Issyk Kul

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This article is about the Kyrgyz lake. For the Kyrgyz province, see Issyk Kul Province.
Lake Issyk-Kul
Issyk Kul.jpg
From space, September 1992
Coordinates 42°25′N 77°15′E / 42.417°N 77.250°E / 42.417; 77.250Coordinates: 42°25′N 77°15′E / 42.417°N 77.250°E / 42.417; 77.250
Lake type Endorheic
Mountain lake
Monomictic
Primary inflows Glaciers
Primary outflows Evaporation
Catchment area 15,844 square kilometres (6,117 sq mi)
Basin countries Kyrgyzstan
Max. length 182 kilometres (113 mi)
Max. width 60 kilometres (37 mi)
Surface area 6,236 square kilometres (2,408 sq mi)
Average depth 270 metres (890 ft)
Max. depth 668 metres (2,192 ft)
Water volume 1,738 km³ (416.97 mi³)
Shore length1 688 kilometres (428 mi)
Surface elevation 1,607 metres (5,272 ft)
Settlements Cholpon-Ata, Karakol
1 Shore length is not a well-defined measure.

Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-Kol: Kyrgyz: Ысык-Көл [ɯsɯqkœl]; Russian: Иссык-Куль) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan. It is the tenth largest lake in the world by volume (though not in surface area), and the second largest saline lake after the Caspian Sea. Although it is surrounded by snow-capped peaks, it never freezes;[citation needed] hence its name, which means "hot lake" in the Kyrgyz language (Chinese: 熱海; literally: "Hot Sea" in Chinese texts).

The lake is a Ramsar site of globally significant biodiversity (Ramsar Site RDB Code 2KG001) and forms part of the Issyk-Kul Biosphere Reserve. It was the site of an ancient metropolis 2,500 years ago, and archaeological excavations are ongoing.[1]

Geography[edit]

Southern shore of Lake Issyk Kul
Map of Kyrgyzstan showing Issyk Kul in the north

Lake Issyk Kul has a length of 182 kilometres (113 mi), a width of up to 60 kilometres (37 mi), and covers an area of 6,236 square kilometres (2,408 sq mi). This makes it the second largest mountain lake in the world behind Lake Titicaca in South America. Located at an altitude of 1,607 metres (5,272 ft), it reaches 668 metres (2,192 ft) in depth.[2]

About 118 rivers and streams flow into the lake; the largest are the Djyrgalan and Tyup. It is fed by springs, including many hot springs, and snow melt. The lake has no current outlet, but some hydrologists hypothesize[3] that, deep underground, lake water filters into the Chu River. The bottom of the lake contains the mineral monohydrocalcite: one of the few known lacustrine deposits.[4]

The lake's southern shore is dominated by the ruggedly beautiful Teskey Ala-Too Range of the Tian Shan mountains. The Kyungey Ala-Too of the Tian Shan runs parallel to the north shore.

The lake water has salinity of approx. 0.6%—compare to 3.5% salinity of typical seawater—and, although the lake level is still currently some 8 metres (26 ft) higher than in medieval times, its level now drops by approximately 5 cm per year due to water diversion.[5]

Administratively, the lake and the adjacent land are within Issyk Kul Province of Kyrgyzstan.

Tourism[edit]

During the Soviet era, the lake became a popular vacation resort, with numerous sanatoria, boarding houses and vacation homes along its northern shore, many concentrated in and around the town of Cholpon-Ata. These fell on hard times after the break-up of the USSR, but now hotel complexes are being refurbished and simple private bed-and-breakfast pensions are being established for a new generation of health and leisure visitors.

The city of Karakol (formerly Przhevalsk, after the Russian explorer Przhevalsky who died there) is the administrative seat of Issyk Kul Province of Kyrgyzstan. It is located near the eastern tip of the lake and is a good base for excursions into the surrounding area. Its small old core contains an impressive wooden mosque, built without metal nails by the Dungan people, and a wooden Orthodox church that was used as a stable during Soviet times (see state atheism).

History[edit]

Nestorian tombstone with inscriptions in Uyghur, found in Issyk Kul, dated 1312

Lake Issyk Kul was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for travelers from the Far East to Europe. Many historians believe that the lake was the point of origin for the Black Death that plagued Europe and Asia during the early and mid-14th century.[6] The lake's status as a byway for travelers allowed the plague to spread across these continents via medieval merchants who unknowingly carried infested vermin along with them. A 14th-century Armenian monastery was found on the northeastern shores of the lake by retracing the steps of a medieval map used by Venetian merchants on the Silk Road.

On the beach at Koshkol'

The lake level was some 8 metres (26 ft) lower in medieval times. Divers have found the remains of submerged settlements in shallow areas around the lake. In December 2007, a report was released by a team of Kyrgyz historians, led by Vladimir Ploskikh, vice president of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, that archaeologists have discovered the remains of a 2500-year-old advanced civilization at the bottom of the Lake. The data and artifacts obtained suggest that the ancient city was a metropolis in its time. The discovery consisted of formidable walls, some stretching for 500 metres (1,600 ft) as well as traces of a large city with an area of several square kilometers. Other findings included Scythian burial mounds eroded over the centuries by waves, as well as numerous well-preserved artifacts, including bronze battleaxes, arrowheads, self-sharpening daggers, objects discarded by smiths, casting molds, and a faceted gold bar that was a monetary unit of the time.

Articles identified as the world's oldest extant coins were also found underwater with gold wire rings used as small change and a large hexahedral goldpiece. Also found was a bronze cauldron with a level of craftsmanship that is today achieved by using an inert gas environment.[1][7][8]

In 1916 the monastery at Issyk Kul was attacked by Kyrgyz rebels, and seven monks were killed.[9]

Issyk Kul beach (2002)

Environment[edit]

Specially protected areas[edit]

The first nature reserve in Kyrgyzstan, Issyk Kul State Reserve was established in 1948 to protect unique nature landscapes and water-fowl birds at Issyk Kul. In 1975, it was acknowledged as a Ramsar site. Biosphere Reserve Issyk Kul covered by UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves was established in year 2000 within the administrative borders of Issyk Kul Province.[10]

Fish[edit]

The lake contains highly endemic fish biodiversity, and some of the species, including four endemics, are seriously endangered. In recent years catches of all species of fish have declined markedly, due to a combination of over-fishing, heavy predation by two of the introduced species, and the cessation of lake restocking with juvenile fish from hatcheries. At least four commercially targeted endemic fish species are sufficiently threatened to be included in the Red Book of the Kyrgyz Republic: Schmidt's dace (Leuciscus schmidti), Issyk-Kul dace (Leuciscus bergi), marinka (Schizothorax issyk-kuli), and sheer or naked osman (Diptychus dybovskii). Seven other endemic species are almost certainly threatened as by-catch or are indirectly impacted by fishing activity and changes to the structure and balance of the lake's fish population.

Sevan trout, a fish endemic to Lake Sevan in Armenia, was introduced into Issyk-Kul in the 1970s. While this fish is an endangered species in its "home" lake, it has a much better chance to survive in Lake Issyk-Kul where it has ravaged the indigenous species.

Creation legend[edit]

In pre-Islamic legend, the king of the Ossounes had donkey's ears. He would hide them, and order each of his barbers killed to hide his secret. One barber yelled the secret into a well, but he did not cover the well afterwards. The well water rose and flooded the kingdom. The kingdom is today under the waters of Issyk-Kul. This is how the lake was formed, according to the legend. Other legends say that four drowned cities lie at the bottom of the lake. Substantial archaeological finds indicating the presence of an advanced civilization in ancient times have been made in shallow waters of the lake.[8]

Russian Navy test site[edit]

During the Soviet period, the Soviet Navy operated an extensive facility at the lake's eastern end, where submarine and torpedo technology was evaluated.[11] In March 2008, Kyrgyz newspapers reported that 866 hectares (2,140 acres) around the Karabulan Peninsula on the lake would be leased for an indefinite period to the Russian Navy, which is planning to establish new naval testing facilities as part of the 2007 bilateral Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation, Mutual Help, and Protection of Secret Materials. The Russian military will pay $4.5 million annually to lease the area.[12] India also plans to invest in the facility to test all types of torpedoes such as heavy weight torpedoes and those that have thermal navigation system. Another advantage that works for the testing center is that the torpedoes fired can also be recovered allowing scientists to make physical verification of a torpedo structure for further study. India is also planning to use the torpedo test facility to test the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle being developed by NSTL. For this India has proposed to engage local companies with know-how in torpedo technology to further co-develop the facility.[13]

Issyk Kul at sundown (2002)

Lakeside towns[edit]

Towns and some villages around the lake, listed clockwise from the lake's western tip:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b ANI (2007-12-28). "Archaeologists discover remains of 2500-year-old advanced civilization in Russia". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 2008-01-01. 
  2. ^ International Lake Environment Committee Foundation
  3. ^ V.V.Romanovsky, "Water level variations and water balance of Lake Issyk Kul", in Jean Klerkx, Beishen Imanackunov (2002), p.52
  4. ^ Sapozhnikov, D. G.; A. I. Tsvetkov (1959). "[Precipitation of hydrous calcium carbonate on the bottom of Lake Issyk-Kul]". Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR 24: l3l–133. 
  5. ^ Lake Issyk-Kool
  6. ^ The Silk Route - Channel 4
  7. ^ "Advanced Russian civilization found". The Times Of India. [dead link]
  8. ^ a b Lukashov, Nikolai. Ancient Civilization Discovered at the Bottom of Lake Issyk Kul in the Kyrgyz Mountains. Ria Novosti. December 27, 2007. Accessed on: July 24, 2008.
  9. ^ Islam in the Russian Federation and the Post Soviet Republics: a Historical perspective by Spyros Plakoudas, p. 10
  10. ^ Specially protected nature areas in Kyrgyzstan.
  11. ^ Kommersant-Vlast, 'Vys Rossiya Armia', 2005
  12. ^ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 12, No. 51, Part I, 14 March 2008[full citation needed]
  13. ^ India to develop state of the art torpedo testing centre in Kyrgyzstan Date Published: September 18, 2011. Times of India

External links[edit]