Hurricane Stan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hurricane Stan
Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Stan 04oct05.jpg
Hurricane Stan after landfall
Formed October 1, 2005
Dissipated October 5, 2005
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 80 mph (130 km/h)
Lowest pressure 977 mbar (hPa); 28.85 inHg
Fatalities 1668 total
Damage $3.9 billion (2005 USD)
Areas affected Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize, Guatemala, Mexico
Part of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Stan was the eighteenth named storm and eleventh hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Stan formed from a tropical wave on October 1 after it had moved into the western Caribbean Sea. The depression slowly intensified, and reached tropical storm intensity the following day, before subsequently making its first landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula. Traversing the peninsula, the tropical storm weakened, but was able to re-intensify once it entered the Bay of Campeche. Under favorable conditions for tropical development, Stan attained hurricane strength on October 4, and later reached peak intensity with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 977 mbar (hPa; 28.85 inHg). The hurricane maintained this intensity until landfall near Punta Roca Partida, Mexico later the same day. Once over the mountainous terrain of Mexico, however, Stan quickly weakened, and dissipated on October 5.

Due to Stan's position within a large area of convective activity and thunderstorms, the hurricane's effects were far-reaching and widespread across Central America. Flash floods generated by the hurricane caused severe crop losses, particularly to coffee crops. Overall, Stan caused at least 1,668 deaths across six countries, with many others unaccounted for. Most of these fatalities occurred in Guatemala, and were mostly caused by mudslides triggered by torrential rainfall. The floods in Guatemala destroyed entire towns and disrupted exportation of petroleum. In Mexico, the heavy rains triggered additional mudslides and caused rivers to overflow, flooding nearby villages. Despite being relatively far from Stan as opposed to other countries, El Salvador was also severely affected by the hurricane. The Santa Ana Volcano erupted while Stan was producing heavy rains in the country, which contributed to the damage already wrought by mudslides. Transportation in the country was disrupted. Across the region, Stan caused $3.9 billion in damages, primarily due to torrential rainfall.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and intensity of the storm according to the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale

Hurricane Stan originated from a tropical wave that was first identified by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) off the west coast of Africa on September 17, 2005. Traveling westward, the wave remained weak, barely being notable. By September 22 convection began to increase; however, wind shear in the region prevented this development from continuing. The system entered the Caribbean Sea several days later, a region with more favorable conditions for cyclonic development. Intermittent convection formed around the wave as it moved west-northwestward before the development maintained itself.[1] On October 1, the system had become sufficiently organized for the NHC to classify it as Tropical Depression Twenty,[2] with the center of circulation situated roughly 135 mi (215 km) southeast of Cozumel, Mexico.[1]

Located to the south of a low to mid-level tropospheric ridge, the depression tracked towards the west-northwest. Within a few hours of being warned upon, the system further intensified into Tropical Storm Stan.[1] This followed the development of a strong convective banding feature to the southeast of the storm's center.[3] Around 1000 UTC (5 a.m. CDT) on October 2, Stan made its first landfall near Punta Hualaxtoc, Mexico, roughly 35 mi (55 km) south of Tulum, with winds of 40 mph (65 km/h).[1] Over the following 18 hours, the weak storm traversed the southern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. Upon entering the Gulf of Mexico on October 3, Stan had weakened to a tropical depression;[1] however, convection began to redevelop over the storm's center,[4] allowing the system to re-attain tropical storm status.[1]

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission estimate of rainfall from Hurricane Stan; September 29 – October 5

A strong area of high pressure over the western Gulf of Mexico forced the storm to turn southwestward, back to the Mexican coastline.[1] Increasingly deep cloud cover formed over the storm in response to a favorable environment over the Bay of Campeche. Late on October 3, forecasters at National Hurricane Center noted a statistical rapid intensity index indicating a 49% chance of Stan undergoing rapid intensification before its final landfall.[5] This intensification did take place within 12 hours before the hurricane moved onshore. Overnight, the structure of Stan rapidly improved, with a banding eye-feature developing within unusually deep convection with cloud-top temperatures measured at −90 °C (−130 °F) by infrared satellites.[6] Following this development, National Hurricane Center upgraded the storm to a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Around 1200 UTC on October 4, Stan made landfall near Punta Roca Partida, with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h). The storm also attained its lowest barometric pressure of 977 mbar (hPa; 28.85 inHg)at this time. Not long after moving over the mountainous terrain of central Mexico, Stan rapidly weakened to a tropical depression and fully dissipated early on October 5 over the state of Oaxaca.[1]

Preparations[edit]

Some 100,000 inhabitants of the Sierra de los Tuxtlas region on the Gulf Coast were evacuated from their homes, and incidents of mild flooding as well as wind damage (such as uprooted trees and roofs ripped off houses) were reported from coastal areas of Veracruz, including the port of Veracruz, Boca del Río, San Andrés Tuxtla, Santiago Tuxtla, Minatitlán and Coatzacoalcos, as well as state capital Xalapa further inland. The armed forces evacuated the inhabitants of a dozen or so towns on the coastal plain, between World Heritage Site Tlacotalpan in the west and the lakeside resort of Catemaco in the east.

Impact[edit]

Impact by country
Country Fatalities Damage (USD) Refs
Costa Rica 1 20 million [7]
El Salvador 69 356 million [7]
Guatemala 1,513 988 million [7]
Honduras 6 100 million [7]
Mexico 80 2.5 billion [1][7]
Nicaragua 3 N/A [7]
Total 1668 3.96 billion

Around the time of Stan's existence, torrential rainstorms dropped upwards of 20 inches (500 mm) of rain, causing severe flash floods, mud slides, and crop damage (particularly to the coffee crop which was close to harvest) over portions of Mexico and Central America, including Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, and Costa Rica. Most of the rainstorms were non-tropical in nature and impossible to relate to the hurricane; however, the impact of the larger weather system can be considered as a whole.

Hundreds were reported missing and were feared dead throughout the region. One estimate put the death toll above 2,000 in Guatemala alone. The final death toll will likely never be known due to the extensive decomposition of bodies in the mud. Note that only 80-100 of the deaths were estimated to have been as a result of Stan; the rest were not caused by Stan itself but were the result of the large system of non-tropical rains that had spawned the hurricane.[8]

Most of the reported fatalities were as a result of the flooding and mudslides, although eight of the deaths in Nicaragua were as a result of a boat carrying migrants from Ecuador and Peru that ran ashore. A large portion of the figure comes from one village alone, as a mudslide completely destroyed the village of Panabaj in Guatemala's Sololá department.

Mexico[edit]

As a tropical storm, Stan brought torrential rainfall and gusty winds to parts of the Yucatan Peninsula. Flash flooding took place in several areas; however, no loss of life was reported.[9]

Stan before making landfall in Mexico

As the system progressed inland towards the Sierra Madre del Sur to the west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the states of Oaxaca and Chiapas were affected with torrential rains. Areas of Chiapas near the Guatemalan border were hit hard, particularly the coastal border town of Tapachula. In Tapachula the river overflowed its banks and caused tremendous damage (including the destruction of all the bridges leading in and out of the town), meaning that it was only accessible through the air. The state government reported that 33 rivers broke their banks and that an indeterminate number of homes, upwards of 20 bridges, and other infrastructure were smashed in the storm's wake.

Some areas in the Sierra Norte, in the central state of Puebla, were also flooded. Three people died in a mudslide at Xochiapulco Hill.

In addition, Pemex evacuated 270 employees from its oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, although no damage was reported and the plants were restarted.

The Ministry of the Interior declared states of emergency in the worst hit municipalities of five states: Chiapas, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, and Veracruz. According to Mexican president Vicente Fox, Hurricane Stan wrought roughly 20 billion pesos ($1.9 billion USD) in damage throughout the country.[10]

Honduras[edit]

Throughout Honduras, heavy rains produced by Hurricane Stan resulted in six fatalities and roughly $100 million in losses.[7]

Guatemala[edit]

Landslides affecting infrastructure, crops, and water sources in Guatemala

By October 11, 2005 at least 1,500 people were confirmed to have died, and up to 3,000 were believed missing. Many communities were overwhelmed, and the worst single incident appears to have occurred in Panabaj, an impoverished Maya village in the highlands near Lake Atitlán in Sololá department. This volcanic lake was so overwhelmed by the torrential rains that many of the small, Mayan villages covering the shores experienced landslides from above. Some of the towns were so overwhelmed by the slides that the mayor has declared them graveyards, and all people who are missing are counted as dead. Piedra Grande, a hamlet in the municipality of San Pedro Sacatepéquez, was also destroyed. Floods and mudslides obliterated the community of about 1,400 people, and it was feared that most or all of the population of the community lost their lives. The government stated that it did not know what was going on in the southwest of the country, and particularly in the San Marcos department because a vital bridge was destroyed at El Palmar, Quetzaltenango, cutting the region off from the rest of the country. There were reported petrol shortages, including in Quetzaltenango.

El Salvador[edit]

The eruption of the Santa Ana volcano, located near the capital San Salvador, on October 1, 2005 compounded the problems, which led to even more destructive floods and mudslides from Stan.

A state of emergency was declared. According to the director of El Salvador's National Emergency Centre, 300 communities were affected by the floods, with over 54,000 people forced to flee their homes. A state of emergency also was called for in Guatemala by President Óscar Berger where 36,559 people were reported in emergency shelters. Some looting was also been reported, a scene reminiscent of Hurricane Katrina five weeks previous.

A spokesman for the Salvadoran Red Cross said that "the emergency is bigger than the rescue capacity, we have floods everywhere, bridges about to collapse, landslides and dozens of roads blocked by mudslides". The Pan-American Highway was been cut off by mudslides leading into the capital, San Salvador, as well as several other roads. 72 deaths were confirmed in El Salvador.


Retirement[edit]

Following the severe damage and extensive loss of life in Stan's wake, the World Meteorological Organization retired the name Stan from the circulating list of Atlantic hurricane names. For the 2011 season, Stan was replaced by Sean.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Richard J. Pasch and David P. Roberts (February 14, 2006). "Hurricane Stan Tropical Cyclone Report" (PDF). National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  2. ^ Stacy Stewart (October 1, 2005). "Tropical Depression Twenty Public Advisory One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  3. ^ Richard Knabb (October 2, 2005). "Tropical Storm Stan Discussion Four". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  4. ^ Richard Knabb (October 3, 2005). "Tropical Storm Stan Discussion Eight". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  5. ^ Richard Pasch (October 3, 2005). "Tropical Storm Stan Discussion Eleven". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  6. ^ Richard Knabb (October 4, 2005). "Hurricane Stan Discussion Thirteen". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. "EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database". Université catholique de Louvain. Retrieved November 30, 2012. 
  8. ^ NHC end-of-season summary
  9. ^ Staff Writer (October 2, 2005). "Flooding in Yucatan as Tropical Storm Stan dumps heavy rain". EFE World News Service. Retrieved May 11, 2010. 
  10. ^ Jason Lange (October 10, 2005). "Death count from Hurricane Stan rises in Mexico, Central America". Catholic News Service. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
  11. ^ National Hurricane Center (April 6, 2006). "Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Stan, and Wilma "Retired" from List of Storm Name". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 

External links[edit]