Lunar Lander (video game)
Lunar Lander is the name of several video games. In all variations of the game, the player must portion a limited amount of fuel to land on the moon without crashing. Computer Gaming World described it as one of the first fun programs entry level programmers start with and continually improve upon as they improve their skills.
Lunar Lander (1969)
Lunar Lander started as a text-based computer game and went by the names Rocket, Lunar, LEM, and Apollo. Lunar was originally written in the FOCAL programming language for the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-8 computer by Jim Storer while a student at Lexington High School (Massachusetts) in the fall of 1969. A somewhat different version called Rocket was written in BASIC by Eric Peters at DEC, and a third version, LEM, also in BASIC was written by William Labaree II of Alexandria, Virginia. David H. Ahl converted Jim Storer's FOCAL version to BASIC, changed some of the dialog, published it in the EDU newsletter and distributed it through DEC's Education Product Group, which he headed at the time. A year or so later, all three BASIC versions first appeared under the names ROCKET (Storer version), ROCKT1 (Peters version), and ROCKT2 (Labaree version) in Ahl's book, 101 Basic Computer Games published by DEC in 1973. Ahl and Steve North converted all three versions to Microsoft BASIC, changed the name to Lunar Lander, and published them in Creative Computing magazine in 1976. They also appeared in an updated version of Ahl's games book simply called BASIC Computer Games published in 1978 which was re-published in 2010.
Lunar Lander (1973)
|Distribution||downloaded (typically from mainframe)|
Lunar Lander (also known as Moonlander) is an early computer game that runs on the DEC GT40 graphics terminal (typically downloaded from a PDP-10 mainframe computer). DEC commissioned the game to be written in 1973 as a demonstration of the capabilities of the GT40; it was seen at many trade shows.
The goal was to correctly land a lunar module on the surface of the moon using the game's telemetry data. If the player miscalculates the module's landing, the module will either fly off into space or crash hard against the moon's surface or the mountain over which the lander first passed. The interface was through a light pen and the output display was a vector graphics system; the light pen allowed adjusting the throttle value and the angle of the lunar lander. Sophisticated players could achieve a landing on the mountain while cheaters learned the address of the word of magnetic core memory in which the fuel value was stored.
Later versions offered the ability to run the game on a free-standing RT-11 system as well as an Easter egg: a specific landing site offered a McDonald's restaurant. Upon landing successfully near the restaurant, an astronaut would walk over to get lunch. Crashing into the restaurant destroyed it permanently (until the program was reloaded) and displayed an amusingly sarcastic message berating the player.
Boy, are you inept! was the error message that appeared if the lunar lander went off either end of the map of the lunar surface. It became a cult phrase, for use as an error message for many in-house computer programs.
Lunar Lander by Atari (1979)
- A proportional throttle control that allowed perfect timing of fuel expenditure
- A 'fuel for money' system which allowed the player to spend money to continue their play and purchase more fuel in-game
A text-only version of Lunar Lander, written in BASIC, was included with the eight-inch floppy operating system diskettes for the Datapoint 2200 series in the early 1980s. Playing it required three separate loadings: first the operating system, then BASIC, and only then the program itself.
A moon landing game was also popular on programmable calculators such as the Hewlett Packard models 65 and 67, the Texas Instruments SR 52, and the Sharp PC-1403 using the calculator's single-line numeric display to show altitude and function keys to increase or decrease fuel flow. Later calculators had improved graphics with LCD screens.
- McGrath, Richard (May–June 1982), "The Eagle Has Landed", Computer Gaming World: 34–35
- Ahl, David. BASIC Computer Games New York, NY: Workman Publishing, 1978. p. 106
- Edwards, Benj (July 2009). "Forty Years of Lunar Lander". Technologizer. Retrieved July 16, 2011.
- Chien, Philip (July 1994), "Blast off!", Compute!: 90
- Wood, Anthony (1984-04). "Lunar Lander". Ahoy!. p. 35. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- BASIC Computer Games source listings
- Atari's official online version of Lunar Lander
- Lunar Lander at the Killer List of Videogames
- Source code (in MACRO-11) of GT40 Moonlander game, February 1973. Also: a port to RT-11 by Al Kossow, January 1980.