|Foramen rotundum of Sphenoid|
Sphenoid bone. Upper surface. (Foramen rotundum labeled at center left)
Base of the skull. Upper surface. Sphenoid is yellow, and arrows indicate the foramen rotundum.)
|Latin||foramen rotundum ossis sphenoidalis|
|Anatomical terms of bone|
Foramen is the Latin term designating a hole-like opening. It derives from the Latin forare meaning to bore or perforate. Here, the opening is round as indicated by the Latin rotundum meaning round.
The mean area of the foramina rotunda is not considerable, which may suggest that they play a minor role in the dynamics of blood circulation in the venous system of the head.
The foramen rotundum contains the maxillary branch (V2) of trigeminal cranial nerve (CN V).
Morphology and morphometry
The foramen rotundum evolves in shape throughout the fetal period, and from birth to adolescence. It achieves a perfect ring-shaped formation in the fetus after the 4th fetal month. It is mostly oval-shaped in the fetal period, and round-shaped after birth (generally speaking). After birth, the rotundum is about 2.5 mm and in 15- to 17-year olds about 3 mm in length. The average diameter of the foramen rotundum in adults is 3.55 mm. This was according to a developmental study published in The Hokkaido Journal of Medical Science on the foramen ovale, the foramen spinosum and the foramen rotundum, and according to a study about the postnatal enlargement of the foramina rotundum, ovale and spinosum and their topographical changes published in the Anatomischer Anzeiger. 
- Reymond J, Charuta A, Wysocki J (2005). "The morphology and morphometry of the foramina of the greater wing of the human sphenoid bone". Folia Morphologica 64 (3): 188–93. PMID 16228954.
- Yanagi S (1987). "Developmental studies on the foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and foramen spinosum of the human sphenoid bone". The Hokkaido Journal of Medical Science 62 (3): 485–96. PMID 3610040.
- Lang J, Maier R, Schafhauser O (1984). "Postnatal enlargement of the foramina rotundum, ovale et spinosum and their topographical changes". Anatomischer Anzeiger 156 (5): 351–87. PMID 6486466.
- Anatomy photo:22:os-0905 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
- cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (V)
- Foramen+rotundum at eMedicine Dictionary
- Superior view of the base of the skull at winona.edu