This article is about the generic structure class. For the specific chemical of this name, see
General formula for a ketene.
ketene is an organic compound of the form R'R''C=C=O. The term is also used specifically to mean ethenone, the simplest ketene, where R' and R'' are hydrogen atoms.
Ketenes were first studied as a class by
Hermann Staudinger. [1 ]
Formation [ edit ]
Ketenes can be prepared from
acyl chlorides by an elimination reaction in which HCl is lost:
In this reaction, a base, usually
triethylamine, removes the acidic proton alpha to the carbonyl group, inducing the formation of the carbon-carbon double bond and the loss of a chloride ion.
Ketenes can also be formed from α-
diazoketones by Wolff rearrangement.
Phenylacetic acid in the presence of a base will lose water to produce phenylketene due to the high acidity of the alpha proton.
Ketenes can be formed by
pyrolysis (thermal cracking) of acetone:
3−CO−CH 3 + ΔT → CH 2=C=O + CH 4
This reaction is called the
Schmidlin ketene synthesis. [2 ] [3 ]
Reactions [ edit ]
Ketenes are generally very reactive, and participate in various
cycloadditions. They will also undergo [2+2] cycloaddition reactions with electron-rich alkynes to form cyclobutenones, or carbonyl groups to form beta- lactones. With imines beta-lactams are formed. This is the Staudinger synthesis, a facile route to this important class of compounds.
diols (HO–R–OH) and bis-ketenes (O=C=CH–R'–CH=C=O) yield polyesters with a repeat unit of (–O–R–O–CO–R'–CO–).
Ethyl acetoacetate, a very important starting material in organic synthesis, can be prepared using a diketene in reaction with ethanol. They directly form ethyl acetoacetate, and the yield is good; this method is therefore used industrially.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Hermann Staudinger (1905). "Ketene, eine neue Körperklasse". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 38 (2): 1735–1739. doi: 10.1002/cber.19050380283.
^ Ketene in Organic Syntheses Organic Syntheses, Submitted by C. D. Hurd Checked by Oliver Kamm Coll. Vol. 1, p.330 (1941); Vol. 4, p.39 (1925). Link
^ Schmidlin and Bergmann, Ber. 43, 2881 (1910);