Invictus

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This article is about the poem. For other uses, see Invictus (disambiguation).
"Invictus"
William Ernest Henley Vanity Fair 1892-11-26.jpg
Portrait of William Ernest Henley by Leslie Ward published in Vanity Fair 26 November 1892
Author William Ernest Henley
Country England
Language English
Genre(s) Lyric poetry
Publisher Book of Verses
Media type Print (periodical)
Publication date 1888

"Invictus" is a short Victorian poem by the English poet William Ernest Henley (1849–1903). It was written in 1875 and published in 1888 in his first volume of poems, Book of Verses, where it is the fourth poem in the section Life and Death (Echoes).[1] It originally had no title.[1] Early printings contained only the dedication To R. T. H. B.—a reference to Robert Thomas Hamilton Bruce (1846–1899), a successful Scottish flour merchant and baker who was also a literary patron.[2] The title "Invictus" (Latin for "unconquered")[3] was added by editor Arthur Quiller-Couch when the poem was included in The Oxford Book of English Verse.[4][5]

Text[edit]

Out of the night that covers me,
Black as the pit from pole to pole,
I thank whatever gods may be
For my unconquerable soul.

In the fell clutch of circumstance
I have not winced nor cried aloud.
Under the bludgeonings of chance
My head is bloody, but unbowed.

Beyond this place of wrath and tears
Looms but the Horror of the shade,
And yet the menace of the years
Finds and shall find me unafraid.

It matters not how strait the gate,
How charged with punishments the scroll,
I am the master of my fate,
I am the captain of my soul.

[6]

Importance[edit]

William Ernest Henley is best known by virtue of this single poem.[7]

One of Henley's legs was amputated due to complications arising from tuberculosis. Immediately after the amputation, he received news that another operation would have to be done on his other leg. However, he decided to enlist the help of a different doctor named Joseph Lister. Under Lister's care he was able to keep his other leg by undergoing intensive surgery on his remaining foot.[8] While recovering from this surgery in the infirmary, he was moved to write the words of "Invictus". This period of his life, coupled with the reality of an impoverished childhood, plays a major role in the meaning behind the poem; it is also the prime reason for this poem's existence.[9]

Influence[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Henley, William Ernest (1888). A book of verses. London: D. Nutt. OCLC 13897970. 
  2. ^ For example in Henley, William Ernest (1891). A book of verses (3rd ed.). New York: Scribner & Welford. OCLC 1912116. 
  3. ^ "English professor Marion Hoctor: The meaning of 'Invictus'". CNN. 2001-06-11. Retrieved 2009-06-21. 
  4. ^ Quiller-Couch, Arthur Thomas (ed.) (1902). The Oxford Book of English Verse, 1250–1900 (1st (6th impression) ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 1019. OCLC 3737413. 
  5. ^ Wilson, A.N. (2001-06-11). "World of books". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
  6. ^ Poetry Foundation: I am the master of my fate, I am the captain of my soul. URL http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/182194
  7. ^ University of California Press http://www.jstor.org.www2.lib.ku.edu:2048/stable/3817033?seq=1
  8. ^ poem analysis http://sites.google.com/site/jreedeshs/home/invictus-analysis
  9. ^ biography of William Ernest Henley http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/william-ernest-henley
  10. ^ Daniels, Eddie (1998) There and back
  11. ^ Dominic Sandbrook (30 January 2010). "British leaders: they're not what they were". The Daily Telegraph (UK). 
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ "Bloodied but unbowed" mirror.co.uk
  15. ^ Sayers, Dorothy (1943). "Clouds of Witness". Classic Gems Publishing. p. 28. Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  16. ^ Aung San Suu Kyi in BBC Reith Lecture, 2011-06-28
  17. ^ http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/mcveigh/mcveighinvictus.html
  18. ^ Rita Cosby (2001-06-12). "Timothy McVeigh Put to Death for Oklahoma City Bombings". FOX News. Retrieved 2008-04-15. 
  19. ^ "http://www.economist.com/printedition/2013-12-14". Retrieved 10 January 2014. 

External links[edit]

  • Works related to Invictus at Wikisource


Quoted in full at start of Zero Six Bravo (Damien Lewis). A factual account of Special forces action in Second Gulf War published by Quercus 2013