated in this study done by Dr. R.P Caplan. These results showed that 47% of the workers scored high on their questionnaire for high levels of stress. 27% of the general practitioners even scored to be very depressed. These numbers came to a surprise to Dr. Caplan and it showed how alarming the large number of medical workers become stressed out because of their jobs. Managers stress levels were not as high as the actual practitioners themselves. An eye opening statistic showed that nearly 54% of workers suffered from anxiety while being in the hospital. Although this was a small sample size for hospitals around the world, Caplan feels this trend is probably fairly accurate across the majority of hospitals.[17]

Stress management programs[edit]

Many businesses today have began to use stress management programs for employees who are having trouble adapting to stress at the workplace or at home. Many people have spill over stress from home into their working environment. There are a couple of ways businesses today try to alleviate stress on their employees. One way is individual intervention. This starts off by monitoring the stressors in the individual. After monitoring what causes the stress, next is attacking that stressor and trying to figure out ways to alleviate them in any way. Developing social support is vital in individual intervention, being with others to help you cope has proven to be a very effective way to avoid stress. Avoiding the stressors all together is the best possible way to get rid of stress but that is very difficult to do in the workplace. Changing behavioral patterns, may in turn, help reduce some of the stress that is put on at work as well.

Employee assistance programs can include in-house counseling programs on managing stress. Evaluative research has been conducted on EAPs that teach individual stress control and inoculation techniques such as relaxation, biofeedback, and cognitive restructuring. Studies show that these programs can reduce the level of physiological arousal associated with high stress. Participants who master behavioral and cognitive stress-relief techniques report less tension, fewer sleep disturbances, and an improved ability to cope with workplace stressors.[18]

Another way of reducing stress at work is by simply changing the workload for an employee. Some may be too overwhelmed that they have so much work to get done, or some also may have such little work that they are not sure what to do with themselves at work. Improving communications between employees also sounds like a simple approach, but it is very effective for helping reduce stress. Sometimes making the employee feel like they are a bigger part of the company, such as giving them a voice in bigger situations shows that you trust them and value their opinion. Having all the employees mesh well together is a very underlying factor which can take away much of workplace stress. If employees fit well together and feed off of each other, the chances of lots of stress is very minimal. Lastly, changing the physical qualities of the workplace may reduce stress. Changing things such as the lighting, air temperature, odor, and up to date technology.

Intervention is broken down into three steps: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary. Primary deals with eliminating the stressors all together. Secondary deals with detecting stress and figuring out ways to cope with it and improving stress management skills. FInally, tertiary deals with recovery and rehabbing the stress all together. These three steps are usually the most effective way to deal with stress not just in the workplace, but overall.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paul Susic MA Licensed Psychologist Ph.D Candidate. "Stress Management: What can you do?". St. Louis Psychologists and Counseling Information and Referral. Retrieved February 5, 2013. 
  2. ^ Cannon, W. (1939). The Wisdom of the Body, 2nd ed., NY: Norton Pubs.
  3. ^ Selye, H (1950). "Stress and the general adaptation syndrome". Br. Med. J. 1 (4667): 1383–92. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4667.1383. PMC 2038162. PMID 15426759. 
  4. ^ Lazarus, R.S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal and Coping. New York: Springer.
  5. ^ Somaz, Wenk Heidi & Tulgan, Bruce (2003). Performance Under Pressure: Managing Stress in the Workplace.Canada. HRD Press Inc.p 7-8. ISBN 0-87425-741-7
  6. ^ Mills, R.C. (1995). Realizing Mental Health: Toward a new Psychology of Resiliency. Sulberger & Graham Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-945819-78-1
  7. ^ Sedgeman, J.A. (2005). Health Realization/Innate Health: Can a quiet mind and a positive feeling state be accessible over the lifespan without stress-relief techniques? Med. Sci. Monitor 11(12) HY47-52. [1]
  8. ^ Lehrer, Paul M.; David H. (FRW) Barlow, Robert L. Woolfolk, Wesley E. Sime (2007). Principles and Practice of Stress Management, Third Edition. pp. 46–47. ISBN 1-59385-000-X. 
  9. ^ Dubbed “Destressitizers” by The Journal of the Canadian Medical Association
  10. ^ Spence, JD; Barnett, PA; Linden, W; Ramsden, V; Taenzer, P (1999). "Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 7. Recommendations on stress management. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada". Canadian Medical Association Journal 160 (9 Suppl): S46–50. PMC 1230339. PMID 10333853.  edit
  11. ^ Robertson, D (2012). Build your Resilience. London: Hodder. ISBN 978-1444168716. 
  12. ^ Bower, J. E. & Segerstrom, S.C. (2004). "Stress management, finding benefit, and immune function: positive mechanisms for intervention effects on physiology". Journal of Psychosomatic Research 56 (1): 9–11. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00120-X. PMID 14987958. 
  13. ^ Wolfgang Linden; Joseph W. Lenz; Andrea H. Con (2001). "Individualized Stress Management for Primary Hypertension: A Randomized Trial". Arch Intern Med 161 (8): 1071–1080. doi:10.1001/archinte.161.8.1071. PMID 11322841. 
  14. ^ McGonagle, Katherine; Ronald Kessler (October 1990). "Chronic Stress, Acute Stress, Depressive Symptoms". American Journal of Community Psychology 18 (5): 681–706. doi:10.1007/BF00931237. 
  15. ^ Bowman, Rachel; Beck, Kevin D; Luine, Victoria N (January 2003). "Chronic Stress Effects on Memory: Sex differences in performance". Hormones and Behavior 43 (1): 48–59. doi:10.1016/S0018-506X(02)00022-3. 
  16. ^ Nordic Labour Journal: Avoiding change-induced stress in the workplace
  17. ^ Caplan, R.P (November 1994). "Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospital Consultants, General Practitioners, and Senior Health Managers". BMJ Journal 309 (6964): 1261–1269. doi:10.1136/bmj.309.6964.1261. 
  18. ^ Schultz&Schultz, D (2010). Psychology and work today. New York: Prentice Hall. p. 374. 
  19. ^ Hardy, Sally (1998). Occupational Stress: Personal and Professional Approaches. United Kingdom: Stanley Thornes ltd. pp. 18–43. 

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