John Lee Carroll

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For other people of the same name, see John Carroll.
John Lee Carroll
37th Governor of Maryland
In office
January 12, 1876 – January 14, 1880
Preceded by James B. Groome
Succeeded by William T. Hamilton
Maryland State Senate
In office
1867–1876
Personal details
Born September 30, 1830
Baltimore, Maryland
Died February 27, 1911(1911-02-27) (aged 80)
Washington, D.C.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Anita Phelps (m. 1856–1873, her death)
Mary Carter Thompson (m. 1877–1899, her death)
Children 10
Religion Roman Catholic
[1]

John Lee Carroll (September 30, 1830 – February 27, 1911), a member of the United States Democratic Party, was the 37th Governor of Maryland from 1876 to 1880.

Early life[edit]

Carroll was born in Baltimore, Maryland, the son of Col. Charles Carroll (b. 1801) and Mary Diggs Lee (b. 1800). Col. Charles Carroll was the great-grandson of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, (1737–1832), the only Catholic signer and longest living, last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. John Lee Carroll was also a great-grandson of Maryland's second (and seventh) Governor of Maryland, Thomas Sim Lee, (1745–1819).[2]

At the age of ten, in 1840, Carroll was sent to Mount Saint Mary's College in Frederick County's Emmitsburg, where he remained for two years. After leaving he attended Georgetown University in Georgetown, near Washington, D.C., and then the secular part of St. Mary's College, on North Paca Street in Baltimore, for another three years.[3] Carroll then decided to enter the legal profession, and attended Harvard Law School of Harvard College, (now Harvard University), in Cambridge, Massachusetts, adjacent to Boston for two terms.

Career[edit]

After finishing schooling, Carroll worked as a student lawyer for the law office of Brown and Brune in Baltimore. He was admitted to the bar in 1851. Carroll practiced law in Maryland from 1854 until 1858. He ran as a Howard County Democratic candidate for the state General Assembly in 1854, (shortly after the separation of the former Howard or Western District of Anne Arundel County and the "erection"/establishment of Howard as the 22nd of the state's 23 counties), however losing to his opponent from the newly-dominant "Know Nothing" Party (also known as the American Party) during the political crises of the 1850's.[4] Carroll then moved to New York City and while there, accepted a position as deputy clerk and United States Commissioner in the office of the clerk of the United States District Court. He stayed there until 1861, at the outbreak of the Civil War, when he returned to Maryland, where he then remained the rest of his life. When he returned to Maryland, Carroll purchased the "Doughoregan Manor", historic family estate in Howard County, near Ellicott City from his older brother Charles Carroll.

Carroll was elected into the Maryland State Senate of the General Assembly of Maryland in 1867 and served two terms. He was elected President of the State Senate in 1874.

In 1875, Carroll became the Democratic Party nominee for Governor of Maryland, opposed by James Morrison Harris. He won by a 10,000-vote majority and was inaugurated as governor on January 12, 1876.

During the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 which began with a sudden cut in wages by the B. & O. Railroad's Board of Directors and President John Work Garrett, caused workers to walk off the job in Martinsburg, West Virginia, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and spread nation-wide to all of the B. & O. and several other lines. Governor Carroll called up the 5th and 6th Regiments of the newly reorganized (after the Civil War) of the Maryland National Guard (formerly state militia) to stop railroad workers from striking in Cumberland, Hagerstown and in Frederick County's shops and roundhouses at Brunswick, Maryland|Brunswick]], the news of which when it spread by telegraph east, resulting in instigating riots in Baltimore at the Mount Clare Shops and the yards at the B. & O.'s Camden Street Station, headquarters of the line. When the militia attempted to march from their armories to Camden Station, (the Fifth from the armory in the assembly hall above the Richmond Market along North Howard Street in the northwest city, and the Sixth from their armory at North Front and East Fayette Streets, near Jonestown/Old Town. The Fifth marched south down Howard Street and the Sixth attempted to march south on Front Street along the east bank of the Jones Falls for a few blocks then west on East Baltimore Street, through the middle of the downtown business district (and avoided the obvious associations by marching along the waterfront of Pratt Street, like the infamous 6th Massachusetts Regiment did 16 years before, with its tragic memories). Each regiment however had to again literally fight its way through the streets of the city, attacked and assailed by projectiles, rocks and angry mobs the entire way. Strife and conflict gripped the city and Governor Carroll was powerless to sweep against the tide. Later additional reinforcements of Federal troops under call from newly elected 18th President Rutherford B. Hayes in Washington, D.C..[5] Federal troops were then called in to restore order in Baltimore.

In later years, Governor Carroll served on the Howard County Board of Education[6] and served in 1883 on an early grand jury that used both Caucasian and African American members.[7]

The Governor was also a member of the District of Columbia Society of the Sons of the Revolution.

Marriage & children[edit]

Arms of Carroll of Maryland

Carroll was married twice, first to Anita Phelps (April 23, 1838 – March 24, 1873), daughter of Royal Phelps of New York, on April 24, 1856. They had nine children:

  • Charles Lee Carroll (October 5, 1857 – 1858)
  • Mary Louisa Carroll (b. May 26, 1859); married Comte Jean de Kergorlay of France
  • Anita Maria Carroll (b. March 28, 1861); married Baron Louis de la Grange of France
  • Royal Phelps Carroll (b. October 29, 1863)
  • Charles Carroll (b. January 12, 1865)
  • Albert Henry Carroll (October 6, 1866 – 1867)
  • Mary Irene Carroll (March 3, 1869 – November 8, 1888)
  • John Lee Carroll (February 26, 1871 – c. 1895)
  • Mary Helen Carroll (b. 1873)

Carroll was married secondly to Mary Carter Thompson (1847–1899), daughter of Judge Lucas P. Thompson, in April 1877. They had one son: Philip Acosta Carroll (b. May 10, 1879 – July 1957). Mary Thompson's sister Caroline Thompson was married to John Lee's older brother, Charles Carroll (1828–1895). As of 2012, Philip's grandchildren owned Doughoregan Manor, the family estate in Howard County.

Carroll died in Washington, D.C. and was buried at the Bonnie Brae Cemetery (New Cathedral Cemetery) in Baltimore City, Maryland.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Maryland Governor John Lee Carroll". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 27, 2013. 
  2. ^ "John Lee Carroll (1830–1911)". Maryland State Archives. March 14, 2001. Retrieved September 28, 2013. 
  3. ^ Buchholz, Heinrich Ewald (1908). Governors of Maryland: from the revolution to the year 1908 (2 ed.). Williams & Wilkins. p. 215. 
  4. ^ The Grand River Times. October 17, 1855. 
  5. ^ Scharf, John Thomas (1967) [1879]. History of Maryland From the Earliest Period to the Present Day 2. Hatboro, PA: Tradition Press. pp. 733–42. 
  6. ^ Archives of Maryland Manual 154. p. 56. 
  7. ^ The Washington Post. March 21, 1883. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Henry Snyder
President of the Maryland State Senate
1874
Succeeded by
Daniel Fields
Preceded by
James B. Groome
Governor of Maryland
1876–1880
Succeeded by
William T. Hamilton