This is a list of the wars or external conflicts fought during the history of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire (330–1453). The definition of organized is any external conflict that was fought by the government of the Byzantine Empire. For internal conflicts see the list of Byzantine revolts and civil wars.
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668–678: Renewed attacks on the Byzantine Empire by Muawiyah, leading to the First Arab Siege of Constantinople. Following its failure, a truce was agreed, providing for payment of tribute, men and horses to the Empire.
686–688: Successful Byzantine offensive established Byzantine control over Armenia and Caucasian Iberia, followed by favourable peace agreement with the Umayyad Caliphate, in return for the withdrawal of the Mardaites into the Empire.
688–689: Balkan campaign of Justinian II secured the coast between Thrace and Macedonia. Many Slavs were captured and resettled in imperial territory. Over 30,000 were incorporated into the Byzantine army.
688/689: Byzantine offensive into Syria and Lebanon leads to a new truce, and the withdrawal of more Mardaites.
692–718: Almost constant war with the Arabs in various fronts. The defeat at the Battle of Sebastopolis and internal instability led to the gradual loss of Armenia and Cilicia, and despite some successes by Heraclius the Byzantines generally maintained a defensive stance against the annual Arab raids into Anatolia. Carthage fell in 697. Recovered soon after, it was again lost in 698, marking the end of Byzantine North Africa. From 712 on, the Arab raids penetrated ever deeper into Anatolia, with the final objective of mounting an assault on Constantinople. The repulsion of the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople (717–718) was a major Byzantine success, and halted Arab attacks against the Empire for a few years.
775–783: War with the Abbasids. After the death of Constantine V in 775, Arab raids resumed. After a heavy defeat at Germanicopolis in 779/780, the Abbasids launched a series of major invasions under Harun al-Rashid, which led to the conclusion of a truce in 783.
780–783: Raids by the Bulgars under Kardam, leading to an agreement of non-aggression in exchange for annual payments.
803–809: War with the Abbasids, resulting from Nikephoros I's cessation of annual tribute payments. The Arabs under Harun al-Rashid achieved significant early successes, but the outbreak of a revolt in Khorasan facilitated a Byzantine counter-offensive in 807–809. A truce in 809 restored the territorial status quo.
830–841: War with the Abbasids, with large-scale invasions launched by caliphs al-Ma'mun and al-Mu'tasim. Despite a crushing defeat at the Battle of Dazimon and the sack of Amorium in 838, Emperor Theophilos was able to conclude a truce in 841 without territorial losses, although raids by the Muslim border emirates continued.
ca. 844–878: Wars with the Paulicians of Tephrike end with the destruction of the Paulician state and its incorporation into the Empire.
851–863: War with the Abbasids and their clients. Successful Byzantine raids in Syria, Mesopotamia and Egypt are checked by a series of Muslim invasions of Anatolia in 860. Another invasion in 863 sees the complete annihilation of the Muslim army at the Battle of Lalakaon.
852, 855–856: Short wars with Bulgaria, ending in the recovery of several cities in northern Thrace.
871–885: Campaigns led by Basil I in person against northern Mesopotamia (871–873) are followed by a series of expeditions against the Muslims in Sicily and Southern Italy. The final loss of Sicily could not be averted, but the Arabs are driven from Southern Italy and Dalmatia, laying the foundations of the Catepanate of Italy.
889–897: War with Bulgaria under Tsar Simeon erupts over trade rights. It ends with a Bulgarian victory after the Battle of Bulgarophygon. The Byzantines agree to pay tribute and restore the market for Bulgarian goods to Constantinople.
992–999: War with the Fatimids over Aleppo. Initial Fatimid victories over Michael Bourtzes lead to the direct intervention of Basil II, who clears northern Syria of the Fatimids and secures a ten-year truce.
1048: First confrontation between Byzantines and the Seljuk Turks results in an indecisive battle at Kapetron.
1081–1085: War against the first Norman invasion of the Balkans. Early Byzantine defeat at Dyrrhachium (1081), but the successful defence of Thessaly and naval victories with Venetian aid led to the eventual abandonment of the invasion after the death of Robert Guiscard.
ca. 1272–1280: Campaigns of Licario recover Euboea and many Aegean islands for the Empire.
sometime in 1273–1275: Large-scale campaign against John I Doukas of Thessaly. The Byzantine army is defeated at Neopatras, but the navy scores a major victory at Demetrias.
1274–1275: Byzantine offensive against Angevin holdings in Albania drive the Angevin forces out of most of the country, although repeated assaults on their last two strongholds of Dyrrhachium and Valona fail.
1279: Unsuccessful campaigns against Bulgaria, defeat at Devina.
1280–1281: Angevin offensive in Albania is repulsed at Berat, and most of Albania is retaken.
1302–1305: War with the Ottoman Turks. After a defeat in the Battle of Bapheus, the Byzantines hire the Catalan Company. After a series of victories against the Turks, the Catalans turn against Byzantium following the murder of their leader.
1304–1305: The Bulgarians attack Byzantium, and manage to recover the port cities on the Black Sea coast.