List of acquisitions by Nokia

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Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation, founded in 1865. It is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki.[1] Nokia is engaged in the manufacturing of mobile devices and in converging Internet and communications industries. Nokia was founded by Fredrik Idestam in 1865.[2] The company was subsequently incorporated in the town of Nokia in 1871.[3]

The following is a list of acquisitions by Nokia since December 1997. During the past few years Nokia has been actively acquiring companies with new technologies and competencies, including also investments in minority positions. Since December 1997, Nokia has acquired 41 companies or businesses.[4] The value of each acquisition is listed in either US dollars or Euros. If the value of an acquisition is not listed, then it is undisclosed.

Acquisitions[edit]

Acquisition date Acquisition target Nokia unit Country Value (Million USD/EUR) Ref.
Not yet finished SAC Wireless Service  United States [5]
November 2012 earthmine Location and Commerce  United States [6]
Not yet finished Scalado (imaging technology)
November 2011 Smarterphone Asha platform  Norway NA [7]
Not yet finished
(Expected: late 2010)
Wireless infrastructure assets of Motorola Nokia Siemens Networks  United States $1,200 [8]
1 September 2010 Motally (app/webapp tracking software) Services  United States [9]
[10]
9 April 2010 Novarra Inc. (Java based web browser) Services  United States [11]
[12]
9 April 2010 MetaCarta, Inc. Services  United States [13]
28 September 2009 Dopplr Services  Finland [14]
11 September 2009 Plum Services  United States [15]
5 August 2009 cellity AG Services  Germany [16]
[17]
9 February 2009 bit-side GmbH Services  Germany [18]
[19]
2 December 2008 Symbian Ltd.[note 1] Nokia Corporation  United Kingdom €264 [20]
[21]
4 November 2008 OZ Communications Services & Software  Canada [22]
[23]
15 July 2008 Plazes Services & Software  Germany [24]
[25]
10 July 2008 Navteq Nokia Corporation  United States $8,100 [26]
[27]
[28]
[29]
17 June 2008 Trolltech (Qt Development Frameworks) Devices  Norway $153 [30]
[31]
[32]
[33]
4 December 2007 Avvenu Enterprise Solutions  United States [34]
[35]
8 October 2007 Enpocket Nokia Corporation  United States [36]
24 July 2007 Twango Multimedia  United States [37]
16 October 2006 Loudeye Corp. Multimedia  United States $60 [38]
[39]
12 October 2006 gate5 AG Multimedia  Germany [40]
30 June 2006 LCC International's U.S. deployment business Networks  United States [41]
10 February 2006 Intellisync Corporation Enterprise Solutions  United States $430 [42]
[43]
18 October 2004 Metrowerks Corporation Nokia Corporation  United States [44]
3 November 2003 Tahoe Networks Nokia Networks  United States [45]
19 August 2003 Sega.com Inc. Nokia Mobile Phones  United States [46]
[47]
22 April 2003 Eizel Technologies Nokia Internet Communications  United States $21 [48]
[49]
22 May 2002 Redback Networks Inc. Nokia Networks  United States [50]
25 July 2001 Amber Networks Inc. Nokia Networks  United States $421 [51]
[52]
[53]
28 June 2001 F5 Networks Inc. Nokia Internet Communications  United States [54]
7 December 2000 Ramp Networks Inc. Nokia Internet Communications  United States $127 [55]
[56]
[57]
[58]
[59]
20 October 2000 NGI Industrial (NGI)[note 2] Nokia Mobile Phones  Brazil $415 [60]
8 August 2000 DiscoveryCom Inc. Nokia Networks  United States $220 [61]
[62]
[63]
1 February 2000 Network Alchemy Inc. Nokia Internet Communications  United States $335 [64]
[65]
[66]
[67]
13 December 1999 Security software business from TeamWARE Group Nokia Wireless Network Solutions  Finland [68]
22 October 1999 Telekol Group Nokia Internet Communications  United States $56.5 [69]
2 September 1999 Rooftop Communications Corporation Nokia Networks  United States $57 [70]
[71]
[72]
30 June 1999 Aircom International Nokia Networks  United Kingdom [73]
14 May 1999 R&D units from TeamWARE Group Nokia Mobile Phones  Finland [74]
18 February 1999 InTalk Corporation Nokia Wireless Business Communications  United States [75]
16 February 1999 Diamond Lane Communications Nokia Networks  United States $125 [76]
18 December 1998 Vienna Systems Corporation Nokia Internet Communications  Canada $90 [77]
17 September 1998 NE-Products Oy Nokia Mobile Phones  Finland [78]
20 August 1998 User Interface Design Nokia Communications Products  Sweden [79]
25 June 1998 Matra Nortel Communications Nokia Mobile Phones  France [4]
9 December 1997 Ipsilon Networks Inc. Nokia Networks  United States $120 [4]
11 February 1991 Technophone Ltd Nokia Mobile Phones  United Kingdom £34M

Divestments[edit]

Since 1996, Nokia has made the following divestments.

Date Divestiture target Nokia unit Ref.
Not yet finished Entire Devices and Services business
2012 Vertu
30 November 2010 Nokia's wireless modem business Nokia Corporation [80]
[81]
12 July 2010 MetaCarta's enterprise business Nokia Corporation [82]
1 December 2009 Venyon Nokia Corporation [83]
16 October 2009 Nokia's Symbian Professional Services Nokia Corporation [84]
[85]
14 April 2009 Nokia's security appliance business Services [86]
[87]
16 June 2008 Nokia's line fit automotive business Devices [88]
[89]
2 June 2008 Nokia's Adaptation Software R&D entity Nokia Corporation [90]
[91]
[92]
16 May 2008 Nokia's Identity Systems Services & Software [93]
[94]
5 November 2007 3G chipset development Nokia Corporation [95]
[96]
5 September 2005 Professional Mobile Radio business Networks [97]
18 March 2005 Nextrom Holding Nokia Corporation [98]
30 August 2001 Part of mobile core related R&D Nokia Networks [99]
13 March 2001 Narrowband access products Nokia Networks [100]
13 June 2000 Cabling and electromechanical units Nokia Networks [101]
17 January 2000 Nokia Display Products' branded business Nokia Display Products [102]
10 January 2000 Monitor manufacturing unit in Hungary Nokia Display Products [103]
1 November 1999 SHD/DWDM business Nokia Networks [104]
1 October 1999 Salcomp Oy Nokia Communications Products [105]
9 September 1998 Mobile radios and printed circuit boards Nokia Networks [106]
7 August 1998 LK-Products Oy Nokia Mobile Phones [107]
3 March 1998 Autoliv Nokia AB Nokia Industrial Electronics [108]
23 December 1997 Loudspeaker Operations Nokia Industrial Electronics [109]
7 February 1997 Tuner Operations Nokia Multimedia Network Terminals [107]
17 July 1996 Television production Nokia General Communications Products [110]
18 March 1996 Cable Business / NKF Holding NV Nokia Communications Products [111]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The net cash outlay from Nokia to purchase the approximately 52% of Symbian Limited shares it did not already own was approximately EUR 264 million.
  2. ^ Nokia increased its ownership to 100% and purchased the additional 49% of the total share capital of NGI from Gradiente Telecom for USD $415 million.

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ "Nokia in brief (2007)" (PDF). Nokia Corporation. March 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2008. 
  2. ^ "Nokia – The birth of Nokia – Nokia's first century – Story of Nokia". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  3. ^ Helen, Tapio. "Idestam, Fredrik (1838-1916)". Biographical Centre of the Finnish Literature Society. Retrieved 22 March 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c "Nokia – Acquisitions". Nokia Corporation. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  5. ^ "Nokia Looks To Boost U.S. Business With SAC Wireless Buy" (Press release). 
  6. ^ "Nokia Completes Acquisition of earthmine inc" (Press release). 
  7. ^ "Nokia Acquires Norwegian Mobile OS Company Smarterphone" (Press release). 
  8. ^ "Nokia Siemens Networks to acquire certain wireless network infrastructure assets of Motorola for USD 1.2 billion" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 19 July 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  9. ^ "Nokia to acquire of Motally" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 20 August 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  10. ^ "Nokia completes acquisition of Motally" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 1 September 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010. 
  11. ^ "Nokia completes acquisition of Novarra" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  12. ^ "Nokia acquires Novarra" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 26 March 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  13. ^ "Nokia acquires MetaCarta Inc." (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 9 April 2010. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  14. ^ "Nokia acquires Dopplr" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2009. 
  15. ^ "Nokia has acquired Plum" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 11 September 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009. 
  16. ^ "Nokia completes acquisition of cellity" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 5 August 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2009. 
  17. ^ "Nokia to acquire cellity" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 24 July 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2009. 
  18. ^ "Nokia completes bit-side acquisition" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 9 February 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  19. ^ "Nokia to acquire bit-side GmbH" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  20. ^ "Nokia acquires Symbian Limited" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 2 December 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  21. ^ "Nokia to acquire Symbian Limited to enable evolution of the leading open mobile platform" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 24 June 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  22. ^ "Nokia completes OZ Communications acquisition" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 4 November 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  23. ^ "Nokia to acquire leading consumer email and instant messaging provider OZ Communications" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 30 September 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  24. ^ "Nokia completes Plazes acquisition" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 15 July 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  25. ^ "Nokia to acquire social-activity service provider Plazes" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 23 June 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  26. ^ "Nokia completes its acquisition of NAVTEQ" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 10 July 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  27. ^ "European Commission approves Nokia's planned acquisition of NAVTEQ" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  28. ^ "European Commission extends review of Nokia's planned acquisition of NAVTEQ" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  29. ^ "Nokia to acquire NAVTEQ" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 1 October 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  30. ^ "Nokia completes Trolltech acquisition" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 17 June 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  31. ^ "Nokia receives European Commission merger control approval for the acquisition of Trolltech" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 5 June 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  32. ^ "Nokia to acquire Trolltech to accelerate software strategy" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 28 January 2008. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  33. ^ Nokia moves to realize Internet ambitions: Seeks $153M purchase of Trolltech for open-source, cross-platform expertise http://www.rcrwireless.com/ARTICLE/20080128/FREE/727620250/nokia-moves-to-realize-internet-ambitions
  34. ^ "Nokia completes the Avvenu acquisition" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 5 December 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  35. ^ "Nokia acquires Avvenu for Mobile Access and Share Technologies" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 4 December 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  36. ^ "Nokia completes the Enpocket acquisition" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 8 October 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  37. ^ "Nokia acquires Twango to offer a comprehensive media sharing experience" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 24 July 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  38. ^ "Nokia completes Loudeye acquisition" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  39. ^ "Nokia makes music with Loudeye purchase." MarketWatch: Telecoms; Sep2006, Vol. 5 Issue 9, p6
  40. ^ "Nokia completes acquisition of gate5" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 12 October 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  41. ^ "Nokia Completes Acquisition of LCC International's U.S. Deployment Business" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 30 June 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  42. ^ "Nokia completes acquisition of Intellisync" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 10 February 2006. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  43. ^ Nokia to extend leadership in enterprise mobility with acquisition of Intellisync http://press.nokia.com/PR/200511/1021663_5.html
  44. ^ "Nokia and Metrowerks Complete Transaction on Transfer of Application Development Technology to Nokia" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 18 October 2004. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  45. ^ "World-class team from Tahoe Networks joins Nokia Networks' core networks business" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 3 November 2003. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  46. ^ "Nokia completes acquisition of assets of Sega.com Inc." (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 22 September 2003. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  47. ^ "Nokia and SEGA reach agreement on the transfer of select SEGA.com leading technology" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 19 August 2003. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  48. ^ "Nokia completed acquisition of Eizel Technologies and increased the share capital" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 14 May 2003. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  49. ^ "Nokia acquires Eizel to enhance mobile enterprise portfolio" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 22 April 2003. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  50. ^ "Nokia Makes Investment In Redback Networks" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 22 May 2002. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  51. ^ "Nokia's share capital increased in connection with the acquisition of Amber Networks, Inc." (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 3 September 2001. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  52. ^ "Nokia completes acquisition of Amber Networks through issuance and transfer of Nokia shares" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 29 August 2001. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  53. ^ "Nokia to Acquire Amber Networks for $421 Million" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 25 July 2001. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  54. ^ "Nokia and F5 Networks Enter Into Global Alliance" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 28 June 2001. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  55. ^ "Nokia completes acquisition of Ramp Networks" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 25 January 2001. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  56. ^ "Nokia completes tender offer for Ramp Networks" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 22 January 2001. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  57. ^ "Nokia extends tender offer for Ramp Networks" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 17 January 2001. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  58. ^ "Nokia's Acquisition of Ramp Networks Approved by Antitrust Authorities" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 21 December 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  59. ^ "Nokia to Acquire Ramp Networks" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 7 December 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  60. ^ "Nokia acquired Gradiente's share in Brazilian manufacturing joint venture NGI" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 20 October 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  61. ^ "Nokia's share capital increased in connection with the acquisition of DiscoveryCom, Inc." (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 4 September 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  62. ^ "Nokia announces the completion of the acquisition of DiscoveryCom - and issues new Nokia shares" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 29 August 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  63. ^ "Nokia to acquire DiscoveryCom in the US" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 8 August 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  64. ^ "Nokia's share capital increased in connection with the acquisition of Network Alchemy, Inc." (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 14 March 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  65. ^ "Nokia completes acquisition of Network Alchemy" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 6 March 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  66. ^ "Nokia increases the share capital in connection with the acquisition of Network Alchemy, Inc." (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 3 March 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  67. ^ "Nokia to Acquire Network Alchemy" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 1 February 2000. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  68. ^ "Nokia acquires security software business from TeamWARE Group" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 13 December 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  69. ^ "Nokia acquires Telekol Corporation to strengthen its mobile corporate communications portfolio" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 22 October 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  70. ^ "Nokia's share capital increased in connection with the acquisition of Rooftop Communications Corporation" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 16 September 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  71. ^ "Nokia increases the share capital in connection with the acquisition of Rooftop Communications Corporation" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 8 September 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  72. ^ "Nokia acquires Rooftop Communications to boost its wireless IP bypass technology portfolio" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 2 September 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  73. ^ "Nokia acquires a 40% stake of AIRCOM International" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 30 June 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  74. ^ "Nokia acquires parts of TeamWARE" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 14 May 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  75. ^ "Nokia Acquires InTalk Inc." (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 18 February 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  76. ^ "Nokia acquires Diamond Lane Communications to boost Fast Internet" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 16 February 1999. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  77. ^ "Nokia Acquires Vienna Systems Corporation" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 18 December 1998. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  78. ^ "Nokia fully acquires NE-Products" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 17 September 1998. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  79. ^ "Nokia Multimedia Network Terminals strengthens its competence in software development" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 20 August 1998. Retrieved 30 June 2009. 
  80. ^ "Renesas Electronics' acquisition of Nokia's Wireless Modem business completed" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 30 November 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  81. ^ "Renesas Electronics to acquire Nokia's wireless modem business; companies to form strategic business alliance for modem technology development" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 6 July 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2011. 
  82. ^ "Nokia divests MetaCarta Inc. while retaining geographic intelligence technology for local search services" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 12 July 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2010. 
  83. ^ "Giesecke & Devrient has acquired Nokia's shares in Venyon" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 1 December 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  84. ^ "Accenture's acquisition of Nokia's Symbian Professional Services completed" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 16 October 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  85. ^ "Nokia's Symbian Professional Services to be acquired by Accenture" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  86. ^ "Check Point Software Technologies' acquisition of Nokia's security appliance business completed" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 14 April 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  87. ^ "Nokia signs agreement to sell security appliance business to Check Point Software Technologies" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 22 December 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  88. ^ "Transfer of Nokia's line fit automotive business to novero GmbH completed" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  89. ^ "Nokia signs agreement to sell its line fit automotive business" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 14 May 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  90. ^ "Transfer of Nokia's Adaptation Software R&D entity to Sasken Communication Technologies completed" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 2 June 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  91. ^ "Nokia, Bochum employee representatives agreed on severance package and site closure date" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 8 April 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  92. ^ "Nokia plans closure of its Bochum site in Germany" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  93. ^ "Informatica's acquisition of Nokia's Identity Systems completed" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 16 May 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  94. ^ "Identity Systems to be acquired by Informatica" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 17 April 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  95. ^ "Nokia and STMicroelectronics close the agreement in 3G chipset development" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 5 November 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  96. ^ "Nokia renews its chipset development strategy" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 8 August 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  97. ^ "EADS acquisition of Nokia's Professional Mobile Radio business successfully completed" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 5 September 2005. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  98. ^ "Transaction to sell Nokia majority stake in Nextrom Holding now complete" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 18 March 2005. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  99. ^ "Nokia Networks selects TietoEnator as its R&D partner" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 30 August 2001. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  100. ^ "Nokia and SCI to extend their manufacturing cooperation" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 13 March 2001. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  101. ^ "Nokia Networks and Scanfil Oy to increase cooperation" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 13 June 2000. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  102. ^ "ViewSonic Corporation Acquires Nokia Display Products' Branded Business" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 17 January 2000. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  103. ^ "Elcoteq acquires Nokia's monitor manufacturing unit in Pécs, Hungary" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 10 January 2000. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  104. ^ "The General Electric Company to buy Nokia's SDH / DWDM transport equipment business" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 1 November 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  105. ^ "EQT Scandinavia II Fund Acquires Salcomp" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 1 October 1999. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
  106. ^ "Nokia and Enviset expand co-operation for electronics manufacturing in Finland" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 9 September 1998. Retrieved 3 September 2009. 
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  108. ^ "Nokia to sell its car electronics business" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 3 March 1998. Archived from the original on 2007-05-03. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  109. ^ "Nokia announces an agreement to sell its audio electronics business" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 23 December 1997. Archived from the original on 2007-05-03. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  110. ^ "Nokia Announces Final Sale of its Television Manufacturing Business" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 17 July 1996. Archived from the original on 2007-05-03. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  111. ^ "Nokia to Sell Its Cable Business" (Press release). Nokia Corporation. 18 March 1996. Archived from the original on 2007-05-03. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 

External links[edit]