|• Divisional Commissioner||S. R. Ladhar|
|• Total||3,401 km2 (1,313 sq mi)|
|Elevation||228 m (748 ft)|
|• Density||270/km2 (690/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Telephone code||+91-181-XXX XXXX|
|Vehicle registration||PB 08|
The oldest city in Punjab, in recent years it has seen rapid urbanisation and developed into a highly industrialised centre of commercial activity. Situated on the Grand Trunk Road, it is a major rail and road junction, and is 144 km northwest of the state capital, Chandigarh. The city was known as Prasthala in the time of the Mahabharta and as Jullundur in British India.
- 1 History
- 2 Capital of Punjab
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 How to reach Jalandhar
- 7 Commerce
- 8 Attractions
- 9 Media
- 10 Healthcare
- 11 Sports
- 12 Education
- 13 Jalandhar Cantonment
- 14 Notable people
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Jalandhar and Multan are the oldest surviving cities of the Punjab region, with historical references as far back as A.D. 100. The Jalandhar Doab (the region surrounding the city between the Beas and Sutlej rivers) also marked the easternmost territory of the empire of Alexander the Great. He erected giant altars in this area to mark the eastern most extent of his empire and also founded a city named Alexandria in the vicinity and left many Macedonian veterans there.
In ancient time, the district or Kingdom of Jalandhar comprised the whole of the Upper Doabas from the Ravi to the Satluj. According to the Padama Purana, as quoted by General Conningham the country takes its name from the great Daitya King Danava Jalandhara the son of shiva he was born when lord shiva's third eye had opened out of anger and had fallen in the ocean in the form of fireball.
In the Ancient times it was the seat of the shiv Yogis, (Ascetics), and Saints, who meditated in this region, more than 5000 years go. And before the arrival of Sikhism, Shiva, was worshiped by the whole population, and Hindu Temples, and Jathera's, (Ancestor Worshiping), were built which were common, in all of the Punjab, about 1000 years go, from about 2nd century A.D. up to 1500, when Sikhism, started to spread.
The earliest historical mention of Jalandhar occurs in the region of Kanishka, the Kushan King of northern India in whose time a council of Buddhists theologians was held near Jalandhar about 100 AD to collect and arrange the sacred writings of Buddhism and to bring about reconciliation between its various sects. This makes Jalandhar along with Multan the oldest surviving city of the Punjab region.
From the later half of the tenth century up to 1019, the district was included in the Hindu Shahi Kingdom of the Punjab and Jalandhar was an important city in the region, of this Great Hindu Shahi Dynasty. The City was named after Jalandhar Nath, a Yogi, who was defeated, In an fight with other Yogi's, making him leave his native Himalayan Mountains, migrating to Punjab, Where he later founded, Jalandhar, after his name.
In the 7th Century, when the famous Chinese traveller and pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited India during the reign of Harsha Vardhana, the Kingdom of Jalandhar or Trigartta under Raja Utito (Whom Alexender Cunningham identifies with the Rajput Raja Attar Chandra). It was said to have extended 167 miles (269 km) from east to west and 133 miles (214 km) from north to south, thus including the hill states of Chamba, Mandi and Suket (Himachal Pardesh) and Satadru or Sirhind in the plains. Raja Utito was a tributary of Harsh Vardhana. The Rajput Rajas appear to have continued to rule over the country right up to the 12th century, interrupted some time or the other, but their capital was Jalandhar and Kangra formed an important stronghold. According to Chinese pilgrim Fahien, who traveled India in the seventh century AD, there were so many Vihars of Buddhism in India. In the Jalandhar District, there were as many as 50 Vihars of Buddhism. Hinduism, was the main religion, in the region, and the Jatts of this area, worshiped Shiva, in very large numbers. until their conversion to Sikhism, in very large numbers, during the time of fifth Sikh Guru, Sixth Sikh Guru, seventh Sikh Guru, and Ninth Sikh Guru. Some Jatts of Jalandhar, worshiped, Sakhi Sarwar, a Mystical Saint, but they to had to abandon this. The Mughal Emperor Akbar, made Jalandhar Doab, a new Province of Punjab region, naming it Jalandhar Doab Sarkar. The Muslim Jatts of Jalandhar District, Tehsil Nawanshahr, Claim descendant from, Mehr Mithar, a Hindu Jatt, who converted to Islam, during the reign of Akbar, Many Jatts, accepted Islam. The Some Jatt Clans of Jalandhar District that converted to Islam, were Goraya, Kang, Sandhu, Sidhu, Atwal, only a small number, had accepted Islam.
In 1710, The Jatts of Jalandhar District, complained, about, the Mughal Faujdar, at jalandhar City, who was making their lives miserable, They told Baba Banda Singh Bahadur, with overwhelming support of the Jatts, took Jalandhar, adding it to the Khalsa Raj, by 1711.
Baba Sang Ji, who belonged to village Sang Dhesian, when he became a Sikh, during his childhood, along with his parents, later he was made the Preacher of Manjke Region, present day part of Jalandhar District, now part of Doaba. The fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev Ji got married In Jalandhar District, Southern Jalandhar District, known as Manjke, In 1583, to Mata Ganga Ji, who belonged to the village of Mau Sahib, In Tehsil Phillaur, Jalandhar District of Punjab. Guru Arjan Dev Ji, was the fist Sikh Guru, to make extensively preaching, in the District, visiting village after village, In which the Sikhs, grew in numbers, in the area, Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, blessed this area, and Preached. Guru Har Rai Sahib, Ji, said Anand Raho. and visited numerous villages, in the area.
Chaudhary Tilok Chand, was a Sahejdhari, Sikh Chieftain, of Tehsil Phillaur, Tehsil Nakodar, areas, southern Jalandhar District, along the Sutlej river, Phagwara, was his HQ. In 1751, he got married Bibi Rajinder Kaur (1739-1791), the daughter of Prince Bhumla Singh, and granddaughter of Baba Ala Singh (1790-1765), of Phulkian Misl. Chaudhary Tilok Chand died at very young age, she took the responsibility of family estate which consisted of over 200 villages. Later In 1759, Sardar Salig Singh, a Bhangu Jatt, Sikh Warrior, left his native village of Verpal, In Amritsar District, crossed the Beas, over, in to the Doab, taking the villages of Moron, another village, near Phagwara, and set up his own rule. There were many Sikh Sardars In jalandhar District, like the Sikh Sardars of Village Naugaja, Sikh Sardars of Moron, Sikh Sardars of Thamanval, Sikh Sardars of Dhandoval, Sikh Sardars of Paddi Jagir, etc.
In 1766, The Singhpuria Misl, took the northern areas of Jalandhar District, from the Afghans, And the Ramgarhia Misl also controlled, northern areas of Jalandhar. while the Southern parts of the District, were already Sikh. In 1811, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, took all of the Present day Jalandhar, area, from the Local Sikh Chieftains, without waging a war. And made Dewan Mokham Chand (d. 1814), a Hindu, the governor of Jalandhar District, He built a fort at Phillaur, on the edge of Sutlej river. His son, Moti Ram and grandson Ram Dayal continued to serve the Sikh State, at his place. In 1845, Rani Jind Kaur was proclaimed the Empress of the Sikh Empire, And started the First Anglo Sikh Wars to protect the Sikh Empire, especially Phillaur, area which was the key, to get into the Punjab. In 1846, Sikhs, lost a battle, and the a treaty was made, which meant the Sikh Court had to pay a very large sun, and also hand over the precious Agricultural Eastern Punjabi, territory of Jalandhar Doab, in year 1846, three years before the fall of the Sikh Empire, which was 1849. The Lahore Darbar, who did not want to loose that area, had to agree. The British governed Jalandhar Doab, through local Sikh Chieftains.
In, 1846 AD John Lawrence (1811-1879), 1st Baron Lawrence was appointed the commission of the Jalandhar Doaba on its annexation in 1846. He put a curfew around Ram Rai Pur the heart of the Sikh uproar known for organizing terror attacks against the British Raj and the surrounding villages, killing any one who did not adhere to his rules. In 1847 nine members of the Dhindsa family where shot and hanged in an action to scare other villages around Ram Rai Pur.
In 1914, a Gadar Lehr, was a famous, revolt against the British Rulers, Jalandhar District, was very Influenced by the Gadar Lehr,
In recent times, nearly 66% of Jalandhar District Sikh Population, have migrated abroad, earn a living. Jalandhar District, is a very forward area, with modern technology, with growing, Towns, Model Towns, Villages, roads, etc. large parts of Jalandhar District is empty due to mass migration to counties like England, America, Germany, Italy, Spain, Canada, Thailand, Kenya, Cyprus, Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Belgium, and Holland.
The Sikhs of Jalandhar District, are Jatt Sikhs, Labana Sikhs, Ramgarhia Sikhs, Khatri, etc., Jalandhar District had the highest number of Intermarriages, between, Sikhs, Hindus. About 10% of the Jalandhar District population is made of migrants from other Indian States, such as Bihar, Delhi, Kashmir, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.
Capital of Punjab
The city has a humid subtropical climate with cool winters and hot summers. Summers last from April to June and winters from November to February. Temperatures in the summer vary from average highs of around 48 °C (118 °F) to average lows of around 25 °C (77 °F). Winter temperatures vary from highs of 19 °C (66 °F) to lows of −5 °C (23 °F). The climate is dry on the whole, except during the brief southwest monsoon season during July and August. The average annual rainfall is about 70 cm.
|Climate data for Jalandhar|
|Average high °C (°F)||19.4
|Average low °C (°F)||6.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||10.7
As per provisional data of 2011 census Jalandhar had a population of 873,725, out of which males were 463,975 and females were 409,750. The literacy rate was 85.46.
Jalandhar is the less populated and cleanest city of Punjab. It is the largest developed city in State. Jalandhar has numerous hospitals, including Ruby Nelson Memorial Hospital of Seventh-Day-Adventis, Akal Eye Hospital, Mahajan Eye Hospital, Thind Eye Hospital, Patel Hospital, Tagore Hospital, Lajwanti Hospital, Oxford Hospital, Pruthi Hospital, Guru Nanak Mission Hospital, Ruby Hospital, and Ghai Hospital. Although each hospital has its own identity, Akal Eye Hospital, Mahajan Eye Hospital and Thind Eye Hospital are on the world map for their Lasik treatments. Jalandhar is also one the largest producer of vehicles of the country.
Upmarket localities include Mota Singh Nagar, Model Town, Jawahar Nagar, Gupta Colony & Guru Teg Bahadur Nagar.
Jalandhar being the center city of Punjab provides goods like glass and furniture to the neighbouring cities. Jalandhar is also a hub of sports goods manufacture.
How to reach Jalandhar
One can visit Jalandhar through various means of transport. Those are as follows -
The nearest airport is Sri Guru Ram Dass Jee International Airport at Amritsar, located about 75 km (47 mi) north-west of Jalandhar. The airport is connected to other parts of the country by regular flights. Several airlines operate flights from abroad, including Birmingham, Dubai and Doha. The airport now handles as many as forty-eight (48) flights every week up from the occasional, intermittent ones some years ago.
Jalandhar City railway station is on the Delhi-Amritsar Railway line. It is connected with direct trains to Delhi, 375 km (233 mi),Garib rath, Calcutta, Mumbai, Puri, Nagpur, Jammu Tawi and Deluxe Express to Mumbai, Shatabadi Express to Delhi, Utkal Express to Puri and Howrah Mail to Calcutta.
There is a large network of bus services of Punjab, Himachal, Delhi, Haryana, Pepsu, Chandigarh, U.P., Jammu & Kashmir, Rajasthan State Roadways, apart from private operators.
Jalandhar ranks second in India in the rate of urbanisation and has the highest density of population at 598 persons per square km, as per the 1991 census. The reason for this is growing industrialisation. Industrial production of sports goods began on a small scale during the late forties. Over the years, the sports goods industry has grown at an impressive rate and of late Indian sports goods are also exported to different countries.
Most of India's sports goods are exported to the United Kingdom,Russia, The United States of America, Germany, France and Australia. Rough estimates suggest that today Jalandhar has more than one hundred major industries and about 20,000 small-scale industries with a most conservative estimate of an annual turnover of approximately Rs 650 crores The industry is mainly concentrated in Jalandhar and Meerut. The Indian sports goods industry manufactures 318 items. The Indian sports goods industry is a highly labour-intensive industry which provides employment to the weaker sections of society and also employs a large number of women. The sports goods industry in India has witnessed a phenomenal growth over the past five decades and now occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in view of its massive potential for employment, growth and export.
Jalandhar is also very good place for shopping. Here is the list of some shopping malls in Jalandhar:
- MBD Neopollis
- The Galleria
- Viva Collage Mall
- Sarb Multiplex
- Splendor Shagun
- Ansal Plaza
- PPR Mall
- Best Price (Bharti Walmart)
- Naaz Shooping Center
- Ritu Wear's Big Life
- The Metropolitan
- City Square
- Devi Talab Mandir
- Imam Nasir Mausoleum and Jamma Masjid
- Shiv Mandhir
- Sodal Mandir
- Tulsi Mandir
- Gurdwara Chhevin Pathshahi
- Singh Sabha Gurdwara-Model Town
- Gita Mandir(Model Town)
- Gurdwara Talhan Sahib
- St Mary's Cathedral Church ( Jalandhar Cantt. )
- Gurdwara Nauwi Patshahi
Places of Interest and Fun
- Pushpa Gujral Science City
- Fun City
- Shaheed-E-Azam Sardar Bhagat Museum Khatkar Kalan
- Company Bagh
- Niku Park, Model Town
- Rangla Punjab
- Haveli (Jalandhar)
- Wonder Land
The city serves as the region's headquarters for newspapers, national television and radio stations. These include Daily Ajit, Jagbani, Punjab Kesari, Dainik Jagran, Hindustan Times, The Tribune, Dainik Bhaskar, Hind Samachar, etc.
Local radio stations include:
- Radio Mantra 91.9 MHz
- BIG FM 92.7 92.7 MHz
- Red FM 93.5 93.5 MHz
- 94.3 FM-My Fm- 94.3 MHz
- Radio Mirchi 98.3 MHz
- All India Radio 102.3 MHz
Jalandhar is known as the town of sports. Sports materials manufactured in Jalandhar are exported to various countries. The neighboring village of Sansarpur is known as the Nursery of Hockey Players. The Cantonment is proud of producing maximum number of hockey players from Cantonment Board Schools. Sarvshri Balbir Singh, Gurdev Singh, Tarsem Singh, Harbinder Singh, Lt Col Hari Prasad Singh Kaushik and Ajit Pal Singh, all Olympians are products of these Schools. The highest number of sportsman such as The Cricketer, Hockey Players etc. belongs to Jalandhar. Jalandhar is at top position in every field of Sports. Jalandhar is also the largest exporter of sports goods in Asia. An international sports is situated in city.
Cricket is very popular in grounds and streets of the city. People of Jalandhar are very fond of Cricket. Burlton park is the best place for playing Cricket.
Guru Gobind Singh Stadium
Guru Gobind Singh Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Jalandhar. It is usually used mostly for football matches and is the home stadium of JCT Mills Football Club. People can be seen jogging, playing soccer, weight-lifting, etc. in the stadium most of the time. Punjab Government started new projects at Stadium.
Surjit Hockey Stadium
Surjeet Hockey Stadium, is a field hockey stadium in Jalandhar, Punjab, India. It is named after Jalandhar born Olympian Surjit Singh.This stadium is home of the frnachise Sher-e-Punjab of the World Series Hockey.
It is a Government Sports College in Jalandhar. Many of the National Sports Councils organised here. Sports Colleges are introduced for playing sports. In this College, many sports are played like Cricket, Hockey, Swimming, Volleyball, Basketball etc. There is a very big Swimming pool of 50 metres long and the pool is about 4 ft. to 30 ft. deep.
There are also many learning centres such as Institute of Banking Services (IBS). The city has a large number of Schools with best education facilities. There are many Sports Grounds in Schools. Books brand like MBD etc. are from Jalandhar. The largest University of India, Lovely Professional University with 600 acres campus is situated near city.
Jalandhar Cantonment is one of the oldest contonments in India, the construction of which was started in 1848 after the first Anglo-Sikh War, when the British settled in Northern India. It figured in the 1920 Connaught Rangers mutiny when Irish soldiers replaced the Union Flag with the Irish Republic's flag. The original scope of this cantonment was limited to troops to quell disturbances from adjoining States for the maintenance of peace and order. The departure of British from India and subsequent partition of the country changed the complexion of the Cantonment. It has gained tremendous importance on account of its nearness to the border with Pakistan. The Cantonment is located between latitude 30 degree 18' and longitude 75 degree 37' on the South West and at a distance of 2 km from Cantonment Railway Station and 5 km from City Railway Station. It is situated beside Grand Trunk Road at a distance of 89 km from Amritsar and 371 km from Delhi. It covers an area of 5.87 sq.miles. It is on Amritsar-Delhi Broad Gauge Main Line. A Class-I airfield at Adampur is situated at a distance of 19 km. The airfield is linked with Jalandhar Cantonment by rail and road. Jalandhar Cantonment has traditionally housed Jalandhar Garrison. Its history dates back to 1865 when it was raised as Jalandhar Garrison by Colonel JN Bishop. In 1904 it was redesignated as Jalandhar Brigade under command of Maj Gen JAH Pollock, CB. Brig Gen REH Dyer of the notorious Jalianwala Bagh episode commanded it from 1917 to 1919. The first Indian Commander was Brig Lakwinder Singh, MBE who took over from Brig RCB Bristow, OBE in 1947.
The total area of this cantonment is 1521 hectares including civil area as per 2001 census, the total population is 40521.
There are two Government Hospitals. The Cantonment General Hospital was erected by all ranks of XXIX Punjabis in memory of those of this Regiment killed during the First World War. The Military Hospital is one of the biggest in the State. Jalandhar has Doaba region's first medical college, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences which has an intake of 150 students for MBBS per year.
Jalandhar is known as the town of sports. Sports materials manufactured in Jalandhar are exported to various countries. The neighboring village of Sansarpur is known as the Nursery of Hockey Players. The Cantonment is proud of producing maximum number of hockey players from Cantonment Board Schools. Sarvshri Balbir Singh, Gurdev Singh, Tarsem Singh, Harbinder Singh, Lt Col Hari Prasad Singh Kaushik and Ajit Pal Singh, all Olympians are products of these Schools. Other Olympians include Pargat Singh Powar from neighboring Mithapur.
Hall of Prayer
There used to be a Hall of Prayers where people from all religions used to assemble and offer prayers. The building is non existent now having outlived its life. However, a small concrete column with Ashoka Emblem on top, still signifies the existence of the Hall on the Southern end of the cantonment.
King George's Royal Military School
There is one of the oldest buildings of Jalandhar which was being used for school purposes. His Royal Highness Prince of Wales KBMC inaugurated it on 25 February 1922. The building was occupied by the SIKH and DOGRA troops during 1947. The building presently houses the headquarters of a Corps and presents a majestic look from Grand Trunk Road.
The Cantonment in itself is self-sufficient in marketing facilities and caters to the needs of the population residing here. It has a cantonment Bazar known as Sadar Bazar and two well stocked Canteens/Shopping Centres which meet the day to day requirements of the population. The management of the Sadar Bazar is through Cantonment Board and other institutes are run by the Army for its serving personnel and ex-servicemen.
There are three Kendriya Vidyalayas and one Army School under the management of the Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan and Army. In addition to above, there is one Girls College, One Girls Senior Secondary School and four other Schools and Colleges for boys and girls. There are number of private primary schools within the Cantonment.
Jalandhar is one of the most peaceful regions of the state. It has many NGOs and organisations renowned for philanthropic activities. One of them is Bhai Ghanayya Ji Unique Home, founded by Bibi Prakash Kaur. The NGO has more than 60 child girls abandoned by their parents in an early age. Unique Home Jalandhar offer these girls a safe and better shelter, brought them up with education until these girls get married. Unique Home Jalandhar was visited by Ms. Nita Ambani from Reliance Group in 2011. Prakash Kaur was honored as Real Hero by IBN news channel, where Nita Ambani promised her to visit the place. The NGO came into news again when Amir Khan, Bollywood actor, honored them for their work during a facilitation program in Satyamev Jayte . Punjab has the worst gender ratio in entire India and most of the girls are either abandoned at an early age or killed as foeticide.
Military Dairy Farm
There is a Military Dairy Farm in approximately 650 acres of land. This institute provides dairy products for daily use of the troops and locals.
An annual flower show is held in this Cantonment from the British period. It is organised by the Cantonment Board with the help of Jalandhar Garrison.
- An Olympic size Swimming Pool.
- One of the two Flying Clubs of the State viz Northern India Flying Club.
- One of the three golf courses in the State.
- The Jalandhar Club.
- Vajra Go karting.
|Bhagat Singh||Freedom Fighter|
|Vanya Mishra||Winner of Miss India Femina 2012|
|The Great Khali||Wrestler|
|Lawrence Durrell||Expatriate British novelist, poet, dramatist, and travel writer|
|Kundan Lal Saigal||Actor|
|K S Makhan||Singer|
|Hans Raj Hans||Singer|
|Bahadur Singh||Indian former shot putter who won gold medal|
|Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq||4th Chief Martial Law Administrator and the sixth President of Pakistan|
|Diwan Bhai Abdul Hamid||Revenue and Chief Minister of Kapurthala State|
|Hafeez Jullundhri||Writer and poet|
|Baba Kashmira Singh||Head of Sidhant Sant Samaj or Gurbani|
|Paul Nischal||N.R.I President, first Indian candidate for the British Political Party|
|Col. Balbir Singh Kullar||Hockey Player|
|Varinder Singh Ghuman||Bodybuilder and Wrestler|
|Ajit Pal Singh||Hockey Player|
|Surjit Singh||Hockey Player|
|Pargat Singh||Hockey Player|
|I. K. Gujral||Former Prime Minister of India|
|Wasim Sajjad||Two-time Acting President of Pakistan, Ex Chairman of Senate|
|Sheikh Anwarul Haq||Former Chief Jistice|
|Mian Mohammed Sharif||Surveyor General|
|Rannvijay Singh||Indian Actor who acts in Bollywood and Punjabi Films and also a VJ on MTV India|
|Basheer Hussain Najafi||One of the six Grand Ayatollahs|
|Sardar Swaran Singh||Politician|
|Udham Singh (field hockey)||Hockey Player|
|Darshan Singh (field hockey)||Hockey Player|
|Kartar Singh Duggal||Writer|
|Kulwant Singh Virk||Writer|
|Ishar Singh (poet)||Poet|
|Sadhu Singh Hamdard||Freedom fighter and Writer|
|Ajit Saini||Writer and Army General|
|Gurbachan Singh Talib||Writer|
|Gurdial Singh||Writer and novelist|
|Chaudhry Muhammad Ali||Former Prime Minister of Pakistan|
|Swami Shraddhanand||Indian educationist and an Arya Samaj missionary|
|R. Paul Dhillon||Indo-Canadian journalist|
|Arun Shourie||Politician, author and journalist|
|Agha Sadiq||Writer and poet|
|Dharam Singh Uppal||Athlete|
|Balbir Singh, Sr.||Hockey Player|
|General Zia ul Haq||x Chief of army Staff and president of pakistan|
|Haneef RAMay/RAme||x Chief Minister of Punjab Pakistan|
|RAMay/RAmeh Family||(Sardar Mahun Creater of Mahunwal village) in Pakistan From Nakodar jalandhar|
- "Tourism". National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
- http://www.weather.com/weather/monthly/INXX0060?from=dayDetails_bottomnav_business%7C title = Average Weather for Jalandhar - Temperature and Precipitation | accessdate = November 4, 2012 |publisher = The Weather Channel
- "Wonderland". Wonderlandthemepark. Retrieved 2012-12-22.
- "हिन्दी समाचार | ताज़ा खबरें | विश्व समाचार - Punjab Kesari". Punjabkesari.in. Retrieved 2012-12-22.
- "Jalandhar - Punjab - Page 1". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2012-12-22.
- "Jalandhar News, Jalandhar Hindi News, Jalandhar News Headlines, Daily News Paper, Local News". Bhaskar.com. Retrieved 2012-12-22.
- "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 2012-12-22.
|Look up Jalandhar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jalandhar.|
- Official website
- Paper about the Jalandhari presence in the UK, Centre for Applied South Asian Studies (CASAS)
- Ishwarnaman- towards a revival of the ancient glory of India