Mary Warnock, Baroness Warnock
|Mary Warnock, Baroness Warnock|
14 April 1924 |
Winchester, Hampshire, England
|Alma mater||Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford|
|Known for||Philosopher of morality, education and mind, and writer on existentialism|
Board member of
|Active Training and Education Trust|
Warnock was born Mary Wilson on 14 April 1924 in Winchester, England, and was the youngest of seven children. Her mother was the daughter of the successful banker and financier Felix Schuster. Her father Archie Wilson, a Scotsman, was a housemaster and taught German at Winchester College. He caught diphtheria in 1923 and consequently died of heart failure. Warnock was brought up by her mother and a nanny. She never knew her eldest sibling, Malcolm, who had autism and was cared for in a nursing home, spending his last days in a Dorset hospital. Her brother Sandy died when very young. Her other brother, Duncan, was a British diplomat who became Ambassador to the Soviet Union before taking up an appointment as master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
When Warnock was seven months old the family moved to Kelso House, a three-floor Victorian house, now the music centre at Peter Symonds College. She and her sister Stefana were cared for primarily by the family nanny. Warnock was educated as a boarder at St Swithun's School, Winchester.
Warnock has said that when she was a child she was embarrassed by her mother, who looked different to most people, often by wearing long flowing dark red clothes and walking with turned out feet. However, when Warnock was about 15 years old, she began to admire her mother's eccentricity and independent thinking.
Warnock studied at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford, and was made an Honorary Fellow in 1984. From 1949 to 1966, she was a Fellow and tutor in philosophy at St Hugh's College, Oxford. She was Talbot Research Fellow at Lady Margaret Hall (1972–76). From 1976 to 1984, she was a Senior Research Fellow at St Hugh's College, and was made an Honorary Fellow of the College in 1985. She then became Mistress of Girton College, Cambridge (1986–89). Warnock delivered the Gifford Lectures, entitled "Imagination and Understanding," at the University of Glasgow in 1992. In 2000, she was a visiting professor of rhetoric at Gresham College, London.
In the early 1960s, whilst still teaching at St Hugh's College, Warnock took a seat on the Oxfordshire local education authority. From 1966 to 1972, she was Headmistress at the Oxford High School for girls. She is a patron of The Iris Project, a charity which promotes the teaching of classics.
Because of her background as an educationalist, Warnock was appointed in 1974 to chair a UK inquiry on special education. Her report, published in 1978, brought radical change in the field, by placing emphasis on the teaching of learning disabled children in mainstream schools and introducing a system of "statementing" children in order for them to gain entitlement to special educational support. Warnock has since expressed dissatisfaction with the system she helped to create, calling it "appalling" because of the expense of its administration and its tendency to deny support to mildly disadvantaged children. She has recommended the establishment of a new inquiry.
From 1982 to 1984, she chaired the Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilisation and Embryology. Her report on this occasion gave rise to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990, which governs human fertility treatment and experimentation using human embryos. Its effect has been to require licensing for procedures such as in vitro fertilisation and to ban research using human embryos more than 14 days old. According to Suzi Leather, a former chair of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, "perhaps the greatest achievement of the Warnock committee is that it managed to get an ethical consensus that people understood as well as shared".
In 2008, Warnock, a committed advocate of euthanasia, caused controversy with an opinion that people with dementia should be allowed to elect to die if they felt they were "a burden to their family or the state".
As chairwoman of committees of inquiry:
- The Warnock Report (1978): Special Educational Needs. London: HMSO (report by the Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Handicapped Children and Young People)
- The Warnock Report (1984): Report of the Committee of Enquiry into Human Fertilisation and Embryology. London: HMSO
- Warnock, Mary (1978). Meeting Special Educational Needs: A brief guide by Mrs Mary Warnock to the report of the Committee of Enquiry into Education of Handicapped Children and Young People. London: HMSO
- Ethics Since 1900 (Oxford University Press, 1960) ISBN 0-9753662-2-X
- Existentialism (Oxford Paperbacks, 1970) ISBN 0-19-888052-9
- Imagination (1976)
- Schools of Thought (Faber and Faber, 1977) ISBN 0-571-11161-0
- Memory (1987)
- Imagination and Time (Blackwell Publishers, 1994) ISBN 0-631-19019-8
- Mary Warnock: A Memoir – People and Places (Duckworth, 2001) ISBN 0-7156-2955-7, ISBN 0-7156-3141-1
- Making Babies: Is There a Right To Have Children? (2001)
- The Intelligent Person's Guide to Ethics (1998)
- Nature and Mortality: Recollections of a Philosopher in Public Life (2004), ISBN 0-8264-7323-7
- An Intelligent Person's Guide to Ethics (Duckworth, 2004) ISBN 0-7156-3320-1
- Easeful Death, with Elisabeth MacDonald (OUP, 2008)
- Dishonest to God : On Keeping Religion Out of Politics (Continuum, 2010) ISBN 978-1-4411-2712-9
- List of Visiting Gresham Professors
When 90 years old, Baroness Warnock took part enthusiastically in a review of her public life as documented by BBC Sound Archives (12 July 2014).
- Brown, Andrew (19 July 2003). "The practical philosopher". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- "The House I Grew up In featuring Mary Warnock". The House I Grew Up In. 2008-09-17. BBC. BBC Radio 4. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/thehouseigrewupin/pip/0ayop/.
- Honderich, Ted (1995). The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (1. publ. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 907. ISBN 0-19-866132-0.
- "Patrons". Iris website. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- "Baroness Warnock". UK Parliament website. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Warnock, Mary (17 September 2010). "The cynical betrayal of my special needs children". The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- Beckford, Martin (2008-09-19). "Baroness Warnock: Dementia sufferers may have a 'duty to die'". Telegraph. Retrieved 2009-02-03.
- "Dementia patients' 'right-to-die'". BBC News. 2008-09-19. Retrieved 2009-02-03.
- The London Gazette: . 31 December 1984.
- The London Gazette: . 11 February 1985.
- The London Gazette: . 31 December 1983.
- "Honorary Graduates 1989 to present". bath.ac.uk. University of Bath. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- "Belief transcript: Mary Warnock interview". BBC website. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
- "House of Lords - 25th July 2013". TheyWorkForYou. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Digitisation activities :: Library". Bopcris.ac.uk. 2011-03-22. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
- Mary Warnock's Top Ten Philosophy Books
- The Practical Philosopher
- Ethics Bites interview on The Right to Have Babies
- Biography and summary of Gifford Lectures by Dr Brannon Hancock
|Mistress of Girton College, Cambridge
Juliet J. D'Auvergne Campbell