Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award (MVP)
A black circle with an octagonal silver plaque in the middle. The edge of the plaque reads "KENESAW MOUNTAIN LANDIS AWARD BASEBALL MEMORIAL". In the middle of the octagon is a baseball diamond which contains, from the top, a man's face in gold, "Most Valuable Player", the winner's league, his name in a gold rectangle, and his team.
The Most Valuable Player award
Awarded for Major League Baseball's Regular Season MVP
Country United States
Presented by Baseball Writers Association of America
First awarded 1931
Currently held by Miguel Cabrera, American League
Andrew McCutchen, National League

The Major League Baseball Most Valuable Player Award (MVP) is an annual Major League Baseball (MLB) award, given to one outstanding player in the American League and one in the National League. Since 1931, it has been awarded by the Baseball Writers Association of America (BBWAA). The winners receive the Kenesaw Mountain Landis Memorial Baseball Award, which became the official name of the award in 1944,[1] in honor of the first MLB commissioner, who served from 1920 until his death on November 25, 1944.[1][2]

MVP voting takes place before the postseason, but the results are not announced until after the World Series. The BBWAA began by polling three writers in each league city in 1938, reducing that number to two per league city in 1961.[3] The BBWAA does not offer a clear-cut definition of what "most valuable" means, instead leaving the judgment to the individual voters.[4]

First basemen, with 34 winners, have won the most MVPs among infielders, followed by second basemen (16), third basemen (15), and shortstops (15). Of the 24 pitchers who have won the award, 15 are right-handed while 9 are left-handed. Walter Johnson, Carl Hubbell, and Hal Newhouser are the only pitchers who have won multiple times, Newhouser winning consecutively in 1944 and 1945.[5][6]

Hank Greenberg, Stan Musial, Alex Rodriguez, and Robin Yount have won at different positions,[5] while Rodriguez is the only player who has won the award with two different teams at two different positions.[7] Barry Bonds has won the most often (seven times) and the most consecutively (2001–04).[8] Jimmie Foxx was the first player to win multiple times;[8] 9 players have won three times, and 19 have won twice.[9] Frank Robinson is the only player to win the award in both the American and National Leagues.

The award's only tie occurred in the National League in 1979, when Keith Hernandez and Willie Stargell received an equal number of points.[5][10] There have been 17 unanimous winners, who received all the first-place votes.[3] The New York Yankees have the most winning players with 22, followed by the St. Louis Cardinals with 17 winners. The award has never been presented to a member of the following five teams: Arizona Diamondbacks, Miami Marlins, New York Mets, Tampa Bay Rays, and Washington Nationals. The most recent recipients are Miguel Cabrera in the American League, and Andrew McCutchen in the National League.

In 2011, Justin Verlander became the first pitcher to be named the MVP since Dennis Eckersley in 1992. Verlander also became the first starting pitcher to win this award since Roger Clemens had accomplished the feat in 1986.[11]

Chalmers Award (1911–1914)[edit]

Ty Cobb looking just to the left of the camera.
Ty Cobb won the first American League Chalmers Award in 1911 and was at the center of the controversy over the previous season's award.

Before the 1910 season, Hugh Chalmers of Chalmers Automobile announced he would present a Chalmers Model 30 automobile to the player with the highest batting average in Major League Baseball at the end of the season. The 1910 race for best average in the American League was between the Detroit Tigers' widely disliked[3][12][13] Ty Cobb and Nap Lajoie of the Cleveland Indians. On the last day of the season, Lajoie overtook Cobb's batting average with seven bunt hits against the St. Louis Browns. American League President Ban Johnson said a recalculation showed that Cobb had won the race anyway, and Chalmers ended up awarding cars to both players.[3]

The following season, Chalmers created the Chalmers Award. A committee of baseball writers were to convene after the season to determine the "most important and useful player to the club and to the league". Since the award was not as effective at advertising as Chalmers had hoped, it was discontinued after 1914.[3]

Year American League winner Team Position National League winner Team Position Ref
1911 Ty Cobbdagger§ Detroit Tigers OF Frank Schulte Chicago Cubs OF [14]
1912 Tris Speakerdagger Boston Red Sox OF Larry Doyle New York Giants 2B [15]
1913 Walter Johnsondagger Washington Senators RHP Jake Daubert Brooklyn Dodgers 1B [16]
1914 Eddie Collinsdagger Philadelphia Athletics 2B Johnny Eversdagger Boston Braves 2B [17]

League Awards (1922–1929)[edit]

A man in full baseball attire wears a pinstriped jersey and a hat with overlapping white "N" and "Y". Looking to the left of the camera, he is holding a baseball upward.
Babe Ruth was ineligible for the award in his famous 1927 season by the rules of the American League award because he had previously won in 1923.

In 1922 the American League created a new award to honor "the baseball player who is of the greatest all-around service to his club".[18] Winners, voted on by a committee of eight baseball writers chaired by James Crusinberry,[19] received a bronze medal and a cash prize.[20] Voters were required to select one player from each team and player-coaches and prior award winners were ineligible. These flaws resulted in the award's being dropped after 1928. The National League award, without these restrictions, lasted from 1924 to 1929.[3]

Year American League winner Team Position National League winner Team Position Ref
1922 George Sislerdagger St. Louis Browns 1B [21]
1923 Babe Ruthdagger§ New York Yankees OF [22]
1924 Walter Johnsondagger (2) Washington Senators RHP Dazzy Vancedagger Brooklyn Robins RHP [23]
1925 Roger Peckinpaugh Washington Senators SS Rogers Hornsbydagger St. Louis Cardinals 2B [24]
1926 George Burns Cleveland Indians 1B Bob O'Farrell St. Louis Cardinals C [25]
1927 Lou Gehrigdagger New York Yankees 1B Paul Wanerdagger Pittsburgh Pirates OF [26]
1928 Mickey Cochranedagger Philadelphia Athletics C Jim Bottomleydagger St. Louis Cardinals 1B [27]
1929 Rogers Hornsbydagger (2) Chicago Cubs 2B [28]

Baseball Writers Association of America's Most Valuable Player (1931–present)[edit]

The BBWAA first awarded the modern MVP after the 1931 season, adopting the format the National League used to distribute its league award. One writer in each city with a team filled out a ten-place ballot, with ten points for the recipient of a first-place vote, nine for a second-place vote, and so on. In 1938, the BBWAA raised the number of voters to three per city and gave 14 points for a first-place vote. The only significant change since then occurred in 1961, when the number of voters was lowered to two per league city.[3]

A man is pictured from his belt up looking to the left of the camera. His button-down baseball jersey says "RED SOX" across it and he is wearing a baseball hat with a "B".
Jimmie Foxx was the first player to win three MVP awards.
Hall of Famer and 2-time MVP, Hank Greenberg
Hall of Famer Sandy Koufax
The face of a dark-skinned man who is smiling widely. The letters "S" and "F" overlap on his hat.
Hall of Famer Willie Mays won the award in 1954 and 1965 with the same team in different cities.
An African-American man looks just right of the camera. His helmet and white jersey both have an orange "S" over "F" logo on them. The man's left arm is crossed over his body and his right is out of the picture. There is a black and orange glove on his left hand.
Barry Bonds' seven MVPs are the most for any individual player.
A Hispanic man walking while shouting at someone out of the picture. His helmet is emblazoned with a white "N" and "Y" intertwined, and "NEW YORK" is stitched in black letters across his button-down jersey. The player is holding a black baseball bat almost vertically with black, gray, and white gloves.
Alex Rodriguez won the award with two different teams at two different positions.
A right-handed batter is at the plate, looking toward the pitcher's mound. Wearing a red uniform and white pants, there is a crowd behind him with jerseys of various colors.
Albert Pujols won the award three times, all at first base with the St. Louis Cardinals.
Miguel Cabrera was the winner of back-to-back AL Awards from 2012-13.
Year American League winner Team Position National League winner Team Position Ref
1931 Lefty Grove Philadelphia Athletics LHP Frankie Frisch St. Louis Cardinals 2B [29]
1932 Jimmie Foxx Philadelphia Athletics 1B Chuck Klein Philadelphia Phillies OF [30]
1933 Jimmie Foxx (2) Philadelphia Athletics 1B Carl Hubbell New York Giants LHP [31]
1934 Mickey Cochrane (2) Detroit Tigers C Dizzy Dean St. Louis Cardinals RHP [32]
1935 Hank Greenberg†§ Detroit Tigers 1B Gabby Hartnett Chicago Cubs C [33]
1936 Lou Gehrig (2) New York Yankees 1B Carl Hubbell†§ (2) New York Giants LHP [34]
1937 Charlie Gehringer Detroit Tigers 2B Joe Medwick St. Louis Cardinals OF [35]
1938 Jimmie Foxx (3) Boston Red Sox 1B Ernie Lombardi Cincinnati Reds C [36]
1939 Joe DiMaggio New York Yankees OF Bucky Walters Cincinnati Reds RHP [37]
1940 Hank Greenberg (2) Detroit Tigers OF Frank McCormick Cincinnati Reds 1B [38]
1941 Joe DiMaggio (2) New York Yankees OF Dolph Camilli Brooklyn Dodgers 1B [39]
1942 Joe Gordon New York Yankees 2B Mort Cooper St. Louis Cardinals RHP [40]
1943 Spud Chandler New York Yankees RHP Stan Musial St. Louis Cardinals OF [41]
1944 Hal Newhouser Detroit Tigers LHP Marty Marion St. Louis Cardinals SS [42]
1945 Hal Newhouser (2) Detroit Tigers LHP Phil Cavarretta Chicago Cubs 1B [43]
1946 Ted Williams Boston Red Sox OF Stan Musial (2) St. Louis Cardinals 1B [44]
1947 Joe DiMaggio (3) New York Yankees OF Bob Elliott Boston Braves 3B [45]
1948 Lou Boudreau Cleveland Indians SS Stan Musial (3) St. Louis Cardinals OF [46]
1949 Ted Williams (2) Boston Red Sox OF Jackie Robinson Brooklyn Dodgers 2B [47]
1950 Phil Rizzuto New York Yankees SS Jim Konstanty Philadelphia Phillies RHP [48]
1951 Yogi Berra New York Yankees C Roy Campanella Brooklyn Dodgers C [49]
1952 Bobby Shantz Philadelphia Athletics LHP Hank Sauer Chicago Cubs OF [50]
1953 Al Rosen§ Cleveland Indians 3B Roy Campanella (2) Brooklyn Dodgers C [51]
1954 Yogi Berra (2) New York Yankees C Willie Mays New York Giants OF [52]
1955 Yogi Berra (3) New York Yankees C Roy Campanella (3) Brooklyn Dodgers C [53]
1956 Mickey Mantle†§ New York Yankees OF Don Newcombe Brooklyn Dodgers RHP [54]
1957 Mickey Mantle (2) New York Yankees OF Hank Aaron Milwaukee Braves OF [55]
1958 Jackie Jensen Boston Red Sox OF Ernie Banks Chicago Cubs SS [56]
1959 Nellie Fox Chicago White Sox 2B Ernie Banks (2) Chicago Cubs SS [57]
1960 Roger Maris New York Yankees OF Dick Groat Pittsburgh Pirates SS [58]
1961 Roger Maris (2) New York Yankees OF Frank Robinson†§ Cincinnati Reds OF [59]
1962 Mickey Mantle (3) New York Yankees OF Maury Wills Los Angeles Dodgers SS [60]
1963 Elston Howard New York Yankees C Sandy Koufax Los Angeles Dodgers LHP [61]
1964 Brooks Robinson Baltimore Orioles 3B Ken Boyer St. Louis Cardinals 3B [62]
1965 Zoilo Versalles Minnesota Twins SS Willie Mays (2) San Francisco Giants OF [63]
1966 Frank Robinson†§ (2) Baltimore Orioles OF Roberto Clemente Pittsburgh Pirates OF [64]
1967 Carl Yastrzemski Boston Red Sox OF Orlando Cepeda†§ St. Louis Cardinals 1B [65]
1968 Denny McLain§ Detroit Tigers RHP Bob Gibson St. Louis Cardinals RHP [66]
1969 Harmon Killebrew Minnesota Twins 3B Willie McCovey San Francisco Giants 1B [67]
1970 Boog Powell Baltimore Orioles 1B Johnny Bench Cincinnati Reds C [68]
1971 Vida Blue Oakland Athletics LHP Joe Torre St. Louis Cardinals 3B [69]
1972 Dick Allen Chicago White Sox 1B Johnny Bench (2) Cincinnati Reds C [70]
1973 Reggie Jackson†§ Oakland Athletics OF Pete Rose Cincinnati Reds OF [71]
1974 Jeff Burroughs Texas Rangers OF Steve Garvey Los Angeles Dodgers 1B [72]
1975 Fred Lynn Boston Red Sox OF Joe Morgan Cincinnati Reds 2B [73]
1976 Thurman Munson New York Yankees C Joe Morgan (2) Cincinnati Reds 2B [74]
1977 Rod Carew Minnesota Twins 1B George Foster Cincinnati Reds OF [75]
1978 Jim Rice Boston Red Sox OF Dave Parker Pittsburgh Pirates OF [76]
1979[c] Don Baylor California Angels DH Keith Hernandez St. Louis Cardinals 1B [10]
1979[c] Willie Stargell Pittsburgh Pirates 1B [10]
1980 George Brett Kansas City Royals 3B Mike Schmidt†§ Philadelphia Phillies 3B [77]
1981 Rollie Fingers Milwaukee Brewers RHP Mike Schmidt (2) Philadelphia Phillies 3B [78]
1982 Robin Yount Milwaukee Brewers SS Dale Murphy Atlanta Braves OF [79]
1983 Cal Ripken, Jr. Baltimore Orioles SS Dale Murphy (2) Atlanta Braves OF [80]
1984 Willie Hernández Detroit Tigers LHP Ryne Sandberg Chicago Cubs 2B [81]
1985 Don Mattingly New York Yankees 1B Willie McGee St. Louis Cardinals OF [82]
1986 Roger Clemens Boston Red Sox RHP Mike Schmidt (3) Philadelphia Phillies 3B [83]
1987 George Bell Toronto Blue Jays OF Andre Dawson Chicago Cubs OF [84]
1988 José Canseco§ Oakland Athletics OF Kirk Gibson Los Angeles Dodgers OF [85]
1989 Robin Yount (2) Milwaukee Brewers OF Kevin Mitchell San Francisco Giants OF [86]
1990 Rickey Henderson Oakland Athletics OF Barry Bonds Pittsburgh Pirates OF [87]
1991 Cal Ripken, Jr. (2) Baltimore Orioles SS Terry Pendleton Atlanta Braves 3B [88]
1992 Dennis Eckersley Oakland Athletics RHP Barry Bonds (2) Pittsburgh Pirates OF [89]
1993 Frank Thomas†§ Chicago White Sox 1B Barry Bonds (3) San Francisco Giants OF [90]
1994 Frank Thomas (2) Chicago White Sox 1B Jeff Bagwell§ Houston Astros 1B [91]
1995 Mo Vaughn Boston Red Sox 1B Barry Larkin Cincinnati Reds SS [92]
1996 Juan González Texas Rangers OF Ken Caminiti§ San Diego Padres 3B [93]
1997 Ken Griffey, Jr.§ Seattle Mariners OF Larry Walker Colorado Rockies OF [94]
1998 Juan González (2) Texas Rangers OF Sammy Sosa Chicago Cubs OF [95]
1999 Iván Rodríguez Texas Rangers C Chipper Jones Atlanta Braves 3B [96]
2000 Jason Giambi^ Oakland Athletics 1B Jeff Kent San Francisco Giants 2B [97]
2001 Ichiro Suzuki^ Seattle Mariners OF Barry Bonds (4) San Francisco Giants OF [98][99]
2002 Miguel Tejada^ Oakland Athletics SS Barry Bonds§ (5) San Francisco Giants OF [100]
2003 Alex Rodriguez^ Texas Rangers SS Barry Bonds (6) San Francisco Giants OF [101]
2004 Vladimir Guerrero Anaheim Angels OF Barry Bonds (7) San Francisco Giants OF [102]
2005 Alex Rodriguez^ (2) New York Yankees 3B Albert Pujols^ St. Louis Cardinals 1B [103]
2006 Justin Morneau^ Minnesota Twins 1B Ryan Howard^ Philadelphia Phillies 1B [104]
2007 Alex Rodriguez^ (3) New York Yankees 3B Jimmy Rollins^ Philadelphia Phillies SS [105]
2008 Dustin Pedroia^ Boston Red Sox 2B Albert Pujols^ (2) St. Louis Cardinals 1B [106]
2009 Joe Mauer^ Minnesota Twins C Albert Pujols (3) St. Louis Cardinals 1B [99][107]
2010 Josh Hamilton^ Texas Rangers OF Joey Votto^ Cincinnati Reds 1B [108][109]
2011 Justin Verlander^ Detroit Tigers RHP Ryan Braun^ Milwaukee Brewers OF [110][111]
2012 Miguel Cabrera^ Detroit Tigers 3B Buster Posey^ San Francisco Giants C [112][113]
2013 Miguel Cabrera^ (2) Detroit Tigers 3B Andrew McCutchen^ Pittsburgh Pirates OF [114][115]

Key[edit]

Year Links to the article about the corresponding Major League Baseball season
dagger Member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame[116][117]
^ Denotes player who is still active[a]
§ Unanimous selection[b][3]
Player (X) Denotes winning player and number of times they had won the award at that point
P Pitcher (RHP indicates right-handed; LHP indicates left-handed)
C Catcher
1B First baseman
2B Second baseman
3B Third baseman
SS Shortstop
OF Outfielder
DH Designated hitter

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • a A player is considered inactive if he has announced his retirement or not played for a full season.
  • b A unanimous victory indicates that the player received all possible first-place votes.
  • c Hernandez and Stargell both received 216 points in the 1979 voting.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Landis, Kenesaw". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved 2011-11-22. 
  2. ^ Gillette, Gary; Palmer, Pete (2007). The ESPN Baseball Encyclopedia (Fourth ed.). New York City, New York: Sterling Publishing Co. p. 1763. ISBN 978-1-4027-4771-7. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Gillette & Palmer, pp. 1764–1765
  4. ^ Kepner, Tyler (September 4, 2011). "Where Do You Find Value? Discussing the M.V.P. Criteria". The New York Times. p. SP3. Retrieved September 6, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c "Major League Baseball's Most Valuable Player Award Winners". Baseball Digest (Evanston, Illinois: Century Publishing Co.) 59 (12): 86–89. December 2000. ISSN 0005-609X. Retrieved December 29, 2009. 
  6. ^ http://www.baseball-reference.com/players/j/johnswa01.shtml
  7. ^ "Alex Rodriguez Statistics". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 3, 2009. 
  8. ^ a b "Barry Bonds Statistics". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 3, 2009. 
  9. ^ "Most Valuable Player MVP Awards & Cy Young Awards Winners". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 3, 2009. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Baseball Awards Voting for 1979". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  11. ^ Kepner, Tyler (November 21, 2011). "Verlander Is First Pitcher Named M.V.P. Since 1992". The New York Times. 
  12. ^ Doyle, Havey (July 4, 1941). "Mirrors of Sport". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. 18. Retrieved January 19, 2010. [dead link]
  13. ^ Schwartz, Larry. "He was a pain ... but a great pain". ESPN.com. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1911". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 3, 2009. 
  15. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1912". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 3, 2009. 
  16. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1913". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 3, 2009. 
  17. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1914". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 3, 2009. 
  18. ^ Newman, Mark (November 14, 2009). "One of a kind: Another MVP for A-Rod". MLB.com. Major League Baseball. Retrieved December 5, 2009. 
  19. ^ Gould, Alan (December 8, 1929). "Rogers Hornsby Voted Most Valuable Player in National League". Reading Eagle. Retrieved January 6, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Player Award Goes to Hornsby again". The New York Times. December 8, 1929. p. S2. 
  21. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1922". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 5, 2009. 
  22. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1923". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 5, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1924". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 5, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1925". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 8, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1926". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 8, 2009. 
  26. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1927". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 8, 2009. 
  27. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1928". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 8, 2009. 
  28. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1929". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 8, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1931". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1932". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  31. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1933". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1934". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  33. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1935". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  34. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1936". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1937". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  36. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1938". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  37. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1939". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  38. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1940". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  39. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1941". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  40. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1942". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  41. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1943". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  42. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1944". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  43. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1945". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  44. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1946". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  45. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1947". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  46. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1948". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  47. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1949". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  48. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1950". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  49. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1951". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  50. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1952". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  51. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1953". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  52. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1954". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  53. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1955". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  54. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1956". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  55. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1957". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  56. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1958". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  57. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1959". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  58. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1960". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  59. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1961". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  60. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1962". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 11, 2009. 
  61. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1963". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  62. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1964". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  63. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1965". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  64. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1966". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  65. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1967". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  66. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1968". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  67. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1969". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  68. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1970". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  69. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1971". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  70. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1972". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  71. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1973". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 12, 2009. 
  72. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1974". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  73. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1975". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  74. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1976". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  75. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1977". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  76. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1978". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  77. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1980". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  78. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1981". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  79. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1982". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  80. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1983". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  81. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1984". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  82. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1985". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  83. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1986". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  84. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1987". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  85. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1988". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  86. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1989". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  87. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1990". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  88. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1991". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  89. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1992". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  90. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1993". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  91. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1994". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  92. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1995". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  93. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1996". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  94. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1997". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  95. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1998". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  96. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 1999". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  97. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 2000". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  98. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 2001". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  99. ^ a b "Albert Pujols of St. Louis Cardinals is unanimous National League MVP". The Associated Press. ESPN. November 25, 2009. Retrieved July 14, 2010. 
  100. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 2002". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  101. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 2003". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  102. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 2004". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  103. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 2005". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  104. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 2006". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  105. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 2007". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  106. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 2008". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 28, 2009. 
  107. ^ "Baseball Awards Voting for 2009". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 3, 2009. 
  108. ^ "Rangers Outfielder Josh Hamilton Honored". Baseball Writers Association of America. Retrieved November 23, 2010. 
  109. ^ "Reds’ Joey Votto Runs Away With Award". Baseball Writers Association of America. Retrieved November 22, 2010. 
  110. ^ "Justin Verlander Completes Rare Double, Adding MVP to Cy Young". Baseball Writers Association of America. Retrieved November 21, 2011. 
  111. ^ "Ryan Braun Slugs His Way to Award". Baseball Writers Association of America. Retrieved November 22, 2011. 
  112. ^ "Mike Trout Highest WAR at Youngest Age". Baseball Writers Association of America. Retrieved November 15, 2012. 
  113. ^ "Buster Posey". Baseball Writers Association of America. Retrieved March 13, 2013. 
  114. ^ "Miguel Cabrera Goes Back-to-Back". Baseball Writers Association of America. Retrieved November 14, 2013. 
  115. ^ "Andrew McCutchen Wins Pirates’ 1st MVP since 1992". Baseball Writers Association of America. Retrieved November 14, 2013. 
  116. ^ Gillette & Palmer, pp. 1755–1760
  117. ^ "Baseball Hall of Fame Inductees". Baseball-Reference. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved December 3, 2009.