3 November 1930 |
Gurdaspur, Gurdaspur district, Punjab, British India (present-day India)
|Residence||Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory|
|Fields||Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Technology|
|Institutions||Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
International Atomic Energy Agency
Government College University
National Center for Physics
|Alma mater||Université de Montréal
University of Punjab
|Doctoral advisor||Prof. Pierre Demers|
|Other academic advisors||Prof. Rafi M. Chaudhary(physicist)|
|Notable students||Samar Mubarik Mand, Javed Aslam, Fazal Hussain|
|Known for||Nuclear Deterrent Programme
Nuclear Energy Programme
Chagai Nuclear Tests
Kirana Nuclear Tests
|Notable awards||Nishan-i-Imitiaz (1998)
Ishfaq Ahmad (Urdu: اشفاق احمد; born 3 November 1930, at Gurdaspur, British India ; D.Sc., SI, HI, NI, FPAS), is a Pakistani nuclear scientist. He is Chairman of the Board of Governors (BOG) of the National Center for Physics, Islamabad, and has been Special Advisor to the Prime Minister of Pakistan and Advisor to the Planning Commission of Pakistan.
In 1960, he joined PAEC at Sr. Scientific Officer and was allowed to proceed abroad for research at several world renowned institutions such as Niels Bohr Institute of Physics at Copenhagen; University of Montreal, Canada; University of Paris – Sorbonne, France. Finally, he settled down for work at the Lahore Centre of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in 1965. Ahmad served at various key positions in PAEC, such as Director Training, Secretary PAEC, Director of the Atomic Energy Centre, Lahore and Director of the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad. He became a Member of PAEC in 1975, raised to the positions of Senior Member in 1988 and Chairman in 1991. During his tenure as Member/Sr. Member, PAEC he was responsible for supervising technical work on fuel cycle and the needs for development of nuclear capability. In his capacity as Chairman PAEC, he has been heading the country's delegation at IAEA. He also served as elected Chairman of the Board of Governors of the international agency, working to make the peaceful use of nuclear power for the national development. A vehement supporter for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, he earned public and international fame in May 1998 when he oversaw and directed PAEC to perform country's first public atomic tests (see Chagai-I and Chagai-II) in a secret weapon-testing laboratories in Balochistan of Pakistan.
After retiring from PAEC in 2001, he was asked to serve as Special Advisor to the then Chief Executive and later to the Prime Minister of Pakistan, on strategic program of the Country, with the status of Federal Minister. In 2008, his services were placed at the disposal of the Planning Commission of Pakistan and he was given a designation of Advisor (S&T), with the status of Minister of State. He also served as acting Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission during 2010 (http://www.pc.gov.pk/?page_id=297).
During his stay at the Prime Minister's Secretariat and at the Planning Commission, he developed a strong interest in the science of climate change and established the country first climate change research and policy oriented centre namely Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC) (http://www.gcisc.org.pk). He, in the capacity of Chairman of the national task force on climate change led the preparation of the country's first ever climate change policy published in 2010.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
- 3 Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority
- 4 Later work and activism
- 5 State Honours, Awards and Recognition
- 6 Publications
- 7 Fellowships
- 8 See also
- 9 References
Early life and family
Ahmad was born in Gurdaspur, Indian Punjab state of the British India, to Indian Muslim family of Kakazai descent. After completing his matriculation from a local high school in Gurdaspur, Ahmad and his rest of the family settled in Lahore, Pakistan, as a follow up of the independence. Ahmad enrolled in the Punjab University and studied Physics, and earned his undergraduate, B.Sc. degree, in Physics in 1949. After entering in the post graduate school at the Punjab University, Ahmad obtained his M.Sc. degree, in 1951, after submitting his master's thesis on nuclear physics which was supervised by Tahir Hussain. With his master's degree, he obtained Honours diploma and secured a gold medallion for the recognition of his work in physics. He taught undergraduate physics laboratory courses at the Government College University while working on fundamental concepts in nuclear physics with his university mentor. In 1954, he won the scholarship under the Columbo Plan fellowship program to and went went to Quebec, Canada for his doctorate studies. Ahmad attended the doctorate school at the Université de Montréal and did a two-year long course in Particle physics and engaged his research on theoretical physics. In 1959, Ahmad obtained D.Sc. in Nuclear physics after submitting his doctoral work in physics. His thesis were written on fluent French and English language, and reluctantly returned to Pakistan under the terms of Colombo Plan contract. During his long doctoral studies, Ahmad studied nuclear reaction at the Montreal Laboratory with supervisors and scientists role in the Manhattan Project. Upon his return to Pakistan, he joined the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as a senior scientist.
Academia and CERN
In 1952, Ahmad served as a visiting professor of mathematics at the Government College University, before accepting the professorship of mathematics at the University of Paris in 1959. He engaged his research in theoretical physics and obtained a one year long research fellowship at the Niels Bohr Institute for Theoretical Physics. In 1962–64, he accepted the professorship in physics at the University of Montreal and the University of Ottawa. In Ottawa, he carried out pioneering research in particle resonance and published important publications in theoretical physics. He did his PhD (DSc) in 1958, under the supervision of Prof. Pierre Demers, at the University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada. The topic of his research was Study of elemantry particles by using the deployment of special fine grain nuclear emulsion (Ag-Br). Ahmad also performed experiments on nuclear physics at the Meuse Underground Laboratories of France. In 1965, Ahmad published a research report on absorption of Pion's cross sections and the range of complex atom's energy of the pion particle.
Ahmad has been visiting CERN as a young post-doctoral fellow working at the University Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen (now the Niels Bohr Institute) to perform a nuclear emulsion experiment. During his visit to CERN in 1994, he was fascinated to see the exciting developments in physics that were taking place at CERN, and expressed his wish - that my own country, Pakistan, should somehow become involved in scientific collaboration with CERN, and that our physicists and engineers could also become part of the most advanced, challenging and rewarding scientific endeavour: the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).—Ishfaq Ahmad, CERN 1994., source
In the 1990s, Ahmad played a pivotal role in building closer relations with the CERN, and lobbied tirelessly for PAEC to reach an agreement with CERN. In 1997, Ahmad, as chair of PAEC, signed an agreement with CERN in the up gradation of the CMS detector and the financial contribution worth one million SFr for the construction of eight magnetic rings for the detector. This was followed by In 1998, Ishfaq Ahmad, as PAEC chairman, reached another contract with CERN. The signing of the agreement was followed by the state visit of CERN's director Christopher Llewellyn Smith with whom Ahmad signed a collaborative agreement that provided an entry point for Pakistani's scientist (respectively PAEC) into the CMS collaboration.
In 2000, another treaty between PAEC and CERN was signed that covered the construction of the resistive plate chambers required for the CMS muon system. In Press Conference with Luciano Maiani, Ahmad quoted: "I very much hope and wish that these developments may eventually lead to Pakistan becoming an associate member of CERN."
Since 2003, Dr. Ahmad has developed keen scientific interest in Climate Change. Currently he is the President of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences and also Chairman of the Board of Governors of Nuclear Center for Physics (NCP) – a Center established on the pattern of Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ASICTP) at Trieste, Italy. He also put Pakistan on the governing Council of IIASA-Austria, which conducts policy related research using mathematical modeling and simulation tools.
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
Ahmad had been affiliated with the PAEC since 1960, initially working as a "senior scientist", a position he held until 1966. Dr Ishfaq Ahmad served as Director, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad, Pakistan, 1971-1976; Director, Atomic Energy Center (AEC), Lahore, 1969-1971; Secretary, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), 1967-1969.
He became a Member of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission in 1975, raised to the position of Senior Member in 1988 and Chairman of the Commission in 1991. He remained Chairman of the Commission from March 13, 1991 to December 19, 2001.
Ahmad closely collaborated with Abdus Salam and has been regularly participating in the Pugwash Conferences (http://www.pugwash.org), up to 1991. At Pugwash, he was a strong supporter of Pakistan's peaceful nuclear program. However, when India did nuclear explosion, Pakistan had to go for that, to maintain a minimum deterrence.
1971 war and atomic bomb project
After the 1971 war with India, the government sent Ishfaq Ahmad to the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). When Munir Ahmad Khan became the chairman of PAEC and was put in charge of secret atomic bomb project, Munir Khan appointed Ahmad as the director of PINSTECH, where he remained up to 1976.
As early as in 1976, Ahmad, in a seismic team led by geophysicist Ahsan Mubarak conducted a three-dimensional geometrical survey and made several reconnaissance tours of the suitable areas in Balochistan. After a one year long survey, the team found a mountain which matched their specifications. The 185-meter high-rise granite mountain was founded in the Ras Koh region of the Chagai Division of Balochistan, which at their highest point rise to a height of 3,009 metres. Ahmad had long noted that the underground weapon-testing laboratories in the mountain should be "bone dry" and capable of withstanding a ~20 kilotonne nuclear force from the inside. Within a week, further test experiments were conducted to measure the water content of the mountains and the surrounding area and to measure the capability of the mountain’s rock to withstand a nuclear test. Once this was confirmed, Ishfaq Ahmed finalised the work on a three-dimensional survey of the area.
In 1976, PAEC succeeded in producing the first local 10kg of Yellowcake at the New Laboratories  and later on produced the 239Pu, the weapon grade plutonium at the New Laboratories in 1983, which was later tested with the nuclear device.
At PINSTECH, Ahmad produced the first Photographic plate to identify the fissile matter in natural uranium when it is explored. However due to its classified research, the knowledge of such detector is completely classified. The NPD developed the Thermoluminescent Dosimeter to measure the detection of alpha particles emitted in the decay of radon and thoron gases. Ahmad collaborating with Hameed Ahmad Khan —director of Radiation Physics Division – in the development of CR-39, a type of particle detector. Ahmad gained expertise in nuclear emulsion and developed a first classified nuclear emulsion that provided information about the mass, charge and velocity of the particles producing the track.
A first device was physically manufactured by 1983, and transported to Sargodha air force base for a first test. On 11 March 1983, a first cold test, codename Kirana-I, of a device was secretly carried out at the weapon-testing laboratories built inside the Central Ammunition Depot (CAD) of Sargodha AFB. The test was overseen and conducted by a small team of scientists led by Ahmad, while calculations on quantum oscillator was conducted by Theoretical physics group. Other invitees and attendees included the Munir Ahmad Khan, Samar Mubarakmand, and Masud Ahmad of PAEC whilst others were high-ranking civilians officials of elite civil bureaucracy and the active-duty officer of the Pakistan military.
In 1991, Ahmad was officially approved as the chairman of PAEC by the Prime minister of Pakistan after Munir Khan retired. During this time, he had been a senior scientist and acted as official science advisor to the government of Pakistan on many occasions. In 1998, Ahmad visited Canada to deliver lecture on quantum physics at the Montreal Laboratory when the news of surprise nuclear tests, codename Pokhran-II, of India reached to him. On 16 May 1998, Ahmad cut short his trip and returned to Pakistan to attend meeting with Prime minister Nawaz Sharif, and arranged his meeting with Prime minister on 17 May 1998. The message was bestowed to him by the Joint Headquarters at Rawalpindi, informing him to remain on stand-by a meeting with the Prime Minister. After commencing the meeting with the Prime minister, Ahmad received green signal from the government of Pakistan to conduct country's first test as a suitable reply to Indian nuclear aggression.
Ahmad personally supervised the test preparations as he also suggests the codenames of the tests. On 28 May 1998, the PAEC, sided by KRL and corps of engineers, performed the first nuclear tests, codename Chagai-I which was followed by Chagai-II to days later, on May 1998. Evidently, the fission devices were had contained the boosted-fission HEU nuclear process, that came from the KRL. But, on 30 May, the second test, codename Chagai-II, was performed completely under the command and control management of the PAEC. The fission devices, on a second test, were reportedly had contained the weapon grade plutonium, producing around at ~20kt of nuclear force. All together, the superposition of sum of the forces and the total blast yield was ranged at the nearly ~40kt of nuclear force, according to the PAEC scientific data.
Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission had established the nuclear safety and licensing division at its Headquarters in Islamabad as the de facto regulatory authority. This was upgraded to Directorate of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (DNSRP) under Mr. Ahmad (then Member Technical) was established with Mr. Nasim Ahmad as the Director. Mr. Ahmad worked jointly with Mr. Nasim for preparation of the legislative and regulatory framework to establish an independent nuclear regulatory body to fulfill the International Obligations. In 1995,(immediately after signing Nuclear Convention 1994), PAEC established the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Board (PNRB)to oversee the regulatory affairs. Complete separation of the regulatory functions was achieved in 2001, when the President of Pakistan promulgated the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Ordinance. Mr. Jamshed Azim Hashmi was made the first chairman of PNRA was who headed the authority till 2009. In 2009, the chairmanship was transferred to Mr. Anwar Habib.
Later work and activism
Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC)
Dr Ishfaq Ahmad’s efforts led to the creation of the Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC) in Islamabad where, for the first time, research on policy issues related to Climate Change is being undertaken in Pakistan. The centre, an autonomous organisation under the federal govt, works in collaboration with national institutions such as Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD), National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), WAPDA and PCRWR etc. The centre has also established collaborative relationship with international institutions such as UNFCCC, NCAR, ASICTP, IIASA, IUCN, ICIMOD etc. GCISC, with Dr. Arshad M Khan as its executive director, also serves as the Secretariat of the Prime Minister’s Committee on Climate Change.
Center for Earthquake Studies (CES)
After the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, the Government has decided to establish a Center for Earthquake studies in Islamabad, under the technical direction of Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad. The centre under the directorship of Mr. Shahid Ashraf and Dr. Ahsan Mubarak started work in collaboration with world leading scientists such as Prof. Elchin Khalilov of Azerbaijan. The centre conducts research using a Gravitational Wave Recorder housed at the National Centre for Physics, Islamabad.
Advocacy for Nuclear power
Ishfaq Ahmad is internationally known for his long-standing public advocacy for the nuclear power plants for the industrial and socioeconomic growth. On international forums, Ahmad deterred the international pressure mounted on Pakistan after conducting its tests, instead highlighted the achievements gained by Pakistan on its nuclear power infrastructure in the country as well as the need of Pakistan's usage of nuclear power for its economical growth. In 2012, Ahmad lobbied for the HMC-3 consortium to be listed as first commercial nuclear power corporation and helped the consortium to acquired its first license to manufacture nuclear materials for industrial power plants.
State Honours, Awards and Recognition
In 1989, Ishfaq Ahmad was bestowed with first state honour, Sitara-e-Imtiaz by Benazir Bhutto; and Hilal-e-Imtiaz in 1995. In 1998, Ahmad received the highest state honour, Nishan-e-Imtiaz, given to any national of Pakistan, for his services to the country in a graceful state ceremony. The same year, he was awarded gold medallion by the Institute of Leadership and Management in Lahore.
- Nishan-i-Imitiaz (1998)
- Hilal-i-Imtiaz (1995)
- Sitara-i-Imtiaz (1989)
- Gold Medal, Pakistan Academy of Sciences (1998)
- Gold Medal, Institute of Leadership & Management (ILM) (1998)
- Gold Medal, Society of Engineering, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering (SEMME), Karachi, (1998)
- Gold Medal, Geological Society of Punjab, (1998)
- Doctorate of Science Honoris Causa, UET Lahore, 2000.
- Who's who in atom, American Institute of Physics (1969)
- Managing nuclear knowledge in a developing country: Pakistan's perspective
- Absorptions de Mésons π± Rapides dans les Emulsions Nucléaires. – Revised version 1 / Ahmad, Ishfaq (PAEC; CERN Strasbourg-Cronenbourg), printed in 1965.
- Absorption of Fast π± Mesons in Nuclear Emulsion, University of Ottawa, printed in 1965.
- Proposal to Study the Interactions of 200 MeV π± -Mesons with Complex Nuclei Proposal to Study the Interactions of 200 MeV π± -Mesons with Complex Nuclei, printed in CERN.
- Nuclear knowledge management – the role of the IAEA and its Technical Cooperation programme, Ishfaq Ahmad, printed on 10 September 2004 at IAEA
- Energy for sustainable development and science technology for the future of Islamic World.
- Radon/thoron detection properties of a CR-39 plastic track detector by Hameed A. Khan and Ishfaq Ahmad.
- International Journal of Radiation Applications and Instrumentation. Part D. Nuclear Tracks and Radiation Measurements by Hameed A. Khan, Imtinan E. Qureshi, and Ishfaq Ahmad
- Mathematical Modeling and its application in natural disasters, Ishfaq Ahmad, Global Change Impact Studies Centre.
- Mathematical Integrals in Quantum Nature, Ishfaq Ahmad, The Nucleus (1971).
- Resonance Integrals and Resonances in Nucleus. Ishfaq Ahmad, Hans Mes, and Jacques Herbet (1966)
- Ahmad, D.Sc., Ishfaq (2002). Water and New Technologies (in English and French Language). Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory: Global Change Impact Studies Centre. p. 168. ISBN 969-8500-00-6.
- Rehman, Shahidur (1999) , "§Untold story of Pakistan's Nuclear Quest", Long Road to Chagai (in English Language) 1, Islamabad, Islamabad Capital Territory: Printwise Publications, pp. 70–100, ISBN 969-8500-00-6
- An elected President of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (2007)
- Board of Directors of the Abdus Salam Center for Solid State Physics, Government College University, Lahore, 2006–present.
- Board of Governors of the Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology (GIKI) (2002)
- Chairman and Board of Governors, Riazuddin National Center for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (2001)
- Fellow of the Islamic World Academy of Sciences (2000)
- Fellow of the Nuclear Society of Pakistan (1997)
- An elected fellow of the Pakistan Nuclear Society (1993)
- A Honorary Fellow of the International Academy of Nuclear Energy (1990)
- Board of Governors of the Government College University, Lahore (1989–1996)
- A fellow of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (1983)
- A fellow at Niels Bohr Institute of Theoretical Physics, Copenhagen, Denmark (1961–1962)
He is also the recipient of:
- Member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
- Member of the Board of Physics Olympiad of Pakistan.
- An honorary Council Member of International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
- Munir Ahmad Khan
- Abdus Salam
- European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
- International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
- Montreal Laboratory
- "Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad (N.I, H.I, S.I) Advisor S&T / Minister of State". Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- (Rahman 1998, pp. 18–20)
- (PAS), Pakistan Academy of Sciences. "Fellow: Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad-PAS". The Office of Pakistan Academy of Sciences..
- Pride of Pakistan. "Career of Tahir Hussain".
- Rehman, Mumtazul Haque. "Appendix". McGill University. Montreal Religious Sites Project. Retrieved 2002.
- Friends, The Succssful Pakistan in and Around the World. "See:Prof. Ishfaq Ahmad". www.friendskorner.com. Friendskorner.com.
- Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad (N.I, H.I, S.I), Deputy Chairman / Advisor S&T, Minister of State, Planning Commission. "Minister Planning Commission: Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad (N.I, H.I, S.I)". Planning Commission of Pakistan. Jawaid Azfar, Computer Center of Planning Commission.
- Ahmad, Ishfaq; et. al (1966). "Resonance in the Nucleus". Progress of Theoretical Physics 35 (1–3). Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- (NPT), Nazaria-i-Pakistan Trust; Khalid Mahmood Asim (2003). "Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad". Prominent Scientists of Pakistan. Retrieved 2010.
- Ishfaq Ahmad. "Í ABSURPTIÜN ÜF FAST Tt MESÜNS IN NUCLEAR EMULSIUN". EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH.
- CERN Courier. "CERN and Pakistan: a personal perspective" (cws). CERN Courier services. CERN. Retrieved 10/12/2012.
- (CCL Pakistan), Climate Change and LEAD Pakistan. "Profile: Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad Khan Niazi". Center of Climate Change. LEAD Pakistan.
- IIASA, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (2009). "Council Member: Dr. Ahmad, Ishfaq". IIASA-National Member Organization:Pakistan. Directorate of National Member Organizations and Council Members.
- IAS. "Prof. Ishfaq Ahmad". Islamic Academy of Sciences. Islamic Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
- RAI MUHAMMAD SALEH AZAM. "When Mountains Move – The Story of Chagai". RAI MUHAMMAD SALEH AZAM. The Nation, 2000. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- (Rahman 1998, pp. 80–81)
- (Rahman 1998, pp. 99–100)
- Azam, Rai Muhammad Saleh (June 2000). "See: Kirana Hills: The Cold Tests". Defense Journal of Pakistan.
- Ahmad, Ishfaq; Khan, Hameed Ahmad; Akber, Riaz Ahmad (1977). "The use of Alpha Sensitive Plastic Films (ASPF) for uranium/thorium exploration and prospecting". Science direct (Elsevier Science Ltd) 11 (6): 295–297. Bibcode:1978RaPC...11..295K. doi:10.1016/0146-5724(78)90090-0.
- Ahmad, Ishfaq; Khan, Hameed Ahmad (1981). "Radon/thoron detection properties of a CR-39 plastic track detector". Science direct (Elsevier B.V.) 185 (1–3): 401–405. Bibcode:1981NucIM.185..401K. doi:10.1016/0029-554X(81)91237-4.
- Ahmad, Ishfaq (15 October 2002. 1980). "Track structure and identification of particles in nuclear emulsions". Science direct (Elsevier B.V.) 173 (1): 15–20. Bibcode:1980NucIM.173...15A. doi:10.1016/0029-554X(80)90564-9.
- Sublette, Carey Sublette (2 January 2002). "The Eighties: Developing Capabilities". Retrieved 2010.
- (NPT), Ashfaque; Khalid Mahmood Asim (2003). "Dr. Ashfaque Ahmad". Prominent Scientists of Pakistan. Nazaria-i-Pakistan Trust. Retrieved 2010.
- Ibid, (Pakistan's Leaders Online), See:
- (GCISC), Global Change Impact Studies Centre (2006). "GCISC Advisory Committee". Global Change Impact Studies Centre.
- "The Future Role of Nuclear Power in Member States", Sustainable Development: A Role for Nuclear Power? (IAEA Sustainable Development: A Role for Nuclear Power?), 28–29 September 1999
- Staff reports. "‘Nuclear power programme meets". Daily Times. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Ahmad, Ishfaq (18–22 September 2000). "Statement by Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad. Leader of the Pakistan Delegation to the 44th IAEA General Conference. Vienna." (google docs). IAEA Press Release (IAEA (Public domain)). Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Anis, Mohammad (3 October 2012). "HMC-3 gets licence to produce parts for N-plants". The News Interntational. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Online sources
- Dr. Ishfaq Ahmed
- Ishfaq Ahmad Minister of State
- Ahmad, Ishfaq. "Managing Nuclear Technology". IAEA and Government of Pakistan. IAEA. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- Zubairy, Marlan O. Scully, M. Suhail; Ishfaq Ahmad (1997). "Quantum Theory of Radiation" (google books). Quantum optics (6. printing. ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43595-1. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- Ishfaq Ahmad. Progress of Theoretical Physics, Volume 35, Issues 1–3. University of California, Berkley. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
|Science Advisor to the Prime Minister Secretariat
Abdul Qadeer Khan
Atta ur Rahman
|Science Advisor to the Prime Minister Secretariat
30 March 2008 – 16 March 2013