Haydarpaşa Terminal

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Haydarpaşa
TCDD
Haydarpasa 1470090 Nevit.JPG
Haydarpaşa Terminus
Station statistics
Address Haydarpaşa Gar sk, Haydarpaşa, İstanbul, Turkey
Coordinates 40°59′46″N 29°01′07″E / 40.996227°N 29.018636°E / 40.996227; 29.018636Coordinates: 40°59′46″N 29°01′07″E / 40.996227°N 29.018636°E / 40.996227; 29.018636
Connections İETT Bus, Ferry service
Structure type At-grade
Platforms 6
Tracks 11
Parking Yes
Other information
Opened 1872
Rebuilt 1909
Electrified 1969 (25 kV AC)
Accessible Handicapped/disabled access
Station code 1560
Owned by TCDD
Smart ticket Akbil, Istanbulkart
Station status Temporarily closed for upgrades
Services
Preceding station   Turkish State Railways   Following station
Terminus Haydarpaşa-Gebze Line
toward Pendik

The Haydarpaşa Terminal or Haydarpaşa Terminus (Turkish: Haydarpaşa Garı) is a major intercity terminal and transportation hub in Kadıköy, in İstanbul. It is the busiest rail terminal in Turkey and one of the busiest in Asia. The terminal also has connections to bus and ferry services. The Moda Tramway is a few blocks south of the terminal. The terminal has a main building (opened in 1908) that houses the headquarters of District 1.

Haydarpaşa Terminal is the western terminus of the Istanbul-Ankara Main Line and was the western terminus of the former Baghdad Railway (İstanbul-Konya-Adana-Aleppo-Baghdad) and the Hejaz Railway (İstanbul-Konya-Adana-Aleppo-Damascus-Amman-Medina).[1] The tracks do not cross the Bosphorus, but there is a train ferry which carries rail cars from the Haydarpaşa Terminal on the Asian side to the Sirkeci Terminal on the European side.[1]

It is now proposed that the station will be used as a terminal for high-speed intercity trains to Ankara, while suburban trains will instead run through the Marmaray tunnel to the European side of the city.

History[edit]

Ottoman Era (1872–1922)[edit]

İstanbul was the capital of the Ottoman Empire as well as the largest city in the empire. İstanbul was a major economic and cultural hub. However, İstanbul had no rail links, so in 1871 Sultan Abdülaziz ordered a rail line to be built from Haydarpaşa to İzmit.[2] Haydarpaşa station opened in 1872, when the railway reached Gebze. In 1888 the Anatolian Railway (CFOA) took over the line and the station. Since the station was built next to the Bosphorus, freight trains would unload at Haydarpaşa and the freight would be transferred to ships. Haydarpaşa station saw its first regular passenger service in 1890: a daily train from Haydarpaşa to İzmit.[2] In 1892 the CFOA built a line to Ankara and shortly after a daily train ran between the two cities.

Interior hall in Haydarpaşa Terminal

Haydarpaşa was chosen to be the northern terminus of the Baghdad Railway and the Hedjaz Railway in 1904, and, with rail traffic increasing, a new and larger building was required. The Anatolian Railway hired two German architects, Otto Ritter and Helmut Conu, to build the new building. They chose a neo-classical structure and construction started in 1906. Its foundation is based on 1100 wooden piles, each 21 metres long, driven into the mushy shore by a steam hammer. German and Italian stonemasons crafted the facade embellishments of the terminal. The German engineers and craftsmen who worked at the construction site of the building established a small German neighbourhood in the Yeldeğirmeni quarter of Kadıköy. The new pseudo-castle structure was completed on 19 August 1909. The new terminal was inaugurated on 4 November 1909 for the anniversary of Mehmed V.[2] The new terminal was built on land reclaimed from the sea. World War I broke out in 1914 and the Ottoman Empire sided with the Central Powers against the Allied Powers. The Ottomans lost and İstanbul was taken over by the British Empire. Haydarpaşa was under strong military control by the British during the occupation.

Republican Era (1923–Present)[edit]

Haydarpasa terminal in 2007

The Turkish Independence War ended on 29 October 1923. The Republic of Turkey was formed and the British Empire withdrew from İstanbul. Haydarpaşa terminal was still under CFOA control but in 1927 the newly formed Turkish State Railways took over the CFOA and the terminal, in an attempt to nationalise all Turkish railways.[3] In 1927 the CIWL started a premier train service from Haydarpaşa to Ankara: the Anatolian Express. This all-sleeper train travelled daily between the two cities. In 1938 the Eastern Express entered service from Haydarpaşa to the eastern Turkish city of Kars, a distance of 1,994 km (1,239 mi).[4] With the completion of the Baghdad Railway to Baghdad, the famous Taurus Express entered service in 1940 from Haydarpaşa to Baghdad, a distance of 2,566 km (1,594 mi).[5] In 1965 the Trans-Asia Express entered service from Haydarpaşa to Tehran, a distance of 3,059 km (1,901 mi).[6] In 1969 the tracks from Haydarpaşa to Gebze were electrified with 25 kV AC catenary for the Haydarpaşa-Gebze Commuter Line.[3]

Haydarpaşa terminal after the fire that destroyed its roof in 2010

In 1979 a tanker burning on the Bosphorus damaged the terminal building, but was restored a few months later. On 28 November 2010 a fire caused by carelessness during the building's restoration destroyed the roof and the 4th floor of the terminal building.[7]

In 2011 the World Monuments Fund, the New York-based heritage preservation organization, placed the railway terminal on its 2012 Watch, drawing attention to the uncertain future of the historical site.[7] There are plans to transform the terminal building into a luxury hotel. In November 2012 the station was the site of a three-day art exhibit entitled "Haydarpasa: Past, Present and Uncertain Future", which was organised in collaboration with the WMF, and featured Canadian and Turkish artists and photographers, seeking to raise international interest in preserving the station as a vibrant public transportation hub. In October 2013 the same art event is to be held in Vienna in Austria also on the theme of heritage preservation.

Marmaray and upgrading works[edit]

On 2 February 2012 Haydarpaşa Railway Terminal temporarily closed to long-distance trains for at least 30 months to allow for the construction of the Istanbul–Ankara high-speed railway, and the Marmaray rail transport project which will connect Istanbul's Asian and European sides via an undersea commuter train line. There will be no train services between Istanbul and the Asian destinations of Turkey (with the sole exception of the suburban line to Pendik, a suburb 45 km east of Istanbul).[8] In April 2012 commuter service to Gebze was suspended past Pendik.[9] Finally, as announced by the Turkish State Railways, the only remaining train service from Haydarpaşa, the suburban line to Pendik, closed on 19 June 2013 for at least 24 months for line improvement works.

Service[edit]

Due to construction of the Istanbul-Ankara high-speed railway and Marmaray, train services to Haydarpaşa have been temporarily suspended.

Previous
Turkish State Railways
Next
Terminus
Trans-Asian Express
Bostancı
Toward Tatvan Pier
Terminus
Capital Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Eskişehir
Terminus
Republic Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Eskişehir
Terminus
Fatih Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Ankara
Terminus
Ankara Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Ankara
Terminus
Bosphorus Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Ankara
Terminus
Anatolia Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Ankara
Terminus
Eskişehir Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Eskişehir
Terminus
Sakarya Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Eskişehir
Terminus
Eastern Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Kars
Terminus
Van Lake Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Tatvan
Terminus
Southern Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Kurtalan
Terminus
Meram Express
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Konya
Terminus
Central Anatolia Blue Train
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Adana
Terminus
Haydarpaşa-Adapazarı Regional
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Adapazarı
Terminus
Haydarpaşa-Gebze Line
Söğütlüçeşme
Toward Gebze

Vicinity[edit]

The nearby Haydarpaşa Campus of the Marmara University, originally built as the Imperial Medical School and designed by Alexander Vallaury and Raimondo D'Aronco.

There are tombs and monuments in the Haydarpaşa Cemetery near the military hospital, dedicated to the British and Commonwealth soldiers who lost their lives during the Crimean War (1854–1856) and during the two World Wars (1914–1918 and 1939–1945, respectively.)

The north-west wing of the 19th-century Selimiye Barracks, which was transformed into a military hospital during the Crimean War, was the place where the nursing pioneer Florence Nightingale cared for wounded and infected British soldiers. Her room is today a museum, and her belongings are exhibited to honour her memory. The museum also contains other items which date from the Crimean War.

The buildings of the Haydarpaşa Numune Hospital, GATA Military Hospital, Dr. Siyami Ersek Hospital and the present-day Haydarpaşa Campus of the Marmara University (the former Haydarpaşa High School, which was originally built as the Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Şahane (Imperial Medical School) and designed by architects Alexander Vallaury and Raimondo D'Aronco) are located close to the terminal.

The Port of Haydarpaşa at the north is one of the main container terminals of Turkey.

Public transport links[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Haydarpaşa Station History - Trains and Railways of Turkey
  2. ^ a b c CFOA History - Trains and Railways of Turkey
  3. ^ a b TCDD History - Trains and Railways of Turkey
  4. ^ The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Steam and Rail - By Colin Garrat and Max Wade-Matthews, page 401
  5. ^ The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Steam and Rail - By Colin Garrat and Max Wade-Matthews, page 396
  6. ^ The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Steam and Rail - By Colin Garrat and Max Wade-Matthews, page 403
  7. ^ Haydarpaşa Railway Station WMF Program: 2012 Watch - World Monuments Fund
  8. ^ Haydarpasa closed for restoration after 104 years - PortTurkey.com
  9. ^ TCDD Official Site - Haydarpaşa commuter train timetables

External links[edit]