|Nerve: Maxillary nerve|
|Alveolar branches of superior maxillary nerve and pterygopalatine ganglion.|
|Gray's||subject #200 889|
|To||Infraorbital nerve, zygomatic nerve, posterior superior alveolar nerve, palatine nerve, nasopalatine nerve, sphenopalatine ganglion|
The maxillary nerve (CN V2) is one of the three branches or divisions of the trigeminal nerve, the fifth (V) cranial nerve. It comprises the principal functions of sensation from the maxillary, nasal cavity, sinuses, the palate and subsequently that of the mid-face, and is intermediate, both in position and size, between the ophthalmic nerve and the mandibular nerve. Its function is the transmission of sensory fibers from the maxillary teeth, the skin between the palpebral fissure and the mouth, and from the nasal cavity and sinuses.
Thus it begins at the middle of the trigeminal ganglion as a flattened plexiform band, and, passing horizontally forward, it leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum, where it becomes more cylindrical in form, and firmer in texture.
It then crosses the pterygopalatine fossa, inclines lateralward on the back of the maxilla, and enters the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure. It traverses the infraorbital groove and canal in the floor of the orbit, and appears upon the face at the infraorbital foramen. There, it is called the infraorbital nerve, a terminal branch.
At its termination, the nerve lies beneath the quadratus labii superioris, and divides into a leash of branches that spread out upon the side of the nose, the lower eyelid, and the upper lip, joining with filaments of the facial nerve.
Its branches may be divided into four groups, depending upon where they branch off: in the cranium, in the pterygopalatine fossa, in the infraorbital canal, or on the face.
In the cranium
From the pterygopalatine fossa
- Infraorbital nerve through Infraorbital canal
- Zygomatic nerve (zygomaticotemporal nerve, zygomaticofacial nerve) through Inferior orbital fissure
- Nasal Branches (nasopalatine) through Sphenopalatine foramen
- Superior alveolar nerves (Posterior superior alveolar nerve, Middle superior alveolar nerve, Anterior superior alveolar nerve)
- Palatine Nerves (Greater palatine nerve, Lesser palatine nerve), including the Nasopalatine nerve
- Pharyngeal nerve
In the infraorbital canal
On the face
- Feneis, Heinz; Dauber, Wolfgang (2007). Pocket Atlas of Human Anatomy (5th ed.). Thieme. pp. 400–401.
- Monkhouse, Stanley (2006)., page 5, Table 1.1 - "Synopsis of cranial nerves"
- Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck, Fehrenbach and Herring, Elsevier, 2012, page 180
- Monkhouse, Stanley (2006)., page 56, Section 9.1 - Functions
- MedEd at Loyola GrossAnatomy/h_n/cn/cn1/cnb2.htm
- cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (VII)