Hydrogen deuteride

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Hydrogen deuteride
Skeletal formula of hydrogen deuteride
CAS number 13983-20-5 YesY
PubChem 167583
ChemSpider 146609 YesY
EC number 237-773-0
UN number 1049
ChEBI CHEBI:29237 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula H[2H]
Molar mass 3.02204 g mol−1
Melting point −259 °C (−434.2 °F; 14.1 K)
Boiling point −253 °C (−423.4 °F; 20.1 K)
EU classification Extremely Flammable F+
R-phrases R12
S-phrases S16, S33, S36, S38
NFPA 704
Flammability code 4: Will rapidly or completely vaporize at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature, or is readily dispersed in air and will burn readily. Flash point below 23 °C (73 °F). E.g., propane Health code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g., sodium chloride Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Autoignition temperature 571 °C (1,060 °F; 844 K)
Related compounds
Related hydrogens Deuterium


Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Hydrogen deuteride is a diatomic molecule composed of the two isotopes of hydrogen: the majority isotope 1H protium and 2H deuterium. Its molecular formula is HD.

Natural abundance[edit]

Hydrogen deuteride is a minor component of naturally occurring molecular hydrogen. In particular, hydrogen deuteride is one of the minor but noticeable components of the atmospheres of all the giant planets, with abundances from about 30 ppm to about 200 ppm. HD has also been found in supernova remnants,[1] and other sources.[citation needed]

Occurrence of HD vs. H2 in gas giants
Planet HD H2[citation needed]
Jupiter ~0.003% 89.8% ±2.0%
Uranus ~0.007% 83.0% ±3.0%
Neptune ~0.019% 80.0% ±3.2%

Radio emission spectra[edit]

HD and H2 have very similar emission spectra, but the emission frequencies differ.[2]

The frequency of the astronomically important J = 1-0 rotational transition of HD at 2.7 THz has been measured with tunable FIR radiation with an accuracy of 150 kHz.[3]


  1. ^ Neufeld, David A.; Hollenbach, David J.; Kaufman, Michael J.; Snell, Ronald L.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Sonnentrucker, Paule (2007). "SpitzerSpectral Line Mapping of Supernova Remnants. I. Basic Data and Principal Component Analysis". The Astrophysical Journal 664 (2): 890. arXiv:0704.2179. Bibcode:2007ApJ...664..890N. doi:10.1086/518857. 
  2. ^ Quinn, W.; Baker, J.; Latourrette, J.; Ramsey, N. (1958). "Radio-Frequency Spectra of Hydrogen Deuteride in Strong Magnetic Fields". Phys. Rev. 112 (6): 1929. Bibcode:1958PhRv..112.1929Q. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.112.1929. 
  3. ^ Evenson, K. M.; Jennings, D. A.; Brown, J. M.; Zink, L. R.; Leopold, K. R. (1988). "Frequency measurement of the J = 1-0 rotational transition of HD". Astrophysical Journal 330: L135. Bibcode:1988ApJ...330L.135E&db_key=AST. doi:10.1086/185221. 

Further reading[edit]