House of Bourbon-Parma
|Ancestral house||House of Bourbon|
|Final sovereign||Robert I|
|Founding||18 October 1748|
|Deposition||9 June 1859|
|Cadet branches||House of Bourbon-Parma-Luxembourg|
The House of Bourbon-Parma (Italian: Casa di Borbone di Parma) is an Italian cadet branch of the House of Bourbon. It is thus descended from the Capetian dynasty in male line. The name of Bourbon-Parma comes from the main name (Bourbon) and the other (Parma) from the title of Duke of Parma. The title was held by the Spanish Bourbons as the founder was the great-grandson of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma.
Duchy of Parma 
The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered on the city of Parma. In 1556, the second Duke, Ottavio Farnese, was given the city of Piacenza, becoming thus also Duke of Piacenza, and so the state was thereafter properly known as the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza.
The Farnese family continued to rule until their extinction in 1731, at which point the duchy was inherited by the young son of the King of Spain, Charles, whose mother Elisabeth was a member of the Farnese family. He ruled until the end of the War of the Polish Succession in 1735, when Parma was ceded to Emperor Charles VI in exchange for the Two Sicilies.
Temporary Habsburg rule 
The Habsburgs only ruled until the conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when it was ceded back to the Bourbons in the person of Philip, Charles's younger brother. As duke Philip, he became the founder of the House of Bourbon-Parma.
In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte. In the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1801, duke Ferdinand formally agreed to cede the duchy to Napoleon. The territories were integrated into the Cisalpine Republic until 1802, the Italian Republic, from 1802 until 1805, and the Kingdom of Italy, from 1805 until 1808, until in 1808 the French Empire annexed them and formed out of them the Département of Taro.
In 1814, the duchies were restored under Napoleon's Habsburg wife, Marie Louise, who was to rule them for her lifetime. The duchy was renamed duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, the name that it retained until the end.
Return to the Bourbons 
After Marie Louise's death in 1847, the Duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, which had been ruling the tiny duchy of Lucca. The Bourbons ruled until 1859, when they were driven out by a revolution following the Sardinian victory in their war against Austria.
The duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla and the duchy of Lucca joined with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the duchy of Modena to form the United Provinces of Central Italy in December 1859, and were annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia in March 1860. The House of Bourbon continues to claim the title of duke of Parma to this day. Carlos-Hugo (Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne in the 1970s) has held the title since 1977.
The Dukes 
House of Bourbon-Parma 1731–1735 
|Charles, Duke of Parma
|20 January 1716
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma
|Maria Amalia of Saxony
|14 December 1788
House of Bourbon-Parma 1748–1803 
|Philip, Duke of Parma
|15 March 1720
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma
|Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon
25 October 1739
|18 July 1765
|Ferdinand, Duke of Parma
nominal since 1796
|20 January 1751
son of Philip, Duke of Parma and Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon
|Archduchess Marie Amalie of Austria
19 July 1769
|9 October 1802
During the French ownership of the Duchy of Parma, the title of Duke of Parma was used as an honorary form and style. From 1808, the title was used by Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès. He kept the style of Duc de Parme till 1814. Only in 1847 the actual title was restored to the Bourbons after a period of being held by Marie Louise of Austria, wife of Napoleon I who was a Habsburg.
House of Bourbon-Parma, 1847–1859 
|Charles II, Duke of Parma
|22 December 1799
son of Louis of Etruria and Maria Louisa, Duchess of Lucca
|Maria Teresa of Savoy
5 September 1820
|16 April 1883
|Charles III, Duke of Parma
|14 January 1823
son of Charles II, Duke of Parma and Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy
|Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France
10 November 1845
|27 March 1854
|Robert I, Duke of Parma
|20 January 1848
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France
|Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
5 April 1869
Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal
15 October 1884
|16 November 1907
Nominal Dukes of Parma (since 1859) 
- Carlos, Duke of Parma, born on 27 January 1970
Annemarie, Duchess of Parma, born on 18 December 1977
- Carlos Klynstra (illegitimate), born on 20 January 1997
- Princess Luisa of Bourbon-Parma, born on 9 May 2012
- Princess Margarita of Bourbon-Parma, born on 13 October 1972
Tajlling ten Cate, born on 23 December 1975
- Julia ten Cate, born on 3 September 2008
- Paola ten Cate, born on 25 February 2011
- Prince Jaime, Count of Bardi, born on 13 October 1972
- Princess Carolina, Marchioness of Sala, born on 23 June 1974
Grand Duchy of Luxemburg 
Since 1964, the House of Bourbon-Parma has reigned agnatically in Luxembourg when upon the abdication of his mother Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg ascended the throne. Jean was the son of Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma, a younger son of Robert I of Parma, and Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg. Charlotte's descendants have since reigned as the continued dynasty of Nassau-Weilburg.
In October 2000 Jean abdicated the Luxembourgian throne in favour of his eldest son Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
12 November 1964 –
7 October 2000
|5 January 1921
|Grand Duchess Joséphine Charlotte
9 April 1953
7 October 2000 –
|16 April 1955
|Grand Duchess Maria Teresa
4 February/14 February 1981
See also 
- List of Dukes of Parma
- Pretenders to the throne of Parma
- Descendants of Louis XIV of France which includes them
- Official website of the House of Bourbon-Parma (language: Italian and Spanish)
- Website of the Royal and Ducal House of Bourbon-Parma (language: Italian)