Monkeypox virus

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Monkeypox virus
Monkeypox.gif
Virus classification
Group: Group I (dsDNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Poxviridae
Subfamily: Chordopoxvirinae
Genus: Orthopoxvirus
Type species
Vaccinia virus
Species

Monkeypox virus

Monkeypox virus (MPV) is a double-stranded DNA, zoonotic virus and a species of the genus Orthopoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. It is one of the human orthopoxviruses that includes Variola (VARV), Cowpox (CPX), and Vaccinia (VACV) viruses. But it is not a direct ancestor to, nor a direct descendent of, the Variola virus which causes smallpox. The monkeypox virus causes a disease that is similar to smallpox, but with a milder rash and lower death rate.[1][2][3] Variation in virulence of the virus has been observed in isolates from Central Africa where strains are more virulent than those from Western Africa.[1]

Reservoir[edit]

Monkeypox is carried by both animals and humans. It was first identified in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1958 in crab-eating macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) being used as laboratory animals. It has also been identified in the Giant Gambian rat which was the source of a 2003 outbreak in the United States.

Monkeypox virus causes the disease in both humans and animals. The crab-eating macaque is often used for neurological experiments. The virus is mainly found in tropical rainforest regions of central and West Africa.

Transmission[edit]

The virus can spread both from animal to human and from human to human. Infection from animal to human can occur via an animal bite or by direct contact with an infected animal’s bodily fluids. The virus can spread from human to human by both droplet respiration and contact with fomites from an infected person's bodily fluids. Incubation period is 10–14 days. Prodromal symptoms include swelling of lymph nodes, muscle pain, headache, fever, prior to the emergence of the rash.[4]

Epidemiology[edit]

A Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) Monkey. Pictured in the Lalbagh Botanical Gardens, Bangalore, India

The virus is mainly found in the tropical rainforests of Central Africa and West Africa. It was first discovered in monkeys in 1958, and in humans in 1970. Between 1970 and 1986, over 400 cases in humans were reported. Small viral outbreaks with a death rate in the range of 10% and a secondary human to human infection rate of about the same amount occur routinely in equatorial Central and West Africa.[5] The primary route of infection is thought to be contact with the infected animals or their bodily fluids.[5] The first reported outbreak in the United States occurred in 2003 in the midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin, with one occurrence in New Jersey. The outbreak was traced to prairie dogs infected from an imported Gambian pouch rat. No deaths occurred.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Breman JG, Kalisa R, Steniowski MV, Zanotto E, Gromyko AI, Arita I: Human monkeypox, 1970-79. Bulletin World Health Organ 1980, 58:165-182. PubMed Abstract | PubMed Central Full Text
  2. ^ Abdulnaser Alkhalil1*, Rasha Hammamieh2, Justin Hardick1, Mohamed A Ichou1, Marti Jett2 and Sofi Ibrahim.. Gene expression profiling of monkeypox virus-infected cells reveals novel interfaces for host-virus interactions. Virology Journal 2010, 7:173 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-7-173
  3. ^ Shchelkunov SN, Totmenin AV, Safronov PF, Mikheev MV, Gutorov VV, Ryazankina OI, Petrov NA, Babkin IV, Uvarova EA, Sandakhchiev LS, et al.: Analysis of the monkeypox virus genome. Virology 2002, 297:172-194. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text
  4. ^ "CDC | Questions and Answers About Monkeypox". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
  5. ^ a b Meyer, H.; Mathilde Perrichot, Markus Stemmler, Petra Emmerich, Herbert Schmitz, Francis Varaine, Robert Shungu, Florimond Tshioko, and Pierre Formenty (2002). "Outbreaks of Disease Suspected of Being Due to Human Monkeypox Virus Infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2001". Journal of Clinical Microbiology (American Society for Microbiology) 40 (8): 2919–2921. doi:10.1128/JCM.40.8.2919-2921.2002. PMC 120683. PMID 12149352. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 

External links[edit]