Lorenzo de Zavala
|Lorenzo de Zavala|
|Interim Vice President of Texas|
March 16, 1836 – October 22, 1836
|President||David G. Burnet|
|Succeeded by||Mirabeau B. Lamar|
|Born||October 3, 1788
|Died||November 15, 1836
Manuel Lorenzo Justiniano de Zavala y Sáenz (October 3, 1788 – November 15, 1836) was a 19th-century Mexican politician. He served as finance minister under President Vicente Guerrero. A colonizer and statesman, he was also the interim Vice President of the Republic of Texas, serving under interim President David G. Burnet from March to October 1836.
Manuel Lorenzo Justiniano de Zavala y Sáenz was born on October 6, 1788, in the town of Tecoh, Yucatán, to Anastasio de Zavala y Velázquez and María Bárbara Sáenz. He graduated from the seminary at Mérida in 1807. He founded several newspapers, but his liberal political views led to his imprisonment in Veracruz in 1814.  he studied medical textbooks while in prison, and was ready to practice medicine upon his release in 1817. In 1820, he was elected to public office, and in 1821 was appointed Deputy to the Spanish Cortes (legislature) in Madrid. In 1824, he was elected as President of the Constitutional Congress and endorsed the Mexican Federal Constitution of 1824.
In 1828, President Manuel Gómez Pedraza removed Lorenzo de Zavala from the office of governor of the state of México. Zavala, with support from Antonio López de Santa Anna, was able to rally most of the military in Mexico City in his favor. Four days of fighting resulted in Zavala's victory and he installed Vicente Guerrero as the new president.
In 1807 Zavala married Teresa Correa.
Book about the United States
Zavala's book Journey to the United States of North America, written in Spanish, was published in France in 1831, but no English translation was published until 1980. It was reprinted in 2005 in paperback as Journey to the United States of North America. It precedes Toqueville's famous Democracy in America by five years and expresses similar opinions about America and Americans. Zavala writes in his prologue:
However, it should be very useful to Mexicans, for it is to them that I dedicate it. In it they will find a true description of the people whom their legislators have tried to imitate---a people that is hard working, active, reflective, circumspect, religious in the midst of a multiplicity of sects, tolerant, thrifty, free, proud and persevering.
A leader of the Federalist Party, he served in the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, and took an active part in establishing American York Rite Freemasonry in Mexico as an alternative to the older, well-established Scottish Rite (Escosese) of Freemasonry that had been introduced by the aristocratic elements previously loyal to the royal House of Bourbon. In 1826, the Grand Lodge of New York issued charters to five Masonic lodges in Mexico City. These five new Yorkino lodges formed the nucleus of the movement that favored decentralization of governmental power. Zavala became the Charter Worshipful Master of Independencia Lodge No. 454, but his political enemies forced him to leave Mexico in 1830.
When he traveled to New York, Lorenzo de Zavala sought to interest Americans in the empresario grants he had received in 1829. These grants authorized him to settle 500 families on a tract of land in what is now southeastern Texas. In October 1830, he transferred his interest in the grants to the Galveston Bay and Texas Land Company. After spending several months during 1831 in France and England, Zavala decided to live in New York City until his return to Mexico in 1832. From December 1832 until October 1833 he again served as governor of the State of México, and in Congress as a deputy for his native state of Yucatán. In October 1833 President Antonio López de Santa Anna named Zavala to serve as the first minister plenipotentiary of the Mexican legation in Paris. When he learned that Santa Anna had assumed dictatorial powers later that year, Zavala denounced Santa Anna and resigned his commission. Santa Anna warned Zavala not to return to Mexico City, but this did not stop Zavala. In 1835 he traveled to New York and then to Texas, where he briefly shared a house with his friend Stephen F. Austin. Zavala was naturally drawn into the politics of Texas. He at first advocated the cause of Mexican Federalism, but later became a supporter of the independence movement. de Zavala was one of the signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence on March 2, 1836. He served in the Permanent Council and later as the representative of Harrisburg in the Consultation and the Convention of 1836. Zavala's legislative, executive, and diplomatic experience uniquely qualified him to help draft the Constitution of the Republic of Texas. The respect of his fellow delegates was evident when they elected him ad interim vice president of the new republic.
Zavala rejoined his family at their home at Zavala Point on Buffalo Bayou, from where they fled to Galveston Island as Santa Anna's army approached. After the Battle of San Jacinto, in accordance with the Treaties of Velasco, Zavala was appointed one of the peace commissioners to accompany Santa Anna to Mexico City, where the general was to persuade the central authorities to recognize the independence of Texas. Shortly thereafter, Zavala returned to his home due to failing health and gave up his part in the affairs of government. While out boating, his rowboat overturned in Buffalo Bayou. Zavala contracted pneumonia and died at his home on 15 November 1836. He preceded Austin in death by only four weeks. He is buried in his home town of Channelview, Texas. The State of Texas erected a monument over his grave.
- Lorenzo de Zavala Elementary School, Grand Prairie, Texas
- Lorenzo de Zavala Elementary School, San Antonio, TX
- Lorenzo de Zavala Archives and Library Building, Texas State Library and Archives Commission, Austin
- Lorenzo de Zavala Middle School, Irving, Texas
- De Zavala Elementary School, Channelview, Texas
- De Zavala Elementary School in Midland, Texas. 
- De Zavala Middle School, Amarillo, Texas
- Lorenzo De Zavala Middle School, La Joya ISD, La Joya, Texas
- De Zavala Rd, a major thoroughfare in San Antonio
- Lorenzo De Zavala Lodge #1397
- Estep, Raymond: Manuel Lorenzo Justiniano de Zavala y Sáenz from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 6 June 2010. Texas State Historical Association
- Katz, William Loren. "The Majestic Life of President Vicente Ramon Guerrero". William Loren Katz. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Lorenzo de Zavala". Texas State Library and Archives. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Manuel Lorenzo Justiniano de Zavala y Sáenz 1788-1836". TAMU. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Normand, Pete (1986). The Texas Masons: The The Fraternity of Ancient Free & Accepted Masons in the History of Texas. College Station, Texas: Brazos Valley Masonic Library & Museum Assn.
- "Lorenzo de Zavala" (in Spanish).
- de Zavala, Lorenzo (2005). Journey To The United States Of North America/ Viaje A Los Estados Unidos Del Norte De America. Arté Publico Press. ISBN 978-1-55885-453-6.
- Normand, Pete (1986). The Texas Masons: The Fraternity of Ancient Free & Accepted Masons in the History of Texas. College Station, Texas: Brazos Valley Masonic Library & Museum Assn.
- "Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to Lorenzo de Zavala, February 26, 1829". Portal to Texas History. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Lorenzo de Zavala to Stephen F. Austin, November 30th 1835". Portal to Texas History. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Texas Declaration of Independence". Texas State Library and Arvhives Commission. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Manuel Lorenzo Justiniano De Zavala". Find A Grave. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Bergeron, Angelle. "Lorenzo de Zavala Archives and Library Building". The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Lorenzo de Zavala Middle School-Irving". Lorenzo de Zavala Middle School. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "Lorenzo De Zavala." Lorenzo de Zavala Elementary School (Houston). Retrieved on July 24, 2010.
- "De Zavala Elementary School". De Zavala Elementary School. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "De Zavala Middle School-Amarillo". De Zavalla Middle School-Amarillo. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- Ochoa, Ruben E: Zavala County, Tx from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 6 June 2010. Texas State Historical Association
- "Lorenzo De Zavala Lodge #1397". Lorenzo De Zavala Lodge #1397. Retrieved 11 April 2013., Masonic lodge, Houston, Texas
- Davis, William C.; Lone Star Rising-The Revolutionary Birth of the Texas Republic; Free Press; ISBN 0-684-86510-6
- Davis, William C.; Three Roads to the Alamo; Harper Collins; ISBN 0-06-017334-3
- Carter, James D. (1955); Masonry in Texas: Background, History and Influence to 1846. Waco, Texas: Grand Lodge of Texas, A.F. & A.M.
- Hardin, Stephen L.; Texian Iliad-A Military History of the Texas Revolution; University of Texas Press; ISBN 0-292-73086-1
- Normand, Pete (1986); The Texas Masons: The Fraternity of Ancient Free & Accepted Masons in the History of Texas; College Station, Texas: Brazos Valley Masonic Library & Museum Assn.
- Gregg Cantrell, Stephen F. Austin: Empresario of Texas, Yale Press, 1999
- Lorenzo de Zavala Online: Empresario, Statesman and Texas Revolutionary, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
- Lorenzo de Zavala Lodge #1397
|Vice President of the Republic of Texas
Mirabeau B. Lamar