A Trip to the Moon

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A Trip to the Moon
Voyage dans la lune title card.png
Title card
Directed by Georges Méliès
Produced by Georges Méliès
Written by Georges Méliès
Based on From the Earth to the Moon and Around the Moon 
by Jules Verne (see also Inspirations section below)
Starring
  • Georges Méliès
  • Bleuette Bernon
  • François Lallement
  • Henri Delannoy
Cinematography
  • Théophile Michault
  • Lucien Tainguy
Studio Star Film Company
Release dates
  • 1 September 1902 (1902-09-01) (France)[1]
  • 4 October 1902 (1902-10-04) (USA)[1]
Running time
  • 260 meters/845 feet[2]
  • 18 minutes (12 frame/s)[3]
  • 16 minutes (14 frame/s)[3]
  • 9 minutes (24 frame/s)[3]
Country France
Language Silent
Budget 10,000

A Trip to the Moon (French: Voyage dans la Lune)[a] is a 1902 French silent film directed by Georges Méliès. Inspired by a wide variety of sources,[5] it follows a group of astronomers who travel to the Moon in a cannon-propelled capsule, explore the Moon's surface, escape from an underground group of Selenites (lunar inhabitants), and return in a splashdown to Earth with a captive Selenite in tow.[6]

An internationally popular success at the time of its release,[7] it is the best-known of the hundreds of films made by Méliès, and the moment in which the capsule lands in the Moon's eye remains one of the most iconic images in the history of cinema.[8] It was named one of the 100 greatest films of the 20th century by The Village Voice, ranking at #84,[9] and in 2002 it became the first work designated as a UNESCO World Heritage film.[1]

Plot[edit]

The iconic image of the Man in the Moon

At a meeting of the Astronomic Club, their president Professor Barbenfouillis[10] (literally "Tangled-Beard")[11] proposes a trip to the Moon. After addressing some dissent, five other brave astronomers—Nostradamus, Alcofrisbas, Omega, Micromegas and Parafaragaramus—agree to the plan. They build a space capsule in the shape of a bullet, and a huge cannon to shoot it into space. The astronomers embark and their capsule is fired from the cannon with the help of "marines", most of whom are played by a bevy of young women in sailor's outfits. The Man in the Moon watches the capsule as it approaches, and it hits him in the eye. (The image is a visual pun: the phrase dans l'œil, literally "in the eye," is the French equivalent of the English word "bullseye.")[12]

Landing safely on the Moon, the astronomers get out of the capsule and watch the Earth rise in the distance. Exhausted by their journey, the astronomers unroll their blankets and sleep. As they sleep, a comet passes, the Big Dipper appears with human faces peering out of each star, old Saturn leans out of a window in his ringed planet, and Phoebe, goddess of the Moon, appears seated in a crescent-moon swing. Phoebe calls down a snowfall that awakens the astronomers. They seek shelter in a cavern and discover giant mushrooms. One astronomer opens his umbrella; it promptly takes root and turns into a giant mushroom itself.

At this point, a Selenite (an insectoid alien inhabitant of the Moon, named after one of the Greek moon goddesses, Selene) appears, but it is killed easily by an astronomer, as the creatures explode if they are hit with a hard force. More Selenites appear and it becomes increasingly difficult for the astronomers to destroy them as they are surrounded. The Selenites arrest the astronomers and bring them to the palace of their king. An astronomer lifts the Selenite King off his throne and dashes him to the ground, exploding him.

The astronomers run back to their capsule while continuing to hit the pursuing Selenites, and five get inside. The sixth, Barbenfouillis himself, uses a rope to tip the capsule over a ledge on the Moon and into space. A Selenite tries to seize the capsule at the last minute. Astronomer, capsule, and Selenite fall through space and land in an ocean on Earth, where they are rescued by a ship and towed ashore. The final sequence (missing from some prints of the film) depicts a celebratory parade in honor of the travelers' return, including a display of the captive Selenite and the unveiling of a commemorative statue bearing the motto "Labor omnia vincit" (Latin: "work conquers all").[13]

Cast[edit]

Georges Méliès

When A Trip to the Moon was made, film actors performed anonymously and no credits were given; the practice of supplying opening and closing credits in films was a later invention.[14] Nonetheless, the following cast details can be reconstructed from available evidence.

  • Georges Méliès as Professor Barbenfouillis.[1][15] Speaking about his work late in life, Méliès commented: "The greatest difficulty in realising my own ideas forced me to sometimes play the leading role in my films … I was a star without knowing I was one, since the term did not yet exist."[16] All told, Méliès took an acting role in at least 300 of his 520 films.[17]
  • Bleuette Bernon as Phoebe (the woman on the crescent moon). Méliès discovered Bernon in the 1890s, when she was performing as a singer at the cabaret L'Enfer. She also appeared in his 1899 adaption of Cinderella.[18]
  • François Lallement as the Officer of the Marines. Lallement was one of the salaried camera operators for the Star Film Company.[18]
  • Henri Delannoy as the Captain of the Rocket[1]
  • Jules-Eugène Legris as the Parade Leader. Legris was a magician who performed at Méliès's Thêatre Robert-Houdin in Paris.[7]
  • Victor André, Delpierre, Farjaux, Kelm, and Brunnet as the explorers. André worked at the Théâtre de Cluny; the others were singers in French music halls.[19]
  • Ballet of the Théâtre du Châtelet as stars[19]
  • Acrobats of the Folies Bergère as Selenites[19]

Production[edit]

Background[edit]

Méliès (at left) in the studio where A Trip to the Moon was filmed

Méliès, a French filmmaker and magician, is generally regarded as the first person to recognize the potential of narrative film.[20] After attending the celebrated first public demonstration of the Lumière Brothers' Kinetoscope in December 1895, he bought a film projector and some films from the British film experimenter Robert W. Paul and began projecting them at his theater of illusions, the Théâtre Robert-Houdin, in Paris.[21] Having studied the principles on which Paul's projector ran, Méliès was able to modify the machine so that it could be used as a makeshift camera.[22] He began making his own short films with it in May 1896, and founded the Star Film Company in the same year.[23] At first, Méliès followed the popular trend already set by the Lumières[24] by making mainly actualities: short "slice of life" documentary films capturing actual scenes and events for the camera.[14] However, in his first few years of filming Méliès gradually moved away from actualities into a far less common and far more innovative genre: fictional narrative films he called his scènes composées, or "artificially arranged scenes."[14]

These fictional films were extensively influenced by Méliès's experience in theatre and magic, and especially by his familiarity with the popular French féerie stage tradition.[25] The style he favored for the "artificially arranged scenes," including A Trip to the Moon, is deliberately theatrical, with a stylized mise en scéne recalling the traditions of the 19th-century stage, and filmed by a stationary camera placed to evoke the perspective of an audience member sitting in a theatre.[26] (Méliès often moved his camera when making actualities outdoors—for example, 15 of his 19 short films about the 1900 Paris Exposition were shot with a moving camera setup—but he considered a stationary camera and theatrical approach more appropriate for the fiction films staged in his studio.)[27]

In 1897, Méliès built his own film studio in Montreuil, Seine-Saint-Denis.[23] It was a greenhouse-like building with glass walls and a glass ceiling to let in as much sunlight as possible, a concept used by most still photography studios from the 1860s onward. To allow the films to be staged theatrically, the studio was made with the same dimensions as Méliès's own Théâtre Robert-Houdin (13.5×6.6m).[28] In an advertisement, Méliès proudly described the difference between his innovative films and the actualities still being made by his contemporaries: "these fantastic and artistic films reproduce stage scenes and create a new genre entirely different from the ordinary cinematographic views of real people and real streets."[25]

All in all, Méliès made about 520 films between 1896 and 1913,[17] covering a range of genres including trick films, fantasies, comedies, advertisements, satires, costume dramas, literary adaptations, erotic films, melodramas, and imaginary voyages.[29]

Inspirations[edit]

When asked in 1930 about his inspirations for A Trip to the Moon, Méliès credited Jules Verne's novels From the Earth to the Moon and Around the Moon. Cinema historians, the mid-20th-century French writer Georges Sadoul first among them, have frequently suggested H. G. Wells's The First Men in the Moon, a French translation of which was published a few months before Méliès made the film, as another likely influence, with Sadoul arguing that the first half of the film (up to the shooting of the projectile) is derived from Verne and that the second half (the travelers' adventures on and in the moon) is derived from Wells.[30]

In addition to these literary sources, various film scholars have suggested that Méliès was heavily influenced by other works, especially Jacques Offenbach's operetta Le voyage dans la lune (an unauthorized parody of Verne's novels) and the A Trip to the Moon attraction at the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.[31][32] In the analysis of the French film historian Thierry Lefebvre, Méliès appears to have taken the structure of the film—"a trip to the moon, a moon landing, an encounter with extraterrestrials with a deformity, an underground trek, an interview with the Man in the Moon, and a brutal return to reality back on earth"—directly from the 1901 attraction, while incorporating many plot elements (including the presence of six astronomers with pseudo-scientific names, telescopes that transform into stools, a moonshot cannon mounted above ground, a scene in which the moon appears to approach the viewer, a lunar snowstorm, an earthrise scene, and umbrella-wielding travelers), as well as the parodic tone of the film, from the Offenbach operetta.[33]

Filming[edit]

Uncropped production still from the film, showing the edges of the backdrop and the floor of the studio
The scene as it appears in the hand-colored print of the film

A Trip to the Moon, Méliès' longest film to date,[b] cost 10,000 to make[37] and took three months to complete; both the budget and filming duration were unusually lavish for the time.[38] The camera operators were Théophile Michault and Lucien Tainguy, who worked on a daily basis with Méliès as salaried employees for the Star Film Company. In addition to their work as cameramen, Méliès's operators also did odd jobs for the company such as developing film and helping to set up scenery, and another salaried operator, François Lallement, appeared onscreen as the Marine officer.[39]

According to Méliès's recollections, much of the film's cost was due to the mechanically operated scenery and especially the special Selenite costumes, which were made for the film using cardboard and canvas. Méliès himself sculpted prototypes for the heads, feet, and kneecap pieces in terra cotta, and then created plaster molds for them; a specialist in mask-making used these molds to produce cardboard versions for the actors to wear.[40] One of the backdrops for the film, showing the inside of the glass-roofed workshop in which the space capsule is built, was painted to look like the actual glass-roofed studio in which the film was made.[41]

Many of the special effects in A Trip to the Moon, as in many of Méliès's films, were created using the stop trick technique (also known as substitution splicing), in which the camera operator would stop filming long enough for something onscreen to be altered, added, or taken away. Méliès carefully spliced the resulting shots together to create apparently magical effects, such as the transformation of the astronomers' telescopes into stools[42] or the disappearance of the exploding Selenites in puffs of smoke.[43]

The pseudo-tracking shot in which the camera appears to approach the moon, however, was accomplished using an effect Méliès had invented for his earlier film The Man With the Rubber Head:[44] rather than attempting to move his weighty camera toward an actor, he set a pulley-operated chair upon a rail-fitted ramp, placed the actor (covered up to the neck in black velvet) on the chair, and pulled him toward the camera. In addition to its technical practicality, this technique also allowed Méliès to control the placement of the face within the frame to a much greater degree of specificity than moving his camera would have allowed.[45] A substitution splice allowed a model capsule to suddenly appear in the eye of the actor playing the Moon, completing the shot.[42] Another notable sequence in the film, the plunge of the capsule into real ocean waves filmed on location, was created through multiple exposure, with a shot of the capsule falling in front of a black background superimposed upon the footage of the ocean. The shot is followed by an underwater glimpse of the capsule floating back to the surface, created by combining a moving cardboard cutout of the capsule with an aquarium containing tadpoles and air jets.[13]

Coloring[edit]

As with at least 4% of Méliès's entire output (including such films as The Kingdom of the Fairies, The Impossible Voyage, The Rajah's Dream, and The Barber of Seville), some prints of A Trip to the Moon were individually hand-colored by Elisabeth Thuillier's coloring lab in Paris.[46] Thuillier, a former colorist of glass and celluloid products, directed a studio of two hundred people painting directly on film stock with brushes, in the colors she chose and specified; each worker was assigned a different color in assembly line style, with more than twenty separate colors often used for a single film. On average, Thuillier's lab produced about sixty hand-colored copies of a film.[47]

Release[edit]

A black-and-white print of A Trip to the Moon, with the final sequence missing.

Méliès, who had begun A Trip to the Moon in May 1902, finished the film in August of that year and began selling prints to French distributors in the same month.[40] From September through December 1902, a hand-colored print of A Trip to the Moon was screened at Méliès's theater of illusions, the Thêatre Robert-Houdin, in Paris. The film was shown after Saturday and Thursday matinee performances by Méliès's colleague and fellow magician, Jules-Eugène Legris, who appeared as the leader of the parade in the two final scenes.[7] Méliès sold black-and-white and color prints of the film through his Star Film Company,[7] where the film was assigned the catalogue number 399–411[2][c] and given the descriptive subtitle Pièce à grand spectacle en 30 tableaux.[15][d] In France, black-and-white prints sold for ₣560, and hand-colored prints for ₣1,000.[37] Méliès also sold the film indirectly through Charles Urban's Warwick Trading Company in London.[7] In 1903, the English composer Ezra Read published an original score for the film under the title A Trip to the Moon: Comic Descriptive Fantasia;[50] the score may have been commissioned by Méliès himself, who had likely met Read on one of his trips to England.[51]

Many circumstances surrounding the film—including its unusual budget, length, and production time, as well as its similarities to the 1901 New York attraction—indicate that Méliès was especially keen to release the film in the United States.[38][e] However, because of rampant film piracy, Méliès never received most of the profits of the popular film.[53] One account reports that Méliès sold a print of the film to the Paris photographer Charles Gerschel for use in an Algiers theatre, under strict stipulation that the print only be shown in Algeria. However, Gerschel sold the print, and various other Méliès films, to the Edison Manufacturing Company employee Alfred C. Abadie, who sent them directly to Edison's laboratories to be illegally duplicated and sold by Vitagraph. Copies of the print spread to other firms, and by 1904 Siegmund Lubin, the Selig Polyscope Company, and Edison were all redistributing it illegally.[7] Edison's print of the film was even offered in a hand-colored version available at a higher price, just as Méliès had done.[46] Because these American copies were illegal, Méliès was often uncredited altogether; for the first six months of the film's distribution, the only American exhibitor to credit Méliès in advertisements for the film was Thomas Lincoln Tally,[54] who chose the film as the inaugural presentation of his Electric Theater.[37]

In order to combat the problem of film piracy that became clear during the release of A Trip to the Moon, Méliès opened an American branch of the Star Film Company, directed by his brother Gaston Méliès, in New York in 1903. The office was designed to sell Méliès's films directly and to protect them by registering them under United States copyright.[55] The introduction to the English-language edition of the Star Film Company catalog announced: "In opening a factory and office in New York we are prepared and determined energetically to pursue all counterfeiters and pirates. We will not speak twice, we will act!"[56]

In addition to the opening of the American branch, various trade arrangements were made with other film companies, including American Mutoscope and Biograph, the Warwick Trading Company, the Charles Urban Trading Co., Robert W. Paul's studio, and Gaumont.[55] In these negotiations, a print sale price of US$0.15 per foot was standardized across the American market, which proved useful to Méliès; however, later price standardizations by the Motion Picture Patents Company in 1908 would hasten Méliès's financial ruin, as his films were impractically expensive under the new standards. In addition, in the years following 1908 his films suffered from the fashions of the time, as the fanciful magic films he made were no longer in vogue.[55]

Reception[edit]

According to Méliès's memoirs, his initial attempts to sell A Trip to the Moon to French fairground exhibitors met with failure because of the film's unusually high price. Finally, Méliès offered to let one such exhibitor borrow a print of the film to screen for free. The applause from the very first showing was so enthusiastic that fairgoers kept the theater packed until midnight. The exhibitor bought the film immediately, and when he was reminded of his initial reluctance he even offered to add ₣200 to compensate "for [Méliès's] inconvenience."[56]

A Trip to the Moon was met with especially large enthusiasm in the United States, where (to Méliès's chagrin) its piracy by Lubin, Selig, Edison and others gave it wide distribution. Exhibitors in New York City, Washington D.C., Cleveland, Detroit, New Orleans, and Kansas City reported on the film's great success in their theaters.[57] The film also did well in other countries, including Germany, Canada, and Italy, where it was featured as a headline attraction through 1904.[57]

A Trip to the Moon was one of the most popular films of the first few years of the twentieth century, rivaled only by a small handful of others (similarly spectacular Méliès films such as The Kingdom of the Fairies and The Impossible Voyage among them).[58] Late in life, Méliès remarked that A Trip to the Moon was "surely not one of my best," but acknowledged that it was widely considered his masterpiece and that "it left an indelible trace because it was the first of its kind."[59] (The film Méliès said he was proudest of was Humanity Through the Ages, a serious historical drama now presumed lost.)[60]

Rediscovery[edit]

Black-and-white print[edit]

After Méliès's financial difficulties and decline, most copies of his prints were lost. In 1917 his offices were occupied by the French military, who melted down many of Méliès's films to gather the traces of silver from the film stock and make boot heels from the celluloid. When the Théâtre Robert-Houdin was demolished in 1923, the prints kept there were sold by weight to a vendor of second-hand film. Finally, in that same year, Méliès had a moment of anger and burned all his remaining negatives in his garden in Montreuil.[61] In 1925 he began selling toys and candy from a stand in the Gare Montparnasse in Paris.[62] A Trip to the Moon was largely forgotten to history and went unseen for years.[58]

However, thanks to the efforts of film history devotées, especially René Clair, Jean-George Auriol, and Paul Gilson, Méliès and his work were rediscovered in the late 1920s. A "Gala Méliès" was held at the Salle Pleyel in Paris on 16 December 1929 in celebration of the filmmaker, and he was awarded the Legion of Honor in 1931.[63] During this renaissance of interest in Méliès, the cinema manager Jean Mauclaire and the early film experimenter Jean Acme LeRoy both set out independently to locate a surviving print of A Trip to the Moon. Mauclaire obtained a copy from Paris in October 1929, and LeRoy one from London in 1930, though both prints were incomplete; Mauclaire's lacked the first and last scenes, and LeRoy's was missing the entire final sequence featuring the parade and commemorative statue. These prints were occasionally screened at retrospectives (including the Gala Méliès), avant-garde cinema showings, and other special occasions, sometimes in presentations by Méliès himself.[64]

Following LeRoy's death in 1932, his film collection was bought by the Museum of Modern Art in 1936; the museum's acquisition and subsequent screenings of A Trip to the Moon, under the direction of MoMA's film curator Iris Barry, opened the film up once again to a wide audience of Americans and Canadians[64] and established it definitively as a landmark in the history of cinema.[42] LeRoy's incomplete print became the most commonly seen version of the film and the source print for most other copies, including the Cinémathèque française's print.[64] A complete version of the film, including the entire celebration sequence, was finally reconstructed in 1997 from various sources by the Cinémathèque Méliès, a foundation set up by the Méliès family.[65]

Hand-colored print[edit]

The restored hand-colored print

No hand-colored prints of A Trip to the Moon were known to survive until 1993, when one was given to the Filmoteca de Catalunya by an anonymous donor as part of a collection of two hundred silent films.[66] It is unknown whether this version, a hand-colored print struck from a second-generation negative, was colored by Elisabeth Thuillier's lab, but the perforations used imply that the copy was made before 1906. The flag waved during the launching scene in this copy is colored to resemble the flag of Spain, indicating that the hand-colored copy was made for a Spanish exhibitor.[67]

In 1999, Anton Gimenez of the Filmoteca de Catalunya mentioned the existence of this print, which he believed to be in a state of total decomposition, to Serge Bromberg and Eric Lange of the French film company Lobster Films. Bromberg and Lange offered to trade a recently rediscovered film by Segundo de Chomón for the hand-colored print, and Gimenez accepted. Bromberg and Lange consulted various specialist laboratories in an attempt to restore the film, but because the reel of film had apparently decomposed into a rigid mass, none believed restoration to be possible. Consequently, Bromberg and Lange themselves set to work separating the film frames, discovering that only the edges of the film stock had decomposed and congealed together, and thus that many of the frames themselves were still salvageable.[68] Between 2002 and 2005, various digitization efforts allowed 13,375 fragments of images from the print to be saved.[69] In 2010, a complete restoration of the hand-colored print was launched by Lobster Films, the Groupama Gan Foundation for Cinema, and the Technicolor Foundation for Cinema Heritage.[66] The digitized fragments of the hand-colored print were reassembled and restored, with missing frames recreated with the help of a black-and-white print in the possession of the Méliès family, and time-converted to run at an authentic silent-film speed, 14 frames per second. The restoration was completed in 2011[70] at Technicolor's laboratories in Los Angeles.[71]

The restored version premiered on 11 May 2011, eighteen years after its discovery and 109 years after its original release, at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, with a new soundtrack by the French band Air.[72] The restoration was released by Flicker Alley in a 2-disc Blu-Ray and DVD edition also including The Extraordinary Voyage, a feature-length documentary by Bromberg and Lange about the film's restoration, in 2012.[73] In The New York Times, A. O. Scott called the restoration "surely a cinematic highlight of the year, maybe the century."[74]

Analysis[edit]

The statue of Barbenfouillis (here seen in a frame from the hand-colored print) may be intended to satirize colonialism[75]

A Trip to the Moon is highly satirical in tone, poking fun at nineteenth-century science by exaggerating it in the format of an adventure story.[76] The film scholar Alison McMahan calls it one of the earliest examples of pataphysical film, saying it "aims to show the illogicality of logical thinking" with its satirically portrayed inept scientists, anthropomorphic moon face, and impossible transgressions of laws of physics.[77] The film historian Richard Abel believes Méliès aimed in the film to "invert the hierarchal values of modern French society and hold them up to ridicule in a riot of the carnivalesque".[77] Similarly, the literary and film scholar Edward Wagenknecht described the film as a work "satirizing the pretensions of professors and scientific societies while simultaneously appealing to man's sense of wonder in the face of an unexplored universe."[78] The film scholar Matthew Solomon notes that the last part of the film (the parade and commemoration sequence missing in some prints) emphasizes a strong anti-imperialist vein in the satire; Méliès, who had previously worked as an anti-Boulangist political cartoonist, mocks imperialistic domination in the film by presenting his colonial conquerors as bumbling pedants who mercilessly attack the alien lifeforms they meet and return with a mistreated captive amid fanfares of self-congratulation. The statue of Barbenfouillis shown in the film's final shot even resembles the pompous, bullying colonialists in Méliès's political cartoons.[75]

Because A Trip to the Moon preceded the development of narrative film editing by filmmakers such as Edwin S. Porter and D. W. Griffith, it does not use the cinematic vocabulary to which American and European audiences later became accustomed, a vocabulary built on the purposeful use of techniques such as varied camera angles, intercutting, juxtapositions of shots, and other filmic ideas.[79] Rather, each camera setup in Méliès's film is designed as a distinct dramatic scene uninterrupted by visible editing, an approach fitting the theatrical style in which the film was designed.[80][f] Similarly, film scholars have noted that the most famous moment in A Trip to the Moon plays with temporal continuity by showing an event twice: first the capsule is shown suddenly appearing in the eye of an anthropomorphic moon; then, in a much closer shot, the landing occurs very differently, and much more realistically, with the capsule actually plummeting into believable lunar terrain.[82] This kind of nonlinear storytelling, in which time is treated as repeatable and flexible rather than linear and causal, is highly unconventional by the standards of Griffith and his followers, but before the development of continuity editing it was not uncommon for filmmakers to make similar experiments with time; Porter, for instance, used temporal discontinuity and repetition extensively in his 1902 film Life of an American Fireman.[82][83] Later in the twentieth century, with sports television's development of the instant replay, temporal repetition again became a familiar device to screen audiences.[82]

Because Méliès does not use a modern cinematic vocabulary, some film scholars have created other frameworks of thought with which to assess his films; for example, some recent academicians, while not necessarily denying Méliès's influence on film, have argued that his works are better understood as spectacular theatrical creations rooted in the 19th-century stage tradition of the féerie.[84] Similarly, Tom Gunning has argued that to fault Méliès for not inventing a more intimate and cinematic storytelling style is to misunderstand the purpose of his films; in Gunning's view, the first decade of film history may be considered a "cinema of attractions," in which filmmakers experimented with a presentational style based on spectacle and direct address rather than on intricate editing. Though the attraction style of filmmaking declined in popularity in favor of a more integrated "story film" approach, it remains an important component of certain types of cinema, including science fiction films, musicals, and avant-garde films.[85]

Legacy[edit]

Segundo de Chomón's Excursion to the Moon, a remake of the film

Film scholars have generally considered Georges Méliès's films to be important precursors to further developments in modern narrative cinema, with A Trip to the Moon the most influential among them.[86] In a 1940 interview, Edwin S. Porter said that it was by seeing A Trip to the Moon and other Méliès films that he "came to the conclusion that a picture telling a story might draw the customers back to the theatres, and set to work in this direction."[42] Similarly, D. W. Griffith said simply of Méliès: "I owe him everything."[87] Since these American directors are widely credited with developing modern film narrative technique, the literary and film scholar Edward Wagenknecht once summed up Méliès's importance to film history by commenting that Méliès "profoundly influenced both Porter and Griffith and through them the whole course of American film-making."[78]

The film remains Méliès's most famous film as well as an iconic example of early cinema, with the image of the capsule stuck in the Man in the Moon's eye particularly famous.[8] The film has been referenced in culture many times, including the following examples.

  • Segundo de Chomón's film Excursion to the Moon, released in 1908 for Pathé Frères, is an unauthorized remake of A Trip to the Moon. The film follows Méliès's scenario closely and includes many of its features, with some variations: for example, the Selenites are not vulnerable to umbrellas, but rather appear and disappear at will; the capsule lands inside the Man in the Moon's open mouth rather than hitting its eye; and the Selenite who returns to Earth is a "dancing moon-maiden" who is betrothed at the end of the film to one of the astronomers.[88] This film has occasionally been misidentified as a work by Méliès.[89]
  • The HBO miniseries From The Earth To The Moon featured a documentary-style recreation of the filming process during its last episode, titled "Le Voyage Dans Le Lune" in honor of Méliès's work.[91]
  • The trophies given out by Visual Effects Society at their yearly awards ceremony feature the famous shot of the Moon with the rocket in its eye.[94]
  • The television series Futurama features an episode titled "The Series Has Landed", in which the Lunar Park mascot Crater Face resembles Méliès's "Man in the Moon". Bender embeds his beer bottle in Crater Face's eye after Crater Face attempts to confiscate his alcohol.[90] In a later episode titled "Meanwhile", Crater Face gets another beer bottle embedded in his eye.
  • The image of the Man in the Moon serves as the cover art for The Wesleyan Anthology of Science Fiction, edited by Arthur B. Evans, Istavn Csicsery-Ronay Jr., Joan Gordon, Veronica Hollinger, Rob Latham, and Carol McGuirk.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ A Trip to the Moon, the common English-language title, was first used in Méliès's American catalogues. It was initially labeled in British catalogues as Trip to the Moon, without the initial article.[4]
  2. ^ The film's total length is about 260 meters (roughly 845 feet) of film,[2] which, at Méliès's preferred projection speed of 12 to 14 frames per second,[34] is about 17 minutes.[3] Films made in the same era by Méliès's contemporaries, the Edison Manufacturing Company and the Lumière Brothers, were on average about one-third this length.[35] Méliès would go on to make longer films; his longest, The Conquest of the Pole, runs to 650 meters[36] or about 44 minutes.[3]
  3. ^ In Méliès's numbering system, films were listed and numbered according to their order of production, and each catalogue number denotes about 20 meters of film; thus A Trip to the Moon, at about 260 meters long, is listed as #399–411.[48]
  4. ^ In French, the term pièce à grand spectacle is usually used to describe the spectacular stage extravaganzas popular in Paris in the second half of the nineteenth century.[49] The word tableau, used in French theatre to mean "scene" or "stage picture," refers in Méliès's catalogues to distinct episodes in the film, rather than changes of scene; thus, Méliès counted thirty tableaux within the scenes of A Trip to the Moon.[35]
  5. ^ The historian Richard Abel notes that stories involving trips to the moon, whether in print, on stage, or as themed attractions, were highly popular in America at the time; indeed, a previous film of Méliès's, The Astronomer's Dream, was often shown in the United States under the title "A Trip to the Moon."[52]
  6. ^ The specification of visible editing is necessary because, in reality, Méliès used much splicing and editing within his scenes, not only for stop-trick effects but also to break down his long scenes into smaller takes during production. Thus, A Trip to the Moon actually contains more than fifty shots. However, all such editing was deliberately designed to be unnoticeable by the viewer; the camera angle remained the same, and action continued fluidly through the splice by means of careful shot-matching.[81]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Wemaere & Duval 2011, p. 186
  2. ^ a b c Hammond 1974, p. 141
  3. ^ a b c d e Frame rate calculations produced using the following formula: 845 feet / ((n frame/s * 60 seconds) / 16 frames per foot) = x. See Elkins, David E. (2013), "Tables & Formulas: Feet Per Minute for 35mm, 4-perf Format", The Camera Assistant Manual Web Site (companion site for The Camera Assistant's Manual [Burlington, MA: Focal Press, 2013]), retrieved 8 August 2013 .
  4. ^ Malthête & Mannoni 2008, p. 344
  5. ^ Lefebvre 2011, pp. 51–60
  6. ^ Frazer 1979, pp. 95–98
  7. ^ a b c d e f Solomon 2011, p. 2
  8. ^ a b Solomon 2011, p. 1
  9. ^ Village Voice Critics' Poll (2001), "100 Best Films", filmsite.org (AMC), retrieved 2 August 2013 
  10. ^ Proper names taken from the authorized English-language catalogue description of the film: see Méliès 2011a, pp. 227–229.
  11. ^ Rosen 1987, p. 748
  12. ^ Kessler 2011, p. 123
  13. ^ a b Frazer 1979, p. 98
  14. ^ a b c Ezra, Elizabeth (2000), Georges Méliès, Manchester: Manchester University Press, p. 13, ISBN 0719053951 
  15. ^ a b Malthête & Mannoni 2011, p. 125
  16. ^ Wemaere & Duval 2011, p. 166
  17. ^ a b Malthête & Mannoni 2011, p. 88
  18. ^ a b Wemaere & Duval 2011, p. 165
  19. ^ a b c Méliès 2011b, p. 234: "I remember that in "Trip to the Moon," the Moon (the woman in a crescent,) was Bleuette Bernon, music hall singer, the Stars were ballet girls, from theâtre du Châtelet—and the men (principal ones) Victor André, of Cluny thêatre, Delpierre, Farjaux—Kelm—Brunnet, music-hall singers, and myself—the Sélenites were acrobats from Folies Bergère."
  20. ^ Cook 2004, p. 18
  21. ^ Frazer 1979, pp. 33–35
  22. ^ Malthête & Mannoni 2011, pp. 301–302
  23. ^ a b Malthête & Mannoni 2011, p. 9
  24. ^ Rosen 1987, p. 750
  25. ^ a b Kovács, Katherine Singer (Autumn 1976), "Georges Méliès and the Féerie", Cinema Journal 16 (1): 1, doi:10.2307/1225446, JSTOR 1225446 
  26. ^ Cook 2004, pp. 15–16
  27. ^ Malthête 2002, §2
  28. ^ Frazer 1979, p. 41; dimensions from Wemaere & Duval 2011, p. 163
  29. ^ Hammond 1974, p. 8
  30. ^ Lefebvre 2011, pp. 50, 58
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  42. ^ a b c d Solomon 2011, p. 6
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  45. ^ Frazer 1979, pp. 91–93
  46. ^ a b Yumibe, Joshua (2012), Moving Color: Early Film, Mass Culture, Modernism, New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, pp. 71–74, ISBN 9780813552965, retrieved 31 March 2014 
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  48. ^ Solomon 2011, p. 7
  49. ^ Margot, Jean-Michel (2003), "Introduction", in Verne, Jules, Journey Through the Impossible, Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, p. 13, ISBN 1591020794 
  50. ^ Marks, Martin (4 February 2012), Music for A Trip to the Moon: An Obscure English Score for a Famous French Fantasy (conference abstract), American Musicological Society, retrieved 8 March 2014 
  51. ^ Bayer, Katia (26 May 2011), "Le Voyage dans la lune de Georges Méliès par Serge Bromberg", Format Court, retrieved 8 March 2014 
  52. ^ Abel 2011, pp. 130–135
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  54. ^ Abel 2011, p. 136
  55. ^ a b c Frazer 1979, pp. 46–48
  56. ^ a b Rosen 1987, p. 755
  57. ^ a b Solomon 2011, pp. 2–3
  58. ^ a b Solomon 2011, p. 3
  59. ^ Wemaere & Duval 2011, p. 162
  60. ^ Frazer 1979, p. 191
  61. ^ Frazer 1979, p. 54
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  63. ^ Frazer 1979, pp. 55–56
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  66. ^ a b Wemaere & Duval 2011, p. 12
  67. ^ Bromberg, Serge (October 2012), "Le Voyage dans la Lune: Une restauration exemplaire", Journal of Film Preservation 87: 13, retrieved 12 January 2014 
  68. ^ Wemaere & Duval 2011, p. 183
  69. ^ Wemaere & Duval 2011, pp. 183–4
  70. ^ Wemaere & Duval 2011, pp. 184–6
  71. ^ Savage, Sophia (2 May 2011), "Cannes 2011: Méliès's Fully Restored A Trip To The Moon in Color To Screen Fest's Opening Night", Thompson on Hollywood, retrieved 23 February 2014 
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  79. ^ Dancyger, Ken (2007), The Technique of Film and Video Editing: History, Theory, and Practice, New York: Focal Press, pp. 3–4, ISBN 9780240807652 
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  82. ^ a b c Sklar, Robert (1993), Film: An International History of the Medium, New York: Harry N. Abrams, pp. 33–36 
  83. ^ Cook 2004, p. 22
  84. ^ Gaudreault, André; Le Forestier, Laurent (2011), Méliès, carrefour des attractions (academic conference program), Centre culturel international de Cerisy-la-Salle, retrieved 23 July 2013 
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  86. ^ Cook 2004, pp. 15–18
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  89. ^ Méliès, Georges (2010), Georges Méliès: Encore (DVD; short film collection), Los Angeles: Flicker Alley, ISBN 1893967565 
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  91. ^ "From the Earth to the Moon (1998) - Did You Know? - Connections". IMDB. Retrieved 2012-10-11. 
  92. ^ Queen Promo Videos: Heaven For Everyone Ultimate Queen. Retrieved 14 November 2011
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Citations[edit]

  • Abel, Richard (2011), "A Trip to the Moon as an American Phenomenon", in Solomon, Matthew, Fantastic Voyages of the Cinematic Imagination: Georges Méliès's Trip to the Moon, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 129–142, ISBN 9781438435817 
  • Cook, David A. (2004), A History of Narrative Film, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0393978680 
  • Frazer, John (1979), Artificially Arranged Scenes: The Films of Georges Méliès, Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., ISBN 0816183686 
  • Hammond, Paul (1974), Marvellous Méliès, London: Gordon Fraser, p. 141, ISBN 0900406380 
  • Kessler, Frank (2011), "A Trip to the Moon as Féerie", in Solomon, Matthew, Fantastic Voyages of the Cinematic Imagination: Georges Méliès's Trip to the Moon, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 115–128, ISBN 9781438435817 
  • Lefebvre, Thierry (2011), "A Trip to the Moon: A Composite Film", in Solomon, Matthew, Fantastic Voyages of the Cinematic Imagination: Georges Méliès's Trip to the Moon, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 49–64, ISBN 9781438435817 
  • Malthête, Jacques (2002), "Les Vues spéciales de l'Exposition de 1900, tournées par Georges Méliès", 1895: Revue de l'Association française de recherche sur l'histoire du cinéma 36, retrieved 24 January 2014 
  • Malthête, Jacques; Mannoni, Laurent (2008), L'oeuvre de Georges Méliès, Paris: Éditions de La Martinière, ISBN 9782732437323 
  • Méliès, Georges (2011a) [originally published 1902], "A Fantastical … Trip to the Moon", in Solomon, Matthew, Fantastic Voyages of the Cinematic Imagination: Georges Méliès's Trip to the Moon, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 227–232, ISBN 9781438435817 
  • Méliès, Georges (2011b) [written 1930], "Reply to Questionary", in Solomon, Matthew, Fantastic Voyages of the Cinematic Imagination: Georges Méliès's Trip to the Moon, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 233–234, ISBN 9781438435817 
  • Rosen, Miriam (1987), "Méliès, Georges", in Wakeman, John, World Film Directors: Volume I, 1890–1945, New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, pp. 747–765, ISBN 0824207572 
  • Solomon, Matthew (2011), "Introduction", in Solomon, Matthew, Fantastic Voyages of the Cinematic Imagination: Georges Méliès's Trip to the Moon, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 1–24, ISBN 9781438435817 
  • Solomon, Matthew (Fall 2012), "Georges Méliès: First Wizard of Cinema (1896-1913)/Georges Méliès Encore: New Discoveries (1896-1911)", Moving Image 12 (2): 187–192, ISSN 1532-3978, JSTOR 10.5749/movingimage.12.2.0187 
  • Wemaere, Séverine; Duval, Gilles (2011), La couleur retrouvée du Voyage dans la Lune, Groupama Gan Foundation for Cinema and Technicolor Foundation for Cinema Heritage, retrieved 10 August 2013 

External links[edit]