|1. A flowering branch, 2. A fruiting branch, 3. Longitudinal section of a flower, 4. Fruit cut horizontally.|
See text - Selected Species
Honeysuckles (Lonicera, //; syn. Caprifolium Mill.) are arching shrubs or twining vines in the family Caprifoliaceae, native to the Northern Hemisphere. There are approximately 180 species of honeysuckle, 100 of which occur in China while about 20 native species occur in Europe, India and, North America each. Widely known species include Lonicera periclymenum (honeysuckle or woodbine), Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle, white honeysuckle, or Chinese honeysuckle) and Lonicera sempervirens (coral honeysuckle, trumpet honeysuckle, or woodbine honeysuckle). Hummingbirds are attracted to the flowers on some of these plants, especially L. sempervirens and L. ciliosa (orange honeysuckle). The name Lonicera stems from Adam Lonicer, a Renaissance botanist.
Most species of Lonicera are hardy twining climbers, with a large minority of shrubby habit; a handful of species (including Lonicera hildebrandiana from the Himalayan foothills and L. etrusca from the Mediterranean) are tender and can only be grown outside in subtropical zones. The leaves are opposite, simple oval, 1–10 cm long; most are deciduous but some are evergreen. Many of the species have sweetly-scented, bilaterally symmetrical flowers that produce a sweet, edible nectar, and most flowers are borne in clusters of two (leading to the common name of "twinberry" for certain North American species). Both shrubby and vining sorts have strongly fibrous stems which have been used for binding and textiles. The fruit is a red, blue or black spherical or elongated berry containing several seeds; in most species the berries are mildly poisonous, but in a few (notably Lonicera caerulea) they are edible and grown for home use and commerce. Most honeysuckle berries are attractive to wildlife, which has led to species such as L. japonica and L. maackii spreading invasively outside of their home ranges. Many species of Lonicera are eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see a list of Lepidoptera that feed on honeysuckles.
Several species of honeysuckle have become invasive when introduced outside their native range, particularly in New Zealand and the United States. Invasive species include L. japonica, L. maackii, L. morrowii, and L. tatarica.
Honeysuckles are valued as garden plants, for their ability to cover unsightly walls and outbuildings, their profuse tubular flowers in summer, and the intense fragrance of many varieties. The hardy climbing types need their roots in shade, and their flowering tops in sunlight or very light shade. Varieties need to be chosen with care, as they can become substantial.
Other cultivars are dealt with under their species names.
Lonicera albiflora (white honeysuckle)
Lonicera alpigena (Alpine Honeysuckle)
Lonicera arizonica (Arizona honeysuckle)
Lonicera caerulea (blue-berried honeysuckle)
Lonicera canadensis (American fly honeysuckle)
Lonicera caprifolium (goat-leaf honeysuckle, perfoliate honeysuckle. Type species)
Lonicera chrysantha (Chrysantha honeysuckle)
Lonicera ciliosa (orange honeysuckle)
Lonicera conjugialis (purpleflower honeysuckle)
Lonicera dasystyla (Tonkinese honeysuckle)
Lonicera dioica - (limber honeysuckle)
Lonicera etrusca (Etruscan honeysuckle)
Lonicera flava (yellow honeysuckle)
Lonicera fragrantissima (winter honeysuckle)
Lonicera × heckrottii (Golden Flame honeysuckle)
Lonicera hellenica (Greek honeysuckle)
Lonicera hildebrandiana (giant Burmese honeysuckle)
Lonicera hirsuta (hairy honeysuckle)
Lonicera hispidula (pink honeysuckle)
Lonicera interrupta (Chaparral honeysuckle)
Lonicera involucrata (bearberry honeysuckle)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Lonicera korolkowii (blueleaf honeysuckle)
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle)
Lonicera nigra (black-berried honeysuckle)
Lonicera nitida (boxleaf honeysuckle)
Lonicera oblongifolia (swamp fly honeysuckle)
Lonicera periclymenum (honeysuckle, woodbine)
Lonicera pileata (privet honeysuckle)
Lonicera pilosa (Mexican honeysuckle)
Lonicera reticulata (grape honeysuckle)
Lonicera ruprechtiana (Manchurian honeysuckle)
Lonicera sempervirens (trumpet honeysuckle)
Lonicera splendida (evergreen honeysuckle)
Lonicera standishii (Standish's honeysuckle)
Lonicera subspicata (southern honeysuckle)
Lonicera tatarica (Tatarian honeysuckle)
Lonicera utahensis (Utah honeysuckle)
Lonicera villosa (mountain fly honeysuckle)
Lonicera xylosteum (fly woodbine)
Honeysuckle has been used as a remedy for influenza in traditional Chinese medicine. In 2014, Chinese researchers reported that "MIR2911, a honeysuckle (HS)-encoded atypical microRNA, directly targets IAVs with a broad spectrum."
Formerly placed here
- Burchellia bubalina (L.f.) Sims (as L. bubalina L.f.)
- Chiococca alba (L.) Hitchc. (as L. alba L.)
- Spigelia marilandica (L.) L. (as L. marilandica L.)
- Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench (as L. symphoricarpos L.)
- Viburnum mongolicum (Pall.) Rehder (as L. mongolica Pall.)
- Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
- RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Lonicera similis var. delavayi". Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Lonicera x purpusii 'Winter Beauty'". Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Lonicera x tellmannia". Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Zhen Zhou; Xihan Li; Jinxiong Liu; Lei Dong et al. (7 October 2014), "Honeysuckle-encoded atypical microRNA2911 directly targets influenza A viruses", Cell Research advance online publication, doi:10.1038/cr.2014.130
- "GRIN Species Records of Lonicera". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-09-16.
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