|• Akim||Alik Aidarbayev|
|• Total||165,642 km2 (63,955 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||556 m (1,824 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||-132 m (−433 ft)|
|• Density||3.6/km2 (9.3/sq mi)|
|Time zone||West (UTC+5)|
|• Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+5)|
|Area codes||+7 (729)|
|ISO 3166 code||KZ-MAN|
|Vehicle registration||12, R|
Mangystau Province (Kazakh: Маңғыстау облысы, Mañğıstaw oblısı) is a province of Kazakhstan. Its capital is Aktau (a seaport), which has a population of 154,500 (2004 census); the entire Mangystau province has a population of 373,400.
The province is located in the southwest of the country, and includes Mangyshlak Peninsula. It has much of Kazakhstan's Caspian Shore. It also borders neighboring countries Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Mangystau also borders two other Kazakh provinces(counter-clockwise), Aktobe Province and Atyrau Province. The area of the province is 165,600 square kilometers. Engineers discovered petroleum in the area in the days of the Soviet Union, drilling commenced, and much of the area was built up around the industry.
The territory of Mangystau includes lots of different landscapes and desert lands: Caspian lowland, plateaus (Usturt, Mangyshlak, Kendirli-Kayasan), mountains (Aktau, Karatau), cavities, desert, mountains and mountain ridges. That kind of landscape forms an original multigraded labyrinth, painted with green, yellow, pink and red sediment of loam. The highest point is Otpan mountain at 556 metres (1,824 ft). The lowest point is the bottom of Karagie cavity, 132 metres (433 ft) below sea level.
Due to its vast territory, the province has a wide variety of climate conditions. The climate of north Mangystau is cold in winter due to its settlement in Usturt plateau, the location of the plateau is mainly above sea level. On the whole, the climate is continental with cold winters and mild summers. The average temperature −3 °C (27 °F) in January and +26 °C (79 °F) in July. The average annual rainfall is 150 millimetres (5.9 in).
The first written sources on Mangystau province date back to the 9th century AD.. According to Arabic geographers, it was uninhabited until the tenth century when groups opposing the Turkmen Oghuz are settled and found sources and grassland (steppe and then the land was dry and it was recently). The mountain called Binkishlah (unidentified) would have marked the border between Khwarezm and the Khanate of the Khazars . These Turkmen were vassals of the Khazars, the beginning of the thirteenth century Yaqut al-Hamawi and Ibn al-Athir mention with the name of Mankashlagh. Ibn al-Athir tells of a Turkish principality with a medina with the same name as the territory that existed from the late eleventh century. In 1097 struggle between Kutb al-Din Muhammad, Khwarezm governor of Seljuks and Tugrul Tehghin was occurred. In 1127, Atsiz occupied whole peninsula. During Khwarezmshah rule, it was part of firstly Gorgan province, later Mazandaran Province.
In 1221, the Mongols occupied it. It was later passed to successively Golden Horde, Nogai Horde, Uzbek Khanate and Kazakh Khanate. But, its population was decreased after gradual drying of the steppe and Kalmyk raids, began in 1620. Some Salur and Ersari Turkmens left the region and migrated to Russia.
In 1670, Anusha Khan, was khan of Khiva asked towards 1670 the Russian government to build a fortress to protect the peninsula for securing trade between Russia and Khwarezm. Puntsuk Monchak and Ayuka (1670-1724) deported most of Cawdor and Igdir groups of Turkmen to Volga basin. For protecting trade, Anusha Khan annexed it to his territories 1676 and build a fort at the port of Karagan in 1687.
The Russians under Peter the Great sent an expedition led by Bekovich unfortunate, however Cherkasskiy which established three forts on the coast of the Caspian Sea, but were abandoned after one year. Then there were several Russian expeditions but scientific. In 1834 they founded on the south coast of the Bay of Mertviy Kultuk strength Novo Aleksandrovskoye who had a permanent garrison. This caused a conflict with the khan of Khiva and abortive military campaign between 1839 and 1840. During this period, Bayuli tribe of Kazakhs settled and remaining Turkmens left it 1840 except a group of families Cawdor tribe.
The peninsula was subject to conflict between Khiva and Russia, each party wanted to have the Kazakhs but these are not bent. In 1846, Russians built a fort in Karagan was named Novo-Petrovskoye that 1859 was renamed Fort Alexandrovskiy. Russian domination of it was begun with occupiation of Krasnovodsk, located in southern part of it in 1869. At same day, Russians established Mangyshlak district, was subordinated to Viceroyality of Caucasus. Khanate of Khiva renounced possession of this peninsula in favor of Russians in 1873. It was attached to as uzeyd of Transcaspian Oblast in 1881.
The 1917 revolution was followed by the fate of the government was in the hands of the Mensheviks. After the October Revolution the Bolsheviks prevailed but were eliminated by the British intervention in June 1918. In July 12, 1918, Interim Executive Committee, which sought to restore Alexander Kerensky, was established in Ashgabat. Bolsheviks took the region in February 1920. On August 26 of 1920, the peninsula was included in the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Russian Soviet Socialist Federative Republic.On June 15 of 1925 was renamed the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, all within the Russian RFSS. On December 5 of 1936 was elevated to Kazakh SSR. But a narrow strip of the southern coastal bay fronted Kara Boghaz was ceded to Turkmen SSR at same day.
In 1937, this peninsula separated from West Kazakhstan Province with Kazakh part of Ustyurt Plateau and Mangyshlak Oblast was formed with capital Aktau. Its capital was renamed as Shevchenko in 1964. After the independence of Kazakhstan, the province and its capital were renamed.
- Beyneu District, with the administrative center in the selo of Beyneu;
- Karakiya District, the selo of Kuryk;
- Mangystau District, the selo of Shetpe;
- Munaily District, the selo of Mangistau;
- Tupkaragan District, the town of Fort-Shevchenko.
Three localities in the oblast - Aktau, Fort-Shevchenko, and Zhanaozen - have town status.
According to the 1999 Census, 50.9% of the population are Kazakhs, while ethnic Russians are 32.9%.
- Population (2009): 416 500 people (2,6%, 14 place)
- Density: 2,5 people / km ² (13 place)
- National structure: Kazakhs — 70,9%; RussianS — 22,9%
- Are: 165,600 in km ² (6,1%, 7 place)
- Official site – Climate and Geography
- Agency of statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Численность населения Республики Казахстан по областям с началa 2013 года до 1 февраля 2013 года (russisch; Excel-Datei; 55 kB).
- "Список телефонов акимов городов и районов Мангистауской области и их заместителей" (in Russian). Акимат Мангистауской области. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
- ru:Мангистауская область
Media related to Mangystau Province at Wikimedia Commons
||Atyrau Province||Aktobe Province|
|Caspian Sea||Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan|
|Balkan Province, Turkmenistan|