NEEMO

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NEEMO Program
NEEMO Seal.png
NEEMO Program Seal
Aquarius Reef Base Seal.png
Aquarius Reef Base Seal
Duration 2001-present
Goal "To see what extreme environmental challenges astronauts may face in space, and to form solutions by using the ocean, as an equivalent environment on earth"
Organization NASA, Florida International University, Aquarius Reef Base
Website www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NEEMO/index.html
External view of the Aquarius Reef Base

NEEMO, an acronym for NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations,[1] is a NASA analog mission that sends groups of astronauts, engineers and scientists to live in Aquarius underwater laboratory , the world's only undersea research station, for up to three weeks at a time in the in preparation for future space exploration.[2]

Aquarius is an underwater habitat located 3.5 miles (5.6 kilometers) off Key Largo, Florida in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. It is deployed on the ocean floor next to deep coral reefs 62 feet (19 meters) below the surface.

NASA has used it since 2001 for a series of space exploration simulation missions, usually lasting 7 to 14 days, with space research mainly conducted by international astronauts. The crew members are called aquanauts ( as they live underwater at depth pressure for a period equal to or greater than 24 continuous hours without returning to the surface), and they perform EVAs in the underwater environment.[2] A technique known as saturation diving allows the aquanauts to live and work underwater for days or weeks at a time. After twenty four hours underwater at any depth, the human body becomes saturated with dissolved gas. With saturation diving, divers can accurately predict exactly how much time they need to decompress before returning to the surface. This information limits the risk of decompression sickness. By living in the Aquarius habitat and working at the same depth on the ocean floor, NEEMO crews are able to remain underwater for the duration of their mission.

For NASA, the Aquarius habitat and its surroundings provide a convincing analog for space exploration.[2] Much like space, the undersea world is a hostile, alien place for humans to live. NEEMO crew members experience some of the same challenges there that they would on a distant asteroid, planet (i.e. Mars) or Moon. During NEEMO missions, the aquanauts are able to simulate living on a spacecraft and test spacewalk techniques for future space missions. Working in space and underwater environments requires extensive planning and sophisticated equipment. The underwater condition has the additional benefit of allowing NASA to "weight" the aquanauts to simulate different gravity environments.[3]

Until 2012, Aquarius was owned by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and operated by the National Undersea Research Center (NURC) at the University of North Carolina–Wilmington as a marine biology study base.

since 2013, Aquarius is owned by the Florida International University (FIU).[4] As part of the FIU Marine Education and Research Initiative, the Medina Aquarius Program is dedicated to the study and preservation of marine ecosystems worldwide and is enhancing the scope and impact of FIU on research, educational outreach, technology development, and professional training. At the heart of the program is the Aquarius Reef Base.[5]

Missions[edit]

NEEMO 1: October 21–27, 2001[edit]

Floorplan of Aquarius.
The first NEEMO crew, L-R: in front, Mike López-Alegría and Bill Todd, in back, Mike Gernhardt and Dave Williams

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

NEEMO 2: May 13–20, 2002[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

NEEMO 3: July 15–21, 2002[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

  • Byron Croker
  • Michael Smith

NEEMO 4: September 23–27, 2002[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

NEEMO 5 crew members are pictured in the bunkroom aboard the Aquarius research habitat. Top, L-R: Reisman, Hwang; Middle: Whitson, Anderson; Bottom: Talacek, Snow.

NEEMO 5: June 16–29, 2003[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

NEEMO 6: July 12–21, 2004[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

NEEMO 7: October 11–21, 2004[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

NEEMO 8: April 20–22, 2005[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

NEEMO 9: April 3–20, 2006[edit]

The NEEMO 9 crew: Left to right (rear): Broderick, Williams; front: Stott, Garan.

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

NEEMO 10: July 22–28, 2006[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

NEEMO 11: September 16–22, 2006[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

  • Larry Ward
  • Roger Garcia

NEEMO 12: May 7–18, 2007[edit]

NEEMO 12 aquanaut Broderick works with a remotely operated vehicle (ROV), called Scuttle.

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

NEEMO 13: August 6–15, 2007[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NURC Support Crew:

NEEMO 14: May 10–23, 2010[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

Aquarius Reef Base support crew:

NEEMO 15: October 20–26, 2011[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

Aquarius Reef Base support crew:

DeepWorker 2000 submersible crew:

NEEMO 16: June 11–22, 2012[edit]

The NEEMO 16 crew: Left to right: Peake, Squyres, Brown, Yui, Metcalf-Lindenburger; inside habitat: Talacek.

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

Aquarius Reef Base support crew:

DeepWorker 2000 submersible crew:

SEATEST II: Sept 9-13, 2013[edit]

Space Environment Analog for Testing EVA Systems and Training [44] ( NEEMO 17 ) Designation skipped[45]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

Aquarius Reef Base support crew:[46]

NEEMO 18: July 21–29, 2014[edit]

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

NEEMO 19: September 7–13, 2014[edit]

The NEEMO 19 crew: Left to right:Hansen, Stevenin, Mogensen, Bresnik; inside habitat: Hulsbeck, LaPete.

NASA Aquanaut Crew:

Aquarius Reef Base support crew:

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NEEMO/index.html
  2. ^ a b c NASA (March 21, 2006). "NEEMO History". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved November 21, 2011. 
  3. ^ http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NEEMO/about_neemo.html
  4. ^ http://aquarius.fiu.edu/
  5. ^ http://aquarius.fiu.edu/about/
  6. ^ a b c d e NASA (February 27, 2006). "Behind the Scenes: Training - NEEMO History". NASA. Retrieved March 23, 2012. 
  7. ^ NASA (June 2011). "Astronaut Bio: Edward Michael "Mike" Fincke (06/2011)". NASA. Retrieved September 22, 2011. 
  8. ^ NASA (April 21, 2011). "Life Sciences Data Archive : Experiment". NASA. Retrieved November 9, 2011. 
  9. ^ Walheim, Rex (September 24, 2002). "NEEMO 4 Journals". NASA. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  10. ^ NOAA (May 17, 2010). "NEEMO 4 Journals". NOAA. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  11. ^ NASA (April 21, 2011). "Life Sciences Data Archive : Experiment". NASA. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  12. ^ NASA (2003). "NEEMO 5". NASA. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  13. ^ "Aquarius - First Space Station Science Officer Leads Crew of Four NASA Aquanauts On 14-Day NOAA Aquarius Undersea Mission". University of North Carolina Wilmington. May 17, 2010. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  14. ^ Whitson, Peggy (June 19, 2003). "NEEMO 5 Journals". NASA. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  15. ^ NASA (August 3, 2004). "NEEMO 6". NASA. Retrieved February 26, 2012. 
  16. ^ NASA (September 6, 2011). "Life Sciences Data Archive : Experiment". NASA. Retrieved February 26, 2012. 
  17. ^ NASA (October 13, 2004). "NEEMO 7". NASA. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  18. ^ Canadian Space Agency (August 9, 2004). "CSA - Neemo 7 Mission". Canadian Space Agency. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  19. ^ NASA (April 21, 2011). "Life Sciences Data Archive : Experiment". NASA. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  20. ^ NOAA (May 18, 2010). "NEEMO 8". University of North Carolina Wilmington. Retrieved February 25, 2012. 
  21. ^ NASA (April 21, 2011). "Life Sciences Data Archive : Experiment". NASA. Retrieved February 25, 2012. 
  22. ^ NASA (2006). "NASA's Undersea Crew is Heads Above Water". NASA. Retrieved September 23, 2011. 
  23. ^ NASA (April 3, 2006). "NASA's NEEMO 9 Aquanaut Human Performance Study Begins". NASA. Retrieved November 8, 2011. 
  24. ^ NASA (2006). "NASA Uses Undersea Lab to Prep for Future Space Exploration". NASA. Retrieved March 21, 2012. 
  25. ^ NASA (July 22, 2006). "NASA - NEEMO 10 Mission Journal". NASA. Retrieved March 21, 2012. 
  26. ^ NASA (May 11, 2010). "NEEMO 11". NASA. Retrieved September 26, 2011. 
  27. ^ NASA (September 1, 2006). "NASA Continues Space Exploration Research With Undersea Lab". NASA. Retrieved November 8, 2011. 
  28. ^ NASA (May 17, 2007). "NEEMO 12". NASA. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  29. ^ NEEMO 12 Topside Team (May 6, 2007). "NASA - NEEMO 12 Topside Journal". NASA. Retrieved March 10, 2012. 
  30. ^ NASA (July 24, 2007). "NASA Announces Next Undersea Exploration Mission Dates and Crew". NASA. Retrieved February 3, 2012. 
  31. ^ Topside Team (August 8, 2007). "NEEMO 13 Topside Report - Training Week". NURC. Retrieved February 3, 2012. 
  32. ^ NASA (July 9, 2010). "NASA - NEEMO 14". NASA. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  33. ^ Alexander, Aaron (2010). "Archive for the 'NEEMO 14' Mission". NURC. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  34. ^ NASA (May 7, 2010). "NASA - NEEMO 14 Topside Report No. 1, May 7, 2010". NASA. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  35. ^ a b NASA (September 19, 2011). "NASA - NASA Announces 15th Undersea Exploration Mission Date And Crew". NASA. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  36. ^ NASA (October 27, 2011). "NASA - NEEMO 15 Topside Reports". NASA. Retrieved March 18, 2012. 
  37. ^ NASA (April 16, 2012). "NASA - NASA Announces 16th Undersea Exploration Mission Dates and Crews". NASA. Retrieved April 17, 2012. 
  38. ^ Peake, Tim (April 29, 2012). "NEEMO 16 - In search of an asteroid". European Space Agency. Retrieved May 3, 2012. 
  39. ^ The NEEMO Mission Management and Topside Support Team (June 12, 2012). "NEEMO 16 Mission Day 2 - Status Report" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  40. ^ Love, Stan (June 17, 2012). "Dr. Love's Underwater Blog: NEEMO 16". NASA. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  41. ^ Squyres, Steve (June 17, 2012). "NEEMO 16: EVA Divers and Subs". NASA. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  42. ^ Love, Stan (June 18, 2012). "Dr. Love's Underwater Blog: Mobility and Stability with DeepWorkers". NASA. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  43. ^ Stevenin, Hervé (June 19, 2012). "The NEEMO 16 Aquanauts meet the Men in Black". Yahoo! Inc. Retrieved July 13, 2012. 
  44. ^ http://www.nasa.gov/content/nasa-international-partners-plan-undersea-training-mission/#.VDlB_WccSUk
  45. ^ a b c Bergin, Chris (June 11, 2014). "NEEMO returns with two new underwater missions". NASASpaceflight. Retrieved June 24, 2014. 
  46. ^ http://hyspeedblog.wordpress.com/2013/09/16/aquarius-seatest-ii-astronauts-emerge-from-a-successful-underwater-mission/
  47. ^ a b "NASA plant zwei neue Unterwasser-Missionen" (in German). ORF. 10 June 2014. Retrieved June 20, 2014. 

External links[edit]

Media related to NEEMO at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 24°57′00″N 80°27′13″W / 24.95000°N 80.45361°W / 24.95000; -80.45361