List of vacuum tube computers

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Vacuum tube computers are programmable digital computers using vacuum tube logic circuitry. They were preceded by systems using electromechanical relays and followed by systems built from discrete transistors. Later entries in this list may have been built using transistors in addition to vacuum tubes.

This is a list of vacuum tube computers, arranged by date put into service:

Computer Date Notes
Atanasoff–Berry Computer 1942 Not programmable
Colossus 1943 First programmable computer. Special purpose: cryptanalysis. Used to break the German Lorenz cipher. Working replica demonstrated daily at TNMOC, Bletchley Park.
ENIAC 1946
Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine ("The Baby") 1948 First stored program computer. Working replica demonstrated daily in Manchester Museum of Science and Industry
Manchester Mark 1 1949 Provided a computing service from April 1949. First index registers. Replaced in 1951 by Ferranti Mark 1.
EDSAC 1949 Provided a computing service from May 1949. Working replica currently being built at Bletchley Park. Scheduled to go live in 2015.
BINAC 1949 First stored-program computer to be sold.
CSIRAC 1949 Oldest surviving first generation computer—unrestored and non-functional.
SEAC 1950 Used solid-state devices for its logic
SWAC 1950
ERA Atlas 1950
Magnetic Drum Digital Differential Analyzer 1950
Harvard Mark III 1950
Pilot ACE 1950 Based on a full-scale design by Alan Turing
Ferranti Mark 1 1951 First commercially available computer, based on Manchester Mark 1.
EDVAC 1951
Harwell Dekatron Computer 1951 Now officially the oldest original working computer in the world. Demonstrated daily at TNMOC, Bletchley Park.
Whirlwind 1951
UNIVAC I 1951
ORDVAC 1951
LEO I 1951 First computer for commercial applications. Built by J. Lyons and Co. restaurant and bakery chain. Based on EDSAC design.
Remington Rand 409 1952
UNIVAC 1101 1951 Designed by Engineering Research Associates (ERA)
Harvard Mark IV 1952
IAS machine 1952
ILLIAC I 1952
MANIAC I 1952
IBM 701 1952
BESM-1, BESM-2 1952
AVIDAC 1953 Based on the IAS computer
JOHNNIAC 1953
IBM 702 1953
UNIVAC 1103 1953 Designed by Engineering Research Associates (ERA)
RAYDAC 1953
Strela computer 1953
IBM 650 1954
IBM 704 1954
IBM 705 1954
BESK 1954
IBM NORC 1954
REAC C-400 series 1954 1961 REAC installed for $60,000 at U of Mn[1]
UNIVAC 1102 1954
DYSEAC 1954
Wisconsin Integrally Synchronized Computer 1954
CALDIC 1955
English Electric DEUCE 1955
ICT 1200 series 1955
WEIZAC 1955
IBM 305 RAMAC 1956
Bull Gamma 3 1956
PERM (computer) 1956
SMIL (computer) 1956
Bendix G-15 1956
LGP-30 1956
UNIVAC 1103A 1956 First computer to have hardware interrupts
FUJIC 1956
Ferranti Pegasus 1956 Second oldest working computer in the world, at the London Science Museum.
SILLIAC 1956
RCA BIZMAC 1956
Zuse Z22 1957
DASK 1957
Stantec Zebra 1957
UNIVAC 1104 1957
Ferranti Mercury 1957
IBM 610 1957
FACIT EDB 2 1957
MANIAC II 1957
MISTIC 1957
MUSASINO-1 1957
Sandia RAYPAC (Ray Path Analog Computer) c. 1957 Sandia's Blast Prediction Unit used for Operation Teapot[2]
EDSAC 2 1958 First computer to have a microprogrammed control unit and a bit slice hardware architecture.
IBM 709 1958
UNIVAC II 1958
UNIVAC 1105 1958
AN/FSQ-7 1958 Largest vacuum tube computer ever built. 52 were built for Project SAGE.
Ural series 1959–1964 Ural-1 to Ural-4.
Ferranti Perseus 1958
ZEBRA (computer) 1958
France SEA CAB 303 1958
Rice Institute Computer 1959 Operational 1959-1971, 54-bit tagged architecture
TIFRAC 1960
CER-10 1960
Philips Pascal 1960
Sumlock ANITA calculator 1961 Desktop calculator
UMC-1 1962
BRLESC 1962 1727 tubes and 853 transistors

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/BRL61-u.html
  2. ^ Operation Teapot: Report of the Test Manager (Report). p. 68.