List of earthquakes in the Philippines

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Earthquakes in the Philippines
Approximate epicenters of the recorded earthquakes in the Philippines since 1900.
(<6.0 in green, 6.0-6.9 in yellow, 7.0–7.9 in orange, 8.0+ in red)
Strongest earthquake 1976 Moro Gulf earthquake
Deadliest earthquake 1976 Moro Gulf earthquake

This is an incomplete list of earthquakes in the Philippines of having a magnitude of 6.0 or higher, an intensity of VII or higher, and of any significant earthquake which had caused major damages, deaths, and injured people during its occurrence.

The Philippines lies along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which causes the country to have frequent seismic and volcanic activity. Much larger numbers of earthquakes of smaller magnitude occur very regularly due to the meeting of major tectonic plates in the region.

Spanish period[edit]

17th century[edit]

  • An intensity VI quake struck Manila on June 25, 1599. The quake had damaged many private buildings and the city and ruined the roof of Sto. Domingo Church.
  • An intensity VIII quake struck Manila on January 2, 1600.
  • A quake struck Manila on January 16, 1601. Earthquake duration lasted about 7 minutes, and aftershocks were experienced the whole year.
  • An intensity IX quake struck Manila on November 1610. It was a terrible quake that progressed from east to west.
  • An intensity IX quake struck Albay and Camarines[1] on 1628. The quake caused avalanche of ashes, lapilli, water and sand that swept away Albay and Camarines towns.
  • A magnitude 7.5 quake struck Luzon on November 30, 1645. The earthquake was then the strongest to hit the islands since the Spanish conquest.[2] It had greatly damaged newly constructed churches and the cathedral in Manila, residential villas and buildings in the city and nearby provinces. A reported 600 people were reported dead.[3]
  • An intensity VIII quake struck Luzon on December 5, 1645. It was a major aftershock of the November 30, 1645 Luzon earthquake, and it had further destroyed remaining buildings in Manila and nearby towns. Aftershocks ceased around March 1646.
  • An intensity IX quake struck Southern Luzon on 1648. It was a very violent earthquake that wrecked many buildings.
  • An intensity VI quake struck Manila on May 1, 1653.
  • An intensity IX quake struck Southern Luzon on August 20, 1658. It was comparable to the 1645 Luzon earthquake, but had caused less damages on building and was less proximity from the epicenter. It had destroyed the Monastery of Santa Clara, several monasteries of the Dominicans and Recollects, Jesuit College and episcopal palaces.[3]
  • An intensity VIII struck Manila on June 19, 1665. Only a Jesuit church experienced great damage. 19 were reported dead.
  • An intensity VIII struck Isla Verde Passage on February 1675. The quake destroyed many buildings in northern Oriental Mindoro and southern Batangas provinces. This led to occurrences of landslides, opening of ground fissures and subsidence of beaches along Mindoro coast.
  • An intensity VII struck Manila on August 24, 1683.

18th century[edit]

  • An intensity VII struck Lake Bombon (now known as Taal Lake) on September 24, 1716. It was connected with the eruption of Taal volcano; the constant volcanic activity in the area of Taal caused seismic movements.
  • An intensity IX struck Tayabas (now known as Quezon) in 1730. It had ruined the churches and convent in Mauban and several other churches in the province of Tayabas and Laguna.

19th century[edit]

The bell tower of the Manila Cathedral after the series of destructive earthquakes of July 1880.
  • An earthquake on June 3, 1863, destroyed the Manila Cathedral, the Ayuntamiento (City Hall), the Governor's Palace (all three located at the time on Plaza Mayor, now Plaza de Roma) and much of the city. The residence of the Governor-General was moved to Malacañang Palace located about 3 km (1.9 miles) up the Pasig River, while the other two buildings were rebuilt in place.
  • An intensity X struck Luzon on July 14–24, 1880.[4] The quake caused severe damage to these major cities in Luzon, most significantly in Manila where a lot of buildings collapsed. Number of casualties are unknown.[3]
  • A quake struck Lucban, Quezon on October 26, 1884. It destroyed churches in Lucban town in Quezon province and Cavinti town in Laguna province.[3]

American period[edit]

Early 20th century[edit]

  • A magnitude 7.5 quake struck Northeastern Mindanao on July 11, 1912. Damage and high intensity were experienced by towns of La Paz, Bunauan, Veruela and Talacogon in the Agusan Valley area where intense ground shaking, liquefaction, widespread landslides and river/lake seiches occurred.[5]
  • An intensity VII earthquake struck Luzon, mainly Isabela on December 29, 1949. Starting at 11:05 a.m., it lasted for 2 and a half minutes. The damage was moderately destructive, causing landslides and sea waves capsizing boats. It also caused fissures that spit out black water. The intensity ranged from IV to VII throughout Luzon.[6]

Contemporary period[edit]

Mid to late 20th century[edit]

  • A magnitude of 7.3 quake struck Casiguran, Aurora, on August 2, 1968, at the depth of approximately 31 km. It was considered the most severe and destructive earthquake experienced in the Philippines during the last 20 years. 270 people were reported dead and 261 were injured.[8]
The damage caused by a tsunami at barangay Tibpuan, Lebak, Mindanao after the 7.9 Moro Gulf earthquake on August 16, 1976.
  • A magnitude 7.0 quake struck Ragay Gulf on March 17, 1973. Calauag, Quezon was the worst hit, as the quake caused 98 houses totally destroyed, and 270 more were partially damaged.[9]
  • A magnitude 7.9 quake struck Mindanao on August 16, 1976. The quake caused a devastating tsunami that had hit the 700 km coastline of the island of Mindanao bordering Moro Gulf in the North Celebes Sea. An estimated 5,000 - 8,000 people died. The major cause of the great number of casualties during the event could be attributed to the fact that the quake happened just after midnight when most people were sleeping; and a great tsunami was spawned, struck the coasts from different directions and caught the people unaware.[10][11]
  • A magnitude 6.5 quake struck Laoag on August 17, 1983, at a depth of 42 km. The quake has caused death of 16 people and injured 47 persons.[12]
  • A magnitude 6.8 quake struck Bohol on February 8, 1990. Six fatalities were reported and more than 200 were injured in the event. About 46,000 people were displaced by the event and at least 7,000 among them were rendered homeless. Estimated damage to properties is amounting to 154 million pesos.[13]
  • A magnitude 7.1 quake struck Panay Island on June 14, 1990 at a depth of 15 km. 7 persons perished and 31 others were injured.[14]
  • A magnitude 7.8 quake struck Luzon on July 16, 1990. It caused severe damage to major cities in Luzon: Dagupan City (soil liquefaction), Baguio City, and Cabanatuan City; Hyatt Terraces Baguio collapsed. 1,621 were reported dead. Damage to buildings, infrastructures, and properties amounted to at least P 10 Billion, a part of which was caused by ground rupturing. However, some houses within 1–2 m on either side of the ground rupture survived owing to their light-weight construction while those built of reinforced concrete within this zone suffered partial damage. Damages beyond 2m depended mainly on the structural integrity of the building and effects of local topography and ground conditions.[11][15]
  • A magnitude 5.6 quake struck Bohol on May 27, 1996 at a depth of 4 km. The earthquake did not cause major damages to properties. Damages were confined to poorly built structures and/or old wooden, masonry, limestone walls of houses and buildings, generally due to ground shaking.[17]

21st century[edit]

  • A magnitude of 7.5 quake struck Mindanao on January 1, 2001 at a depth of 33 km.[18]
  • A magnitude of 6.2 quake struck Masbate on February 15, 2003 at a depth of 22 km. The quake damaged major infrastructures in Masbate.[22]
  • A magnitude of 6.5 quake struck Samar on November 18, 2003. 1 person was reported dead.
  • A magnitude of 6.5 quake struck Mindoro on October 8, 2004.
  • A magnitude of 6.4 quake struck Ilocos Region on March 20, 2011.
  • A magnitude of 5.2 quake struck Valencia City, Bukidnon on November 8, 2011 at a depth of 1 km.[23] 39 people were injured, and several establishments were damaged.[24]
  • A magnitude of 6.9 quake struck Negros, the rest of Central Visayas, and some parts of Mindanao on February 6, 2012, at a depth of 20 km. The quake killed people, caused major damage on infrastructures, and buildings. A tsunami alert level 2 was raised due to the quake. The quake also caused a landslide, burying a barangay. More than a thousand of aftershocks were recorded by PHIVOLCS within 2 days since the quake occurred.[25][26][27] According to National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council, as of February 18, 2012, the death toll have risen to 51 with 62 people still missing, and injuring 112 people. Most deaths came from the city of Guihulngan and La Libertad where landslides occurred. 63, 697 from provinces in Region VII were affected by the quake. 15, 483 houses were partially or totally damaged, and a total of P383 million cost of damages to buildings, roads and bridges, and other infrastructures were recorded.[28]
  • A magnitude of 5.9 quake struck Surigao City on March 16, 2012. Many were injured in the city for that certain day was the grand opening of Gaisano Capital Surigao. An estimated 6,000 people were in Gaisano when the earthquake happened. The earthquake caused a stampede which injured people.[29][30][31]
  • An earthquake with magnitude 7.6 struck 106 km near Guiuan, Eastern Samar on August 31, 2012. It was felt in certain areas of Visayas and Mindanao. 1 person died, and another one was injured in Cagayan de Oro City after being trapped in a collapsed house due to a landslide.[32] Minutes after the quake, power interruptions occurred in the affected areas. The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council reported that a house in Agusan del Sur province caught fire sparked by a gas lamp that was toppled during the earthquake. It also reported that two bridges in Eastern Samar, particularly the Buyayawan Bridge in Mercedes town and the Barangay Casuroy Bridge in San Julian town, were partially damaged. The Abreeza Mall in Bajada, Davao City suffered minor cracks on the floor due to the earthquake.[33] In General MacArthur, Eastern Samar, 77 homes were damaged. There were also 6 houses damaged in Barangay Casoroy, San Julian.[34] In Balangiga, Eastern Samar, a hospital sustained serious damage.[35] A wall from an old building collapsed in Butuan City.[36] The NDRRMC reported on Saturday noon there were cracks on some roads and bridges and other establishments in areas where the quake was felt.[37] Most of the homes destroyed were those made of light materials, while overall damage to infrastructure remained minimal.[38] A tsunami warning of Level 3 was raised by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, but was lifted 5 hours after the quake only caused tiny waves.[39]
  • A series of earthquakes, struck cities of Malaybalay and Valencia, and the sitio of Musuan, Maramag in Bukidnon last September 3–4, 2012. The first quake has a magnitude of 3.4 and was felt at 06:48 PM,[41] and was followed by magnitude 4.0 at 07:45 PM,[42] and 4.7 at 09:21 PM.[43] Hours after the first three, a series of quakes occurred in 03:44 AM and in 03:52 AM. The first quake had a magnitude of 5.6 with a depth of focus of 3 km;[44] while the second one was recorded at a magnitude of 4.9 with a depth focus of 3 km.[45] The quake was felt as far as Cagayan de Oro, Kidapawan, Butuan, and Cotabato cities.[46][47] A nun was injured in Barangay Lourdes in Valencia City after the incident. Valencia City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council reported that 144 houses and structures were destroyed. Mayor Ignacio Zubiri of Malaybalay City reported no casualties nor damages in his city.[48] The quakes were of tectonic in origin. A total of 131 aftershocks were recorded after the 5.6 quake in September 4, 2012.[28]
  • A 6.2 earthquake struck off the coast of Southern Mindanao on February 16, 2013, 28 kilometers southeast of Caburan, Davao del Sur. According to the United States Geological Survey, the quake struck at a depth of 98.2 km.[49][50]
The rubbles of Loon Church in Loon Bohol after it was destroyed by a 7.2 quake on October 15, 2013.
  • A 5.7 earthquake struck the island of Mindanao on June 1, 2013.[51] The quake's epicenter was located in Carmen, Cotabato and struck with a depth of 5 kilometers.[52][53] The said quake injured six people, 4 of them were children, and fully or partly destroyed several houses, and some school buildings.[54][55] It also damaged a bridge at Barangay Kimadzil, and another one at Barangay Kibudtungan.[56] The quake was followed by 15 aftershocks, the last one was followed by a 4.3 quake on June 2, 2013.[57] The quake caused a 71 million pesos worth of damages. Past 4:00 AM of June 3, 2013, another quake jolted the said town. The quake was recorded at 5.7 and struck at a depth of 3 kilometers.[58] The newest quake further injured 8 more people, and damaged more houses. Classes which was slated to open on June 3, 2013, were cancelled due to a series of quakes that hit the town since June 1, 2013.[59]

Deadliest earthquakes[edit]

The table below is a tally of the ten most deadliest recorded earthquakes in the Philippines since the 1600s with having the most number of casualties:

Ten deadliest recorded earthquakes in the Philippines since the 1600s
Magnitude Origin Location Date Mortality Missing Injured Damages Source
1 7.9 Tectonic Moro Gulf August 16, 1976 4791 2288 9928 [10]
2 7.8 Tectonic Luzon Island July 16, 1990 1666 1000 More than 3000 10 billion
3 7.5 Tectonic Luzon Island November 30, 1645 More than 600 More than 3000 Unknown
4 7.3 Tectonic Casiguran, Aurora August 2, 1968 271 261 [8]
5 7.2 Tectonic Bohol & Cebu October 15, 2013 222 8 796 4 billion (est.) [61]
6 7.1 Tectonic Mindoro November 15, 1994 78 430 5.15 million [16]
7 6.7 Tectonic Negros Oriental February 6, 2012 51 62 112 383 million [28]
8 8.3 Tectonic Panay (Lady Caycay) January 25, 1948 50 (est) 7 million [7]
9 Unknown Tectonic Manila June 19, 1665 19 Unknown
10 6.5 Tectonic Laoag August 17, 1983 16 47

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Districts nearby Mayon Volcano and Camalig, not the present-day Camarines provinces.
  2. ^ Blair, Emma Helen and Robertson, James Alexander (1906). "The Philippine Islands 1493–1898 Vol. XXXV", pg. 17. Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland.
  3. ^ a b c d Bautista, Maria Leonila P. and Bautista, Bartolome C. "Philippine Historical Earthquakes and Lessons Learned". EqTAP Project. 
  4. ^ Maso, Saderra (1902). Seismic and Volcanic Centers of the Philippine Archipelago. Manila: Bureau of Printing. p. 16. 
  5. ^ a b "June 1999 Earthquakes in Agusan del Sur, Philippines". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  6. ^ "Luzon Island Shaken By Major Earthquake". Evening Independent. December 29, 1949. Retrieved March 15, 2012. 
  7. ^ a b Bautista, M.L.P.; B.C.Bautista, I.C. Narag, R.A. Atando & E.P. Relota (14–16 April 2011). "The 1948 (Ms 8.2) Lady Caycay Earthquake and Tsunami and Its Possible Socio-economic Impact to Western Visayan Communities in the Philippines". Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering (Auckland, New Zealand). Retrieved 2013-10-16. 
  8. ^ a b "Casiguran Earthquake - 2 August 1968". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Ragay Gulf Earthquake - 17 March 1973". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  10. ^ a b "Moro Gulf Earthquake - 17 August 1976". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b "Historic World Earthquakes - Philippines". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  12. ^ "Laoag Earthquake - 17 August 1983". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  13. ^ "Bohol Earthquake - February 8, 1990". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  14. ^ "Panay Earthquake - 14 June 1990". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  15. ^ Punongbayan, Raymundo S. et al. (Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology); and Takashi Nakata, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi (Hiroshima University, Japan). "The 16 July 1990 Luzon Earthquake Ground Rupture". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  16. ^ a b "1994 Mindoro Tsunami". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Bohol Earthquake - 27 May 1996". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Philippines: Mindanao Earthquake, 2001". National Geophysical Data Center. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  19. ^ "Magnitude 7 and Greater Earthquakes in 2002". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  20. ^ "Poster of the Mindanao, Philippines Earthquake of 05 March 2002 - Magnitude 7.5". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  21. ^ "Palimbang Earthquake: Summary Report". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  22. ^ "Masbate Earthquake: Report of Investigation". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  23. ^ "Earthquake Information No. 5". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  24. ^ "39 hurt in Bukidnon quake". ABS-CBN News. November 8, 2011. Retrieved February 6, 2012. 
  25. ^ Abigail Kwok, Joseph Ubalde, and Lira Dalangin-Fernandez (February 6, 2012). "Number of casualties rises as 6.9 quake strikes off Negros". Interaksyon. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  26. ^ Ellalyn B. De Vera, Elena L. Aben, and Mars W. Mosqueda Jr. (February 6, 2012). "Quake Jolts Visayas". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved February 6, 2012. 
  27. ^ "Strong quake jolts Negros-Cebu; fatalities rising". ABS-CBN News. February 6, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2012. 
  28. ^ a b c "NDRRMC UPDATE: SitRep No. 20 re Effects of the 6.9 Earthquake in Negros Oriental". National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. February 18, 2012. p. 17. Retrieved February 19, 2012. 
  29. ^ "5.9-magnitude quake sparks stampede in Surigao". Sun.Star. March 16, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Phivolcs: Magnitude-5.9 quake hits Surigao area, damage and aftershocks expected". GMA News Online. March 16, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Quake leads to stampede at Surigao mall". Rappler. March 16, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  32. ^ Cerojano, Teresa (September 1, 2012). "Quake off Philippines spurs small tsunami; 1 dead". Associated Press. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  33. ^ "One dead as 7.6-magnitude quake hits Philippines". The Philippine Star. September 1, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  34. ^ "Quake damages 77 homes in E. Samar town". ABS-CBN News. September 1, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Quake severely damages E. Samar hospital". ABS-CBN News. September 4, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Quake causes panic, damage in Visayas, Mindanao". ABS-CBN News. September 1, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  37. ^ "Strong quake, but minimal effects: gov't". The Philippine Star. Xinhua. September 2, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  38. ^ "Philippine families rebuild amid further quake fears". Business Recorder. Agence France-Presse. September 2, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  39. ^ Associated Press (August 31, 2012). "At least 1 dead in 7.6 Philippine quake, small tsunami reported, warning canceled". Fox News. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  40. ^ September 3, 2012. "Magnitude 5.9 quake strikes off Sultan Kudarat". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  41. ^ "Earthquake Information: September 3, 2012 06:48:49 PM". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  42. ^ "Earthquake Information: September 3, 2012 07:45:48 PM". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  43. ^ "Earthquake Information: September 3, 2012 09:21:04 PM". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  44. ^ "Earthquake Information: September 4, 2012 03:44:22 AM". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  45. ^ "Earthquake Information: September 4, 2012 03:52:26 AM". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  46. ^ "5.6 quake jolts Bukidnon, nearby provinces". The Philippine Star. September 4, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  47. ^ Mangosing, Frances (September 4, 2012). "5.6-magnitude quake shakes Bukidnon". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  48. ^ "Nun injured; 144 structures, houses destroyed in Bukidnon quakes". Bukidnon News. September 4, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  49. ^ "Magnitude 6.2 earthquake jolts Mindanao". The Philippine Star. February 16, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2013. 
  50. ^ Stephanie Tong (February 16, 2013). "Magnitude-6 Quakes Hit Offshore in Philippines, New Zealand". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 26, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Strong quake jolts Cotabato". Sun Star Davao. June 1, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  52. ^ Frances Mangosing (June 1, 2013). "5.7-quake shakes Mindanao—Phivolcs". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  53. ^ "Magnitude 5.7 quake felt in several Mindanao areas". Minda News. June 2, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  54. ^ Jasper Acosta (June 2, 2013). "Quake destroys 30 houses in Carmen, N. Cotabato". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved June 2, 2013. 
  55. ^ Keith Bacongco (June 2, 2013). "5 injured in Saturday’s magnitude 5.7 quake; 30 houses partly destroyed". Minda News. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  56. ^ Edwin Fernandez (June 3, 2013). "Classes in quake-hit North Cotabato town suspended". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  57. ^ Alexander D. Lopez (June 2, 2013). "Magnitude 5.7 quake hits North Cotabato". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  58. ^ John Unson (June 3, 2013). "P71M worth of properties damaged in Cotabato quake". The Philippine Star. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  59. ^ Malu Cadelina Manar (June 3, 2013). "DepEd suspends classes in quake-affected town of Carmen". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved June 3, 2013. 
  60. ^ Frances Mangosing (October 15, 2013). "Death toll from Bohol quake jumps to 85". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 15, 2013. 
  61. ^ "Massive extremely dangerous earthquake in Bohol, Philippines – At least 222 people killed, 8 missing, over 790 injured, around 4 billion PHP damage, 7 billion PHP reconstruction costs.". Earthquake-Report.com. October 31, 2013. Retrieved October 2013. 

External links[edit]