List of Righteous Among the Nations by country
This is a partial list of some of the most prominent Righteous Among the Nations per country of origin, recognized by Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem. These people risked their lives or their liberty and position to help Jews during the Holocaust; some suffered death as a result. As of 1 January 2014[update], Yad Vashem recognized 25,271 Righteous Among the Nations from 49 countries.
By country and ethnic origin
These figures are not necessarily an indication of the actual number of Jews saved in each country, but reflect material on rescue operations made available to Yad Vashem as of 1 January 2013[update].
|Country of origin||Awards||Notes|
|Poland||6,532||The largest contingent. It includes a wide variety of individuals of different occupations and organisations activists, including Irena Sendler (Polish social worker who served in the Polish Underground and the Żegota resistance organization in Warsaw, saving 2,500 Jewish children); Jan Karski (who reported the situation of the Jews in occupied Poland); Tadeusz Pankiewicz (a Kraków pharmacist), Henryk Sławik (a social worker); Rudolf Weigl (a scientist); Stefan Korboński (a politician), Sister Bertranda (a Roman Catholic nun); Eryk Lipiński (a comedian); Franciszek and Magdalena Banasiewicz (a married couple of painters); Irena Adamowicz (a leader scout); Maria Kotarba (a Polish Resistance fighter); the Podgórski sisters (shop assistants); Józef and Wiktoria Ulma (a family of farmers murdered with their six children for helping Jews); Leopold "Poldek" Socha (a sewer inspector who hid a group of Jews in a remote corner of the Lviv sewers); and writer/activist Zofia Kossak-Szczucka (see Polish Righteous Among the Nations for additional names).
The number of Poles on the list should be viewed in light of the fact that Poland was the only country in German-occupied Europe in which a death penalty was imposed (since October 1941) for offering any kind of help to people of Jewish faith or origin.
|Netherlands||5,413||On a population of 9 million in 1940 the figure represents the largest per capita number: 1 in 1,700 Dutch was awarded (Poland: 1 in 3.700; population of 24,300,000 ethnic Poles in 1939)
. Includes two persons originally from the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Includes Corrie ten Boom; Frits Philips who ran Philips during the German occupation; Gertruida Wijsmuller-Meier, who helped save about 10,000 Jewish children from Germany and Austria just before the outbreak of the war (see Kindertransport); she also managed the last transport to the UK on May 12, 1940 on the last ship leaving the Netherlands; Jan Zwartendijk, who as a Dutch consular representative in Kaunas, Lithuania, issued exit visas used by between 6,000 and to 10,000 Jewish refugees; includes the people who hid and helped Anne Frank and her family, like Miep Gies. Also includes Salvation Army major Alida Bosshardt. Remarkable is the relatively large number of Protestant ministers and their wives that participated and were awarded. The German lawyer Hans Calmeyer was recognized for his activities in the Netherlands during the war.
Also uniquely includes three organisations or collectives: the collective participants of the so-called "Amsterdam dock strike" (better known as the February strike, about 30-50,000 people who on 25/26 February 1941 took part in the first strike against persecution of the Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe); the whole village of Nieuwlande (117 inhabitants) that set up a quota-system under then alderman and later resistance fighter Johannes Post; and the resistance group, NV groep (for saving Jewish children). Only in Denmark and France a group (one in each country) was recognized.
|France||3,760||In January 2007, French President Jacques Chirac and other dignitaries honored France's Righteous in a ceremony at the Panthéon, Paris. The Legion of Honour was awarded to 160 French Righteous for their efforts saving French Jews during World War II.|
|Ukraine||2,472||Daniil Tymchina, hieromonk of the Univ Lavra (2008); Klymentiy Sheptytsky, the Archimandrite of the Studite monks of Greek-Catholic Monastery (1995); Stepan Omelianiuk (1982)[who?]|
|Belgium||1,665||Including Queen Elisabeth of the Belgians|
|Lithuania||871||See Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations, including Kazys Binkis and Ona Šimaitė|
|Hungary||810||Including Zoltán Lajos Bay (physicist:"father of radar-astronomy"); Béla Király (commander, 56 freedom fighter) ; Géza Ottlik (author); Endre Szervánszky (composer); Paulina and Ilona Kolonits (the latter a documentary film director); Father Raile Jakab, S. J.; Margit Slachta (social activist); Blessed Sára Salkaházi, S.S.S. (Roman Catholic nun), Karig Sára|
|Italy||610||Including Laura and Constantino Bulgari, Giovanni Palatucci, Lorenzo Perrone, Francesco Repetto, Giorgio Perlasca, the cyclist Gino Bartali and the Blessed Odoardo Focherini|
|Belarus||601||Including Vanda Skuratovich and Mariya Yevdokimova|
|Germany||553||Including Oskar Schindler, the businessman who saved more than 1,000 Jews by employing them in his factory; Captain Gustav Schröder who commanded the "Voyage of the Damned"; German Army officers Wilm Hosenfeld and Heinz Drossel; Major Karl Plagge (Wehrmacht); German Wehrmacht army lieutenant and lawyer Albert Battel; resistance fighter Hans von Dohnányi, and writer Armin Wegner|
|Slovakia||539||Including Pavel Peter Gojdič, Dr. Michal Majercik and his wife Anna|
|Greece||321||Including Archbishop Damaskinos of Athens and Princess Alice of Battenberg|
|Russia||189||Including Nikolay Kiselyov|
|Latvia||134||Including Jānis Lipke|
|Serbia||131||See Serbian Righteous Among the Nations|
|Czech Republic||114||Victor Kugler|
|Croatia||109||See: List of Croatian Righteous Among the Nations|
|Austria||95||Including Irene Harand, Florian Tschögl, and Kurt Reinhard (List of Austrian Righteous Among the Nations)|
|Moldova||79||Includes the Stoyanov family |
|Albania||69||See List of Albanian Righteous Among the Nations|
|Romania||60||Includes Queen Helen of Romania, Traian Popovici (known for saving 20,000 Jews of Bukovina from deportation) and Prince Constantin Karadja, credited by Yad Vashem with saving more than 51,000 Jews|
|Norway||52||See List of Norwegian Righteous Among the Nations; the Norwegian Underground is listed as one group|
|Switzerland||45||Including Carl Lutz, who helped save tens of thousands of Hungarian Jews|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||42||Includes Roza Sober-Dragoje and Zekira Besrević, Mustafa and Zejneba Hardaga, Izet and Bachriya Hardaga, Ahmed Sadik |
|Armenia||24||Includes Taschdjian (Tashchiyan) family |
|Denmark||22||As per their request, members of the Danish Underground who participated in the rescue of the Danish Jews are listed as one group. The fishermen who transported Danish Jews to Sweden in 1943, however, were ineligible because they had been paid.|
|United Kingdom||21||This list includes Major Frank Foley but excludes Sir Nicholas Winton (who is of Jewish parentage)|
|Bulgaria||20||Dimitar Peshev; Metropolitan Stefan of Sofia and Metropolitan Kiril of Plovdiv of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church|
|Macedonia||10||Including Smiljan Franjo Čekada, Boris Altiparmak, and Stojan Siljanovski|
|Sweden||10||Including Raoul Wallenberg, Per Anger, Ivan Danielsson, Lars G:son Berg, Valdemar Langlet, Nina Langlet, Elow Kihlgren, Erik Perwe, Elisabeth Hesselblad and Erik Myrgren|
|Slovenia||7||Including Zora Piculin |
|Spain||6||Ángel Sanz Briz, José Ruiz Santaella and his wife, Carmen , and Eduardo Propper de Callejón|
|United States||4||Varian Fry; Martha and Waitstill Sharp, and Lois Gunden|
|Estonia||3||Uku and Eha Masing and Polina Lentsman|
|Brazil||2||Luiz Martins de Souza Dantas and Aracy de Carvalho Guimarães Rosa|
|Republic of China (1912–1949)||2||Pan Jun Shun and Feng-Shan Ho (provided approximately 2,000 visas to Jews in need during his tenure as ambassador of ROC to Vienna in 1938)|
|Portugal||2||Aristides de Sousa Mendes, issued 30,000 visas to people escaping the Nazis In France. Carlos Sampaio Garrido sheltered about 1,000 Jews in safe-houses in Budapest and gave them Portuguese documents to leave the country.|
|Chile||1||Maria Edwards McClure|
|El Salvador||1||José Castellanos Contreras (provided Salvadoran citizenship papers to approximately 13,000 Central European Jews)|
|Japan||1||Chiune Sugihara (provided approximately 3,400 transit visas to Jews in need)|
|Luxembourg||1||Victor Bodson (former Justice Minister and Chairman of the Luxembourg House of Representatives; saved approximately 100 Jews)|
|Cuba||1||Ámparo (Otero) Pappo|
|Ecuador||1||Manuel Antonio Muñoz Borrero|
|Peru||1||José Maria Barreto|
|Suriname||1||William Arnold Egger|
|Vietnam||1||Paul Nguyễn Công Anh|
|Total||25,271||As of 1 January 2014[update]|
- The total of the Righteous Among the Nations recognized by Yad Vashem, Jerusalem, as of 1 January 2014[update], is 25,271.
- Those who Helped: Polish Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust - Publisher: Main Commission for the Investigation of Crimes against the Polish Nation–The Institute of National Memory (1993) ISBN 83-903356-4-6
- Fogelman, Eva. Conscience & Courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Doubleday, 1994.
- Bercher, Elinor J. Schindler's Legacy: True Stories of the List Survivors. New York: Penguin, 1994.
- Michał Grynberg, Księga Sprawiedliwych (Book of the Righteous), Warsaw, PWN, 1993.
- Polish Righteous Among the Nations of the World.
- Yad Vashem, About the Righteous, Statistics Accessed 20 September 2011.
- "Poland. Historical Background - The Righteous Among The Nations". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 2013-09-06.
- http://www.volkskrant.nl/dossier-archief/een-op-1800-nederlanders-redde-joden~a3126447/ De Volkskrant, 18 Jan. 2012, by Arthur Graaff, Dutch
- "Jacques Chirac Honors French World War II Saviors". European Jewish Congress. 11 April 2007.. Includes Johan Hendrik Weidner, head of the Dutch-Paris Underground whose organization saved over 800 Jews and over 100 allied airmen.
- Israel Gutman, Bracha Rivlin e Liliana Picciotto, I giusti d'Italia: i non ebrei che salvarono gli ebrei, 1943-45 (Mondadori: Milano 2006), pp. 75-76.
- "Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- "Catholic activist killed for saving Jews set for sainthood". The Times of Israel. 16 June 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- "Belarus. Historical Background - The Righteous Among The Nations". Yad Vashem. 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2013-09-06.
- "Minutes of the Sub-Commission for the Recognition of the "Righteous Among the Nations"" (in German). Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 18 April 2005. Retrieved 10 June 2009.
- "Featured Stories - Bosnia - The Righteous Among The Nations". Yad Vashem. 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2013-09-06.
- "Featured Stories - Armenia - The Righteous Among The Nations". Yad Vashem. 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2013-09-06.
- Novick, Peter (1999). The Holocaust in American Life. Mariner Books. p. 180. ISBN 978-0618082322.
- "Slovenian Righteous at Yad Vashem" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-09-06.
- "American Lois Gunden named Righteous Gentile"
- Lois Gunden's Yad Vashem webpage
- "The Righteous Among the Nations Department" (PDF). Yad Vashem. 2005. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- "Cork woman receives first Irish honour for saving Jewish victims of the Holocaust". The Irish Times. May 15, 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
A Cork woman who risked her life to save Jewish children from Nazi gas chambers has become the first Irish person to be honoured as “Righteous Among the Nations” by Yad Vashem, Israel’s official memorial to Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Among those saved by Mary Elmes, who died in 2002, was Ronald Friend, now professor emeritus of psychology at Stony Brook, New York. At the time he was a two-year-old child whose father would not survive but whose five-year-old brother Michael was also rescued by Ms Elmes.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Righteous Among the Nations.|
- Yad Vashem , The Righteous Among The Nations , Virtual Wall of Honor List of all Righteous sorted by Countries. Accessed 20 September 2011.