|Country of origin||Netherlands|
|Responsible organization||Mars One and Interplanetary Media Group|
|Program duration||2010 – Present|
|First flight||January 2018 (planned)|
|First crewed flight||April 2024 (planned)|
|Crew vehicle||Mars One Dragon (planned)|
|Launch vehicle(s)||Falcon Heavy (planned)|
Mars One is a non-profit organization that plans to establish a permanent human colony on Mars by 2025. The private spaceflight project is led by Dutch entrepreneur Bas Lansdorp, who announced plans for the Mars One mission in May 2012.
Mars One claims that in 2024, four carefully selected applicants will then be launched in a Mars-bound spaceflight to become the first residents on Mars, and that every step of the crew’s journey will be documented for a reality television program that will broadcast 24/7/365.
The organization has mapped out the next several years in order to highlight major plans and goals for the mission. January 2018 will mark the start of the Mars One colonization effort when a supply mission, carrying 2,500 kilograms (5,500 lb) in spare parts, solar panels, and other necessary supplies, will be launched and scheduled to land in 2018.
In 2020, a settlement rover will explore the terrain of Mars in search of the ideal location for humans to reside. In 2022, the rovers will prepare to assemble the landing of six separate units to sustain human life. Two living units, two life support units, another supply unit, and a third rover will all arrive in this year. By 2024, the first Mars One team, consisting of four carefully selected applicants, will be launched where they will become the first expected residents of the Red Planet in 2025. By 2026, a new four-person Mars One crew will be sent for residency. The organization’s goal is to send four-person spaceflights to the Red Planet every two years after the successful landing of the initial crew. 
- 1 Mission plan
- 2 Selection process
- 3 Funding
- 4 Technology
- 5 Training Program
- 6 Advisors
- 7 Criticism
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Mars One plans to establish the first human settlement on Mars. According to their schedule, the first crew of four astronauts would arrive on Mars in 2025, after a seven-month journey from Earth. Further teams would join their settlement every two years, with the intention that by 2033 there would be over twenty people living and working on Mars. The astronaut selection process began on April 22, 2013.
- 2013: a replica of the settlement will be built for training purposes.
- 2014: The first communication satellite will be produced.
- July 2015: The astronaut selection process will be completed; six teams of four.
- 2016: The original concept plans called for a supply mission to be launched during January (arriving October) with 2,500 kilograms (5,500 lb) of food in a 5-metre (16 ft) diameter variant of the SpaceX Dragon. The fallback if this is not ready in time is either to use a 3.8-metre (12 ft) Dragon or to delay by two years.[dated info]
- 2018: An exploration vehicle was projected to launch to assist in selecting the location of the settlement.[dated info] In December 2013, mission concept studies for a 2018 Mars mission were contracted with Lockheed Martin and Surrey Satellite Technology for a 2018 demonstration mission to provide proof of concept for a subset of the key technologies for a later permanent human settlement on Mars.
- 2021: Six additional Dragon capsules and another rover will launch with two living units, two life support units and two supply units.
- 2022: A SpaceX Falcon Heavy will launch with the first group of four colonists.
- 2023: The first colonists will arrive on Mars in a modified Dragon capsule.
- 2025: A second group of four colonists will arrive. Every two years, an additional group of four colonists will arrive.
- 2033: The colony will reach 20 settlers.
The Mars One website states that the team behind Mars One began planning of Mars One in 2011. The company states that they researched the feasibility of the idea with specialists and expert organizations, and discussed the financial, psychological and ethical aspects of it.
The application period
The application was available from April 22, 2013 to August 31, 2013. The application consists of applicant’s general information, a motivational letter, a résumé and a video. Mars One plans to hold several other application periods in the future.
Anyone over the age of 18 may apply, as long as the application is submitted in one of the 11 most used languages on Internet: English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Russian, Arabic, Indonesian, Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, or Korean. Applicants are judged on resiliency, adaptability, curiosity, ability to trust, and creativity.
By 9 September 2013, 2,782 applicants had paid their registration fee and submitted public videos in which they made their case for going to Mars in 2023. The application fee varies from US $5 to US $75 (the amount depending on the relative wealth of the applicant's country).
Application videos are available to be watched online.
The interview period
Initial screening of the applicant pool will begin in December of 2013. Each one of the 300 regional committees will choose applicants to proceed to this period.
Selected candidates must then provide a medical statement of good health from a physician.
Medically cleared candidates will then be interviewed by one of the 300 regional selection committees who will select applicants to continue to the next step.
Regional selection period
The regional selection could be broadcast on TV and Internet in countries around the world. In each region, 20-40 applicants will participate in challenges that demonstrate their suitability to become one of the first humans on Mars. The audience will select one winner per region, and the experts can select additional participants, if is need, to continue to the international level.
This international event will be broadcast throughout the world. The Mars One selection committee will create international groups from the individual candidates.
The groups will receive their first short-term training in a copy of the Mars outpost. Whole teams and individuals might be selected out during training when they prove not to be suitable for the mission.
By 2015, six to ten teams of four people each will be selected for seven years of full-time training. The selected people will become full-time employees of the Mars One astronaut corps. Each of these groups would obtain the qualifications and skills necessary for the trip to Mars, so in that respect, it should not matter who goes first. However, given the extraordinary symbolic and historic significance of this issue, the selection process will involve a democratic decision. "The people of Earth will have a vote on which group of four will be the first Earth ambassadors to Mars."
|Country of buyer/donor||Revenue amount (in US $)|
|United States of America||
|Others (62 countries)||
|Total (from 82 countries)||
A one-way trip, excluding the cost of maintaining four astronauts on Mars until they die, is claimed to cost approximately 6 billion USD. Lansdorp has declined questions regarding the cost estimate because he believes "it would be very stupid for us to give the prices that have been quoted per component". For comparison, an "austere" manned Mars mission (including a temporary stay followed by a return of the astronauts) proposed by NASA in 2009 had a projected cost of 100 billion USD after an 18-year program.
Mars One, the not-for-profit foundation, is the controlling stockholder of the for-profit Interplanetary Media Group. A global reality-TV media event is intended to provide most of the funds to finance the expedition. It should begin with the astronaut selection process (with some public participation) and continue on through the first years of living on Mars.
On 31 August 2012, company officials announced that funding from its first sponsors had been received. Corporate sponsorship money will be used mostly to fund the conceptual design studies provided by the aerospace suppliers.
- Australian Science (Australian-based science project)
- Byte Internet (Dutch Internet service provider)
- Aleph Objects, Inc. (U.S. developer and manufacturer of rapid prototyping 3D printers)
- Verkkokauppa.com (Finland's 2nd largest consumer electronics retailer)
- Gerald W. Driggers (author of The Earth-Mars Chronicles)
- SoftLayer Technologies, Inc. (U.S.-managed hosting and cloud computing provider)
- VBC Notarissen (Dutch law firm)
- MeetIn (Dutch consulting company)
- Intrepid Research & Development (U.S. engineering company)
- Trans Space Travels (German foundation)
- Edinburgh International Science Festival
- Baluw Research (Dutch market research firm)
- Mind Power Hungary (Hungarian language translation firm)
- Regus (multinational business and facility management corporation)
- Feinstein Associates (International Air & Space law firm)
- KIVI NIRIA (Royal Institution of Engineers in the Netherlands)
- Rockstart Accelerator
- Space Dream Studios (space-related software and games)
- Kliniek Amstelveen (Dutch medical services)
- Mpress Books (British publishing firm)
- MakeAmsterdam (graphic design and branding)
- Great Communicators (speech training)
- Dejan SEO (Australian marketing firm)
Since December 2012 and the official announcement of their conversion to a Stichting, Mars One has been accepting one off and regular monthly donations through their website. As of October 31, 2013, Mars One has received $183,870 in donations.
On December 10, 2013, Mars One set up a crowd funding campaign on Indiegogo to fund their 2018 robotic mission to set up their colony and seek out a location for their settlement. Their goal is to raise $400,000 USD by January 25, 2014; they had already raised $34,720 in the first 24 hours of their campaign. 
Intellectual Property (IP)
Mars One has stated that it will retain ownership of technology developed for its mission, and that subsequent licensing fees from this technology will help fund future missions.
Mars One has identified at least one potential supplier for each component of the mission. The major components are to be acquired from proven suppliers. As of May 2013[update], Mars One has a contract with only one company, Paragon Space Development Corporation, for a preliminary life support study. Mars One plans to use SpaceX hardware for the launcher, lander and crew habitat but, as of May 2013, SpaceX has not yet been contracted to supply mission hardware and SpaceX has stated that they do "not currently have a relationship with Mars One."
Mars Transit Vehicle
A manned interplanetary spacecraft which would transport the crew to Mars. It would be assembled in low earth orbit and comprise two propellant modules, a Transit Living Module (discarded just before arrival at Mars) and a lander (see "Human Lander" below).
A satellite in Mars orbit to relay video, speech and data between the settlement and Earth, and the related transceivers on Mars and Earth. The likely supplier for the satellite is Surrey Satellite Technology.
The lander is planned to be used in five roles:
- Life Support Unit – a lander containing systems for generating from Martian resources the energy, water and breathable air needed by the settlers. The likely supplier for these systems is Paragon Space Development.
- Supply Unit – a lander carrying only cargo (supplies).
- Living Unit – a lander containing an inflatable module to provide habitable space for the settlers on Mars. The likely supplier of the inflatables is ILC Dover.
- Human Lander – a lander to carry the settlers to the surface of Mars (see "Mars Transit Vehicle" above).
- Rover Lander – a lander to carry the two rovers to the surface of Mars.
The Mars Suit would be flexible to allow the settlers to work with both cumbersome construction materials and sophisticated machinery when they are outside the habitat while protecting them from the cold, low pressure and noxious gases of the Martian atmosphere. The likely supplier of the suits is ILC Dover. On March 12, 2013, Paragon Space Development Corporation was contracted to develop concepts for life support and the Mars Surface Exploration Spacesuit System.
Mars inhabitants will be prepared for the mission by a full-time extensive training program. The training is split up into three programs: technical training, personal training and group training.
The astronauts will be required to learn skills and gain proficiency in a wide variety of disciplines.
- 2 astronauts must be proficient in the use and repair of all equipment in order to be able to identify and solve technical problems.
- 2 astronauts will receive extensive medical training in order to be able to treat minor and critical health problems, including first aid and use of the medical equipment that will accompany them to Mars. Meaning at least two crewmembers will be trained in each essential skill-set in case a member becomes ill. Their training and preparations will take all the time between their admittance to the program, and the start of their journey to Mars.
- 1 person will train in studies on Mars geology
- another 1 will gain expertise in exobiology, the biology of alien life.
- Other specialties like physiotherapy, psychology and electronics will be shared among all astronauts in each of the initial groups.
The ability to cope with the difficult living environment on Mars will be an important selection criterion. The astronauts will be initially chosen for their inherent ability to cope with these environments, and will receive training on most effectively dealing with them.
Group training will take place in the form of simulation missions. A simulation mission is an extensive, fully immersive exercise that prepares the astronauts for the real mission to Mars. The simulated environment will invoke as many of the Mars conditions as possible. Immediately after selection, the groups will participate in these simulations for three months per year. During simulations, astronauts will only be able to leave the base when wearing their Mars suits. They will have to take care of their water supply and keep the life support systems up and running. They must also cultivate their own food, and all communications with the outside world will be artificially delayed by twenty minutes.
There will be several simulation bases, some easy to access for early stage, while others will be located in a harsh environments on Earth, providing realistic desert terrain and drastically cold conditions. These trials will demonstrate whether they are suitable for all elements of the task ahead.
As of January 2013[update] the Mars One advisory board includes:
- Tanja Masson-Zwaan – Deputy Director of the International Institute of Air and Space Law at Leiden University, President of the International Institute of Space Law, board member of the Netherlands Space Society, advisory board member of the Space Generation Advisory Council and was on the founding board of Women in Aerospace Europe.
- Brian Enke – Senior Space Research Analyst at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, USA.
- Professor Pascale Ehrenfreund – lead investigator with the NASA Astrobiology Institute.
- Dr. Gino Ormeno – Aviation Medical Examiner.
- Steve Carsey – UK television executive and CEO of Conceive Media, a consultancy, development and production venture specialising in the creation of cross platform entertainment brands for the global market.
- Dr. Raye Kass – Professor of Applied Human Sciences at Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.
- Professor Thais Russomano – has over 20 years experience in Aerospace Medicine, Space Physiology and Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, and Telemedicine & eHealth research and development.
- Dr. Christopher P. McKay – Planetary Scientist at NASA Ames. He has a particular interest in the evolution of the Solar System and the origin of life and is actively involved in planning for future Mars missions including human exploration. Dr McKay has been involved with research in several Mars-like environments and has traveled to the Antarctic Dry Valleys, the Atacama Desert, the Arctic, and the Namib Desert.
- Dr. John D. Rummel – Director of the Institute for Coastal Science and Policy at East Carolina University.
- Dr. John W. Traphagan – Associate Professor of Religious Studies and Centennial Commission and the Liberal Arts Fellow at the University of Texas at Austin.
- Dr. James R. Kass – has worked in the field of human spaceflight for more than 30 years.
- Jamie Guined – exercise scientist at the Exercise Physiology Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center and countermeasures researcher at the NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit, and science faculty member at the University of Phoenix.
- Professor Stefano Stramigioli – professor of Advanced Robotics and chair holder at the Robotics and Mechatronics group at the University of Twente and a member of the ESA topical team on the dynamics of prehension in micro-gravity and its application to robotics and prosthetics.
- Dr. Günther Reitz – head of the department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center where he leads research on the biological effects of space radiation in manned space missions. Permanent chairman of the Workshop of Radiation Monitoring on the ISS (WRMISS) since its foundation in 1996.
- Professor Leo Marcelis – professor in Crop Production in Low-Energy Greenhouses, Wageningen University, The Netherlands where he leads research into crop management, crop physiology and the modelling of greenhouse horticulture. He has over 25 years of experience in research on plant growth in controlled environments (greenhouses and climate rooms). Working in close collaboration with other university departments he develops complete and reliable food systems.
Chris Welch, director of Masters Programs at the International Space University, has said "Even ignoring the potential mismatch between the project income and its costs and questions about its longer-term viability, the Mars One proposal does not demonstrate a sufficiently deep understanding of the problems to give real confidence that the project would be able to meet its very ambitious schedule."
Robert Zubrin, advocate for manned Martian exploration, said "I don't think the business plan closes it. We're going to go to Mars, we need a billion dollars, and we're going to make up the revenue with advertising and media rights and so on. You might be able to make up some of the money that way, but I don't think that anyone who is interested in making money is going to invest on that basis — invest in this really risky proposition, and if you're lucky you'll break even? That doesn't fly." Despite his criticisms of some of the elements of Mars One, Zubrin became an advisor to Mars One on October 10, 2013.
- Mars One Movie
- Colonization of Mars
- Inspiration Mars, an American non-profit organization which aims to launch a manned mission to fly by Mars in January 2018
- Manned mission to Mars
- MARS-500, a psychosocial isolation experiment conducted between 2007 and 2011 by Russia
- Mars to Stay
- Private spaceflight
- SpaceX Mars Colonial Transporter
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- [dead link]
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- Bas Lansdorp speaking at the 16th Annual International Mars Society Convention http://new.livestream.com/accounts/4950775/events/2308259/videos/27657223
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- Zubrin joins the Advisory Board
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