September 19, 1965 |
Euclid, Ohio, U.S.
|Other occupation||Test pilot|
|Time in space||321 days 17 hours 15 minutes|
|Selection||1998 NASA Group|
|Total EVA time||50 hours and 40 minutes|
|Missions||STS-116, Expedition 14, Expedition 15, STS-117, Soyuz TMA-05M, Expedition 32, Expedition 33|
Sunita Lyn "Suni" Williams née Pandya  (born September 19, 1965) is a former American astronaut and a United States Navy officer. She holds the records for longest single space flight by a woman (195 days), total spacewalks by a woman (seven), and most spacewalk time for a woman (50 hours, 40 minutes).
Ancestry and early life
Sunita Williams was born in Euclid, Ohio, to Indian American neuroanatomist Deepak Pandya and Slovene American Ursuline Bonnie Pandya (née Zalokar), who have three children and reside in Falmouth, Massachusetts. Sunita is the youngest of three siblings, her brother Jay Thomas is four years older and her sister Dina Anna is three years older.
Williams’ paternal ancestry is from Jhulasan, Mehsana district in Gujarat, India, while her maternal great grandmother Mary Bohinc (originally Marija Bohinjec), born 5 September 1890 in Leše, immigrated to America as eleven years old girl with her mother, an 1891 Slovene emigrant Ursula Bohinc née Strajhar.
Williams graduated from Needham High School in Needham, Massachusetts, in 1983. She received a Bachelor of Science degree in Physical science from the United States Naval Academy in 1987, and a Master of Science degree in Engineering Management from Florida Institute of Technology in 1995.
Williams was commissioned an ensign in the United States Navy in May 1987. After a six-month temporary assignment at the Naval Coastal System Command, she was designated a Basic Diving Officer. She next reported to the Naval Air Training Command, where she was designated a Naval Aviator in July 1989. She received initial H-46 Sea Knight training in Helicopter Combat Support Squadron 3 (HC-3), and was then assigned to Helicopter Combat Support Squadron 8 (HC-8) in Norfolk, Virginia, with which she made overseas deployments to the Mediterranean, Red Sea and the Persian Gulf for Operation Desert Shield and Operation Provide Comfort. In September 1992, she was the Officer-in-Charge of an H-46 detachment sent to Miami, Florida, for Hurricane Andrew relief operations aboard the USS Sylvania. In January 1993, Williams began training at the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School. She graduated in December, and was assigned to the Rotary Wing Aircraft Test Directorate as an H-46 Project Officer and V-22 chase pilot in the T-2. Later, she was assigned as the squadron Safety Officer and flew test flights in the SH-60B/F, UH-1, AH-1W, SH-2, VH-3, H-46, CH-53 and the H-57. In December 1995, she went back to the Naval Test Pilot School as an instructor in the Rotary Wing Department and as the school's Safety Officer. There she flew the UH-60, OH-6 and the OH-58. She then went to the USS Saipan as the Aircraft Handler and the Assistant Air Boss. Williams was deployed on the Saipan in June 1998 when she was selected by NASA for the astronaut program.
She has logged more than 3,000 flight hours in more than 30 aircraft types.
Williams began her Astronaut Candidate training at the Johnson Space Center in August 1998. It included orientation briefings and tours, numerous scientific and technical briefings, intensive instruction in Space Shuttle and International Space Station systems, physiological training and ground school to prepare for T-38 flight training, as well as learning water and wilderness survival techniques.
Following training and evaluation, Williams worked in Moscow with the Russian Space Agency on the Russian contribution to the ISS, and with the first expedition crew sent to the ISS. After Expedition 1 returned, Williams worked in the Robotics branch on the ISS Robotic Arm and the related Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator. She was a crew member on the NEEMO 2 mission, and lived underwater in the Aquarius habitat for nine days in May 2002.
In 2008, Williams served as NASA's Deputy Chief of the Astronaut Office. She was assigned as a backup crew member for Expedition 30 to the International Space Station, was a crew member of Expedition 32, which launched in July 2012, and then became the Commander of Expedition 33, which began in September 2012.
Like many astronauts, Williams is a licensed amateur radio operator, having passed the technician-class license exam in 2001, and was issued the call sign KD5PLB by the Federal Communications Commission on August 13, 2001. She used one of the two amateur radio stations aboard the ISS when she talked with school children.
Williams was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) with STS-116, aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery, on December 9, 2006, to join the Expedition 14 crew. In April 2007, the Russian members of the crew rotated, changing to Expedition 15.
Expeditions 14 and 15
After launching aboard the Shuttle Discovery, Williams arranged to donate her pony tail to Locks of Love. Fellow astronaut Joan Higginbotham cut her hair aboard the International Space Station and the ponytail was brought back to Earth by the STS-116 crew.
Williams performed her first extra-vehicular activity on the eighth day of the STS-116 mission. On January 31, February 4, and February 9, 2007, she completed three spacewalks from the ISS with Michael López-Alegría. During one of these walks, a camera became untethered, probably because the attaching device failed, and floated off to space before Williams could react.
On the third spacewalk, Williams was outside the station for 6 hours and 40 minutes to complete three spacewalks in nine days. She has logged 29 hours and 17 minutes in four spacewalks, eclipsing the record held by Kathryn C. Thornton for most spacewalk time by a woman. On December 18, 2007, during the fourth spacewalk of Expedition 16, Peggy Whitson surpassed Williams, with a cumulative EVA time of 32 hours, 36 minutes.
In early March 2007, she received a tube of wasabi in a Progress spacecraft resupply mission in response to her request for more spicy food. When she opened the tube, which was packaged at one atmospheric pressure, the gel-like paste was forced out in the lower pressure of the ISS. In the free-fall environment, the spicy geyser was difficult to contain.
On April 16, 2007, she ran the first marathon by a person in orbit. Williams finished the 2007 Boston Marathon in four hours and 24 minutes . The other crew members cheered her on and gave her oranges during the race. Williams' sister, Dina Pandya, and fellow astronaut Karen L. Nyberg ran the marathon on Earth, and Williams received updates on their progress from Mission Control. In 2008, Williams participated in the Boston Marathon again, this time on Earth. That same year, on the game show Duel, a question was made from that event. The answers were: London, New York, International Space Station, Paris. The most correct was the ISS.
On April 26, 2007, NASA decided to bring Williams back to Earth on the STS-117 mission aboard Atlantis. She did not break the U.S. single spaceflight record that was recently broken by former crewmember Commander Michael López-Alegría, but did break the record for longest single spaceflight by a woman.
Williams served as a mission specialist and returned to Earth on June 22, 2007, at the end of the STS-117 mission. Poor weather at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral forced mission managers to skip three landing attempts there over previous 24 hours. They then diverted Atlantis to Edwards Air Force Base in California, where the shuttle touched down at 3:49 p.m. EDT, returning Williams home after a record 192-day stay in space.
Expeditions 32 and 33
Williams launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on July 15, 2012 as part of Expedition 32/33. Her Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-05M docked with the ISS for a four-month stay at the orbiting outpost on 17 July 2012. The docking of the Soyuz occurred at 4:51 GMT as the ISS flew over Kazakhstan at an altitude of 252 miles. The hatchway between the Soyuz spacecraft and the ISS was opened at 7:23 GMT and Williams floated into the ISS to begin her duties as a member of the Expedition 32 crew. She was accompanied on the Soyuz TMA-05M spacecraft by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Aki Hoshide and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko. Williams served as commander of the ISS during her stay onboard ISS Expedition 33, succeeding Gennady Padalka. She became the commander of the International Space Station on September 17, 2012, being only the second woman to achieve the feat. Also in September 2012, she became the first person to do a triathlon in space, which coincided with the Nautica Malibu Triathlon held in Southern California on Earth. She used the International Space Station's own treadmill and stationary bike, and for the swimming portion of the race, she used the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to do weightlifting and resistance exercises that approximate swimming in microgravity. After "swimming" half a mile (0.8 km), biking 18 miles (29 km), and running 4 miles (6.4 km), Williams finished with a time of one hour, 48 minutes and 33 seconds, as she reported.
She returned to earth with fellow astronauts Flight Engineers Yuri Malenchenko and Aki Hoshide on 19 November 2012, touching down in the town of Arkalyk,Kazakhstan. Helicopters joined the search-and-recovery crew to assist them, as their capsule parachuted down some 35 kilometres from the planned touchdown site due to a procedural delay.
On August 30, 2012, Williams and JAXA astronaut Hoshide ventured outside of the ISS to conduct US EVA-18. They removed and replaced the failing Main Bus Switching Unit-1 (MBSU-1), and installed a thermal cover onto Pressurized Mating Adapter-2 (PMA-2).
2007 visit to India
In September 2007, Williams visited India. She went to the Sabarmati Ashram, the ashram set up by Mahatma Gandhi in 1915, and her ancestral village Jhulasan in Gujarat. She was awarded the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Vishwa Pratibha Award by the World Gujarati Society, the first person of Indian descent who was not an Indian citizen to be presented the award. On October 4, 2007, Williams spoke at the American Embassy School, and then met Manmohan Singh, the Prime Minister of India.
Williams is married to Michael J. Williams, a Federal police officer in Oregon. The two have been married for more than 20 years, and both flew helicopters in the early days of their careers. She has a pet Jack Russell Terrier named Gorby who was featured with her on the "Dog Whisperer" television show on the National Geographic Channel on November 12, 2010. Her recreational interests include running, swimming, biking, triathlons, windsurfing, snowboarding and bow hunting. She is an avid Boston Red Sox fan.
- Society of Experimental Test Pilots
- Society of Flight Test Engineers
- American Helicopter Association
Honors and awards
- Navy Commendation Medal, twice
- Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal
- Humanitarian Service Medal
- Medal "For Merit in Space Exploration" (Russia, 2011) - for outstanding contribution to the development of international cooperation in manned space flight
- Padma Bhushan
- Honorary Doctorate by Gujarat Technological University in 2013 
- Golden Order for Merits (Slovenia, 2013) - for her contribution to the promotion of natural and technical sciences, and especially their promotion among younger generations of Slovenes 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sunita Williams.|
- "Astronaut Biography: Sunita Williams". SpaceFacts.de. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
- NASA (2007). "Sunita L. Williams (Commander, USN)". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- "Spacewalking astronauts conquer stiff bolt, install key power unit on 2nd trip outside". Associated Press. 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- Tariq Malik (2007). "Orbital Champ: ISS Astronaut Sets New U.S. Spacewalk Record". Space.com. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- Sunita Williams in her maternal ancestors' homeland one more time, Delo, March 26, 2013
- Sunita Williams to start her India trip from April 1, The Times of India, March 31, 2013
- Astronaut Bio: Sunita Williams (5/2008)
- QRZ.com (2007). "Sunita L Williams". QRZ.com. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- Radio Amateurs of Canada (2007). "Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS)". Radio Amateurs of Canada. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- "Colbert eagerly awaits NASA decision - CNN.com". CNN. April 14, 2009. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
- SiliconIndia (2006). "With Ganesh, the Gita and samosas, Sunita Williams heads for the stars". SiliconIndia. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- CollectSpace.com (2006-12-20). "Astronaut cuts her hair in space for charity". Collect space.com. Retrieved 2007-06-08.
- "Astronaut's Camera is Lost In Space". Adoama.com. 2006-12-22. Retrieved 2007-06-08.
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- NASA (2007). "Spacewalkers Find No Solar Wing Smoking Gun". NASA. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
- Schneider, Mike (2007-03-02). Space station suffers "wasabi spill". MSNBC. Retrieved 2007-03-02.
- Eldora Valentine (2007-04-06). "Race From Space Coincides with Race on Earth". NASA. Retrieved 2007-06-08.
- Zee News Limited (2007-04-17). "Sunita Williams Runs Marathon in Space". zeenews.com. Retrieved 2007-06-08.
- Jimmy Golen for The Associated Press (2007). "Astronaut to run Boston Marathon — in space". MSNBC. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- NASA (2007). "NASA Astronaut to Run Boston Marathon in Space". NASA. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- Amateur Radio News (2007-02-05). "Ham-astronauts setting records in space". Amateur Radio News. Retrieved 2007-06-08.
- Mike Schneider for The Associated Press (2007). "Astronaut stuck in space — for now". MSNBC. Retrieved December 19, 2007.
- "Sunita Williams' spacecraft docks with ISS". 17 July 2012.
- "Sunita Williams takes over command at International Space Station". 2012-09-17.
- "Indian-American astronaut Sunita williams takes over command at space station". Indian Express. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
- Staff writer (November 19, 2012). "Sunita Williams returns to Earth after 4 months in space". India Today.
- NASA (6 Sept 2012). "Williams, Hoshide Complete MBSU Installation". nasa.gov. Retrieved 7 Sept 2012.
- William Harwood (1 November 2012). "Astronauts bypass station cooling system on spacewalk". Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- Pete Harding, Chris Bergin and William Graham (14 July 2012). "Soyuz TMA-05M launches trio to the International Space Station". NASAspaceflight.com. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- "Sunita Williams". Retrieved 2012-05-24.
- American Embassy School (2007-10-05). "Astronaut Sunita Williams Visits AES". American Embassy School. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
- Dog Whisperer: Astronaut Dogs & Mongo, National Geographic Channel, November 12, 2010
- "Astronaut Sunita Williams to adopt Gujarati girl". 27 June 2012.
- "Sunita Williams receives Padma Bhushan". Retrieved 5 July 2008.
- "Sunita Williams conferred with Honorary Doctorate by Gujarat Technological University, India (2013)".
- "Predsednik republike podpisal ukaz o podelitvi odlikovanja Suniti Williams". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- Sunita Williams on Twitter
- NASA biography of Sunita Williams February 2008
- Nirali Magazine: Working Woman: Sunita Williams November 2004
- Take a tour in ISS with Sunita Williams November 2012