M102 howitzer

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M102 howitzer
M102 howitzer.jpg
The M102 howitzer firing
Type Howitzer
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1964–present
Used by  USA
 Brazil
 Turkey
 Philippines
 Cambodia
 Saudi Arabia
 South Korea
 South Vietnam
 Belgium
Wars Vietnam War, Invasion of Grenada, Gulf War, Iraq War
Production history
Designed 1962
Manufacturer Rock Island Arsenal
Specifications
Weight 1,496 kg (3,298 lb)
Length Travel: 5.18 m (20 ft)
Width Travel: 1.96 m (6 ft 5 in)
Height Travel: 1.59 m (5 ft 3 in)
Crew 8

Shell 105×372R
Caliber 105 mm (4.1 in)
Action vertical sliding-wedge
Recoil hydropnuematic
Carriage box-trail
Elevation −5° to +75°
Traverse 360°
Rate of fire Maximum: 10 rpm
Normal: 3 rpm
Effective firing range 11.5 km (7.1 miles)
Maximum firing range 15.1 km (9.4 miles) with rocket-assisted projectile

First introduced during the Vietnam War, the M102 was the light-towed 105 mm howitzer used by the United States Army in the Vietnam War, the First Gulf War, and most recently in the Iraq War.

An air-mobile howitzer for the Vietnam War[edit]

The M102 105 mm howitzer is used in air mobile (helicopter) and light infantry operations.[1] The weapon carriage is lightweight welded aluminum, mounted on a variable recoil mechanism. The weapon is manually loaded and positioned, and can be towed by a 2 ton truck or High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), can be transported by UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters, or can be dropped by parachute with airborne units. When emplaced, the howitzer's high volume of fire compensates in large measure for the lower explosive weight of the projectile compared to the Army's 155 mm and 8-inch howitzers. Since 1964, the Army has acquired 1,150 M102 towed howitzers. This weapon is being replaced by the M119-series 105 mm howitzer.[1]

Resistance to change[edit]

Units were initially equipped with the M101A1 howitzer, virtually the same 105-mm howitzer that had been used to support U.S. forces since World War II. In 1966 a new 105-mm towed howitzer, the M102, was received in Vietnam. The first M102s were issued to the 1st Battalion, 21st Field Artillery, in March 1966.[1] Replacement of the old howitzers continued steadily over the next four years.

Many of the more seasoned artillerymen did not want the old cannon replaced. Over the years they had become familiar with its every detail and were confident that it would not disappoint them in the clutch. These experienced artillerymen could offer some seemingly convincing reasons why the M101 was still the superior weapon: its waist-high breech made it easier to load; it had higher ground clearance when in tow; but most important, it was considerably less expensive than the M102.[1] Their arguments, however, were futile.

The new M102 was by far the better weapon. It weighed little more than 1½ tons whereas the M101A1 weighed approximately 2½ tons;[1] as a result, more ammunition could be carried during heliborne operations, and a 3/4-ton truck rather than a 2½-ton truck was its prime mover for ground operations. Another major advantage of the M102 was that it could be traversed a full 6,400 mils. The M101A1 had a limited on-carriage traverse, which required its trails (stabilizing legs) to be shifted if further traverse was necessary. A low silhouette made the new weapon a more difficult target for the enemy, an advantage that far outweighed the disadvantage of being somewhat less convenient to load.

Basic design[edit]

M102 howitzer belonging to Battery A, 1-206th FA, is towed north from Camp New York, Kuwait by a M1114 Up-Armored HMMWV.

The 105-mm howitzer M102 is a lightweight towed weapon, which has a very low silhouette when in the firing position. The M102 howitzer fires a 33-pound projectile of semifixed ammunition and at charge 7 will fire 11,500 meters. It has a muzzle velocity of 494 meters per second. The maximum rate of fire is 10 rounds per minute for the first 3 minutes, with a sustained rate: 3 rounds per minute.[2]

A roller tire attached to the trail assembly of the M102 permits the weapon to be rotated 6,400 mils around a firing platform, which provides the pivot for the weapon.[2] The weapon can be elevated from −89 mils (−5 degrees) to a maximum of 1,333 mils (75 degrees). The panoramic telescope has a four power, fixed focus optical system, with 178 mils field of view. It contains dry nitrogen gas to retard fogging and condensation. The parallax shield used during boresighting protects the lens.[2]

The trails are made of aluminum alloy. They are a single box trail in wishbone shape, and serve three purposes, which are: mobility, stability, and stowage of section equipment. The lunette is the towing pintle that allows the weapon to be connected to the vehicle. When towing, vehicle has a fixed or seized tow pintle; remove the lock plate located under the lunette. The drawbar has two positions. The drawbar is lowered for travel, and raised for firing.

There are two lifting brackets to connect slings to, when the howitzer is being lifted by helicopter. A third bracket is located on front yoke. The carriage handles are used by crew members to lifting and shifting the howitzer during loading, unloading, and emplacing the howitzer.

The firing platform attaches to the howitzer lower carriage by using a socket and a locking handle. The eight holes are for the stakes needed to stake the howitzer in position. Platform stakes are issued in three sizes. There are four 15-inch stakes issued. These are used for frozen or rocky terrain, and are normally issued only where needed, such as extremely cold areas. There are eight 24-inch stakes issued, and they are used for hard packed ground. Four 38-inch stakes are issued to be used for soft ground.

The first production versions were displayed with a muzzle brake, most likely to allow long range 105 mm rounds to be fired, but was discontinued before shipment to Vietnam.[3]

Current usage[edit]

102 Howitzer belonging to Battery A, 1st Battalion, 206th Field Artillery, 39th Brigade Combat Team, in position at Camp Taji, Iraq 29 May 2004

While the M102 is no longer in active use by the United States Army, having been replaced by the M119, it is still in use by the National Guard. The M102 was last deployed to combat in 2004 by the 1st Battalion, 206th Field Artillery, Arkansas Army National Guard. Seventeen M102 howitzers were deployed to Camp Taji, Iraq. The 1-206th FA provided fire and conducted counter-fire missions in support of 39th BCT operations, an element of the 1st Cavalry Division. The 1-206th scavenged spare parts from nine M102 howitzers that were located in the Camp Taji Boneyard. These howitzers were allegedly captured by the Iraqi Army during the Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s.

The M102 is also used on the USAF's Lockheed AC-130 gunship. The M102 105 mm cannon was modified to be fired from the left rear side door of the AC-130 gunship aircraft.[4] To accommodate this cannon, the rear side-firing 40 mm guns was replaced by the radome that formerly had been installed in the door cavity. That change provided enough space for the 105 mm gun to be mounted in the doorway in place of the radome. The gun was first used in the later stages of the Vietnam War and is still used in the AC-130U gunship.[4]

The M102 is used in extremely limited roles by the United States Marine Corps, primarily for firing salutes.

The Malaysian Army used the M102 in the 2nd Emergency (1968–1988) to bombard CPM positions on the Malaysian Thai border. The guns were transported by helicopter to remote firing positions. Now the guns have been decommissioned and are only used for firing salute.


Characteristics[edit]

  • Caliber: 105 mm (4.13 in)
  • Length: 17.1 feet (5.2 m)
  • Width: 6.4 feet (2 m)
  • Height: 5.2 feet (1.6 m)
  • Weight: 1.5 tons (1.4 t)
  • Crew: 8
  • Rate of fire: 10 rounds per minute maximum, 3 rounds per minute sustained
  • Range: 11,500 m (7.1 miles), 15,100 m (9.4 miles) with rocket-assisted projectile

Operators[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Global Security. Org, M102 105 mm Lightweight Towed Howitzerhttp://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/m102.htm
  2. ^ a b c TM 9-100-202-14, TM 9-1015-234-12, TM 9-1015-234-10, AND LO 9-1015-234-10
  3. ^ "Howitzer Fires In All Directions." Popular Science, September 1966, p. 95, bottom of page.
  4. ^ a b http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/equip/m102.htm
  5. ^ "SIPRI arms transfer database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Information generated in 17 June 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2011.  Check date values in: |date= (help)

External links[edit]