Neagu Djuvara

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Neagu Djuvara
Neagu Djuvara.JPG
Djuvara in November 2008
Born (1916-08-18) August 18, 1916 (age 97)
Bucharest, Kingdom of Romania
Occupation Writer, historian, philosopher, journalist, diplomat

Neagu Djuvara (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈne̯aɡu d͡ʒjuˈvara]; born August 18, 1916) is a Romanian historian, essayist, philosopher, journalist, novelist and diplomat.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

A native of Bucharest, he is descended from an aristocratic Aromanian family.[1][2] His father, Marcel, a graduate of the Technical University of Berlin and a Captain in the Romanian Royal Army's Engineer Corps, died of Spanish flu in 1918;[1][2] his mother, Tinca, was the last descendant of the Gradişteanu family of boyar origins (according to Djuvara, she was related to all boyar families in Wallachia).[1][2] Djuvara's uncles Trandafir and Alexandru Djuvara were notable public figures.[1][2] Djuvara was born during World War I; as an infant, he was taken by his family into refuge in Iaşi after the occupation of southern Romania by the Central Powers, and then, through Imperial Russia, into Belgium (where Trandafir Djuvara was Minister Plenipotentiary).[2]

He attended lycée in Nice, France, and graduated in Letters (1937) and Law (1940) from the University of Paris (his Law thesis dealt with the antisemitic legislation passed by the governments of King Carol II in Romania).[2] Djuvara later stated that, at the time, his political sympathies veered towards the far right: he became a supporter of the Romanian fascist movement, the Iron Guard, and took part in the February 1934 riot against the French Radical-Socialist government of Édouard Daladier.[2]

During World War II, he returned to Romania, where he married and fathered a child.[2] He joined the Romanian Armed Forces and was stationed in Ploieşti under the Iron Guard's National Legionary government.[2]

Following the establishment of Ion Antonescu's dictatorship and the start of Operation Barbarossa (see Romania during World War II), as an Officer Cadet, he fought on the Eastern Front, saw action in Bassarabia and Transnistria, before being wounded in the arm during the Battle of Odessa (1941).[1][2][3] He stated that he gave up his interest in the far right after a 1943 dialog with fellow diplomat Victor Rădulescu-Pogoneanu, who convinced Djuvara to become "a supporter of parliamentary democracy".[2]

Diplomat[edit]

Subsequently, Djuvara decided to apply for office in the diplomatic corps, won the competition, and was sent by Foreign Minister Mihai Antonescu as a diplomatic courier to Sweden, on the very day Ion Antonescu was toppled by a coup d'état and Romania pulled out of the Axis Powers to join the Allies (August 23, 1944).[1][2][4] In this capacity, he was instructed to communicate to the Romanian Ambassador in Stockholm, Frederic Nanu, that he was to ask the Soviet representative Alexandra Kollontai whether earlier terms advanced by Joseph Stalin in regard to peace with Romania were still valid (Nanu was also told not to inform the Western Allies of these talks).[4]

Speaking in retrospect, he argued against claims made by Nanu, according to which Ion Antonescu had thus indicated his willingness to step down and hand leadership of Romania to King Mihai I.[4] According to Djuvara, the last Soviet offer for Antonescu made only minor concessions — the entire country was to be occupied by the Red Army, with the exception of a random western county (to function as a provisional administrative center), and 15 days were given to the Romanian government to reach an armistice with Nazi Germany[2] (Djuvara considered this latter expectation particularly unrealistic, as it involved Germany consciously abandoning Romanian territory to its enemy).[2] Furthermore, Djuvara indicated, "Neither I nor Nanu were mandated to sign any document, to launch into any peace process".[2]

Appointed Legation Secretary in Stockholm by the Constantin Sănătescu executive, Djuvara was dismissed by the new Romanian Communist Party officials upon Ana Pauker's appointment as Foreign Minister (1947).[2][3]

Exile[edit]

Having been implicated in absentia in the series of show trials inaugurated in the wake of Communist Romania by the Tămădău Affair, accused of being a spy,[2] he decided to remain abroad.[1][2] He left for Paris and was subsequently involved in advocacy of anti-communist political causes and the rallying of exiled intellectuals.[2] Briefly employed by the International Refugee Organization, Djuvara became involved with the body of Romanian exiles, the Romanian National Committee, and helped organize American-assisted drops of voluntary paratroopers in support of the Romanian anti-communist resistance (most of whom were captured by the Securitate).[2] He renounced his position by 1951,[2] and subsequently worked for the exile magazine Casa Românească.[1]

In 1961, he settled in Niger, serving as an adviser for the country's Foreign Ministry (extending a two-year contract until 1984),[1] and was a Professor of International law and Economic history at the University of Niamey. Djuvara was an acquaintance of President Hamani Diori, and notably accompanied him on official duty to Addis Ababa, attending the opening session of the Organisation of African Unity (1963).[1] Having already begun to further his studies of Philosophy in Paris, he received a Sorbonne doctorat d'État in the Philosophy of history (with the thesis Civilisations et lois historiques, guided by Raymond Aron).[3][5] He was later awarded a diploma in Philology from INALCO.

After 1984, he returned to Europe, resuming his activities with Casa Românească and other Romanian cultural institutions in exile.[1] Djuvara was an active contributor to Radio Free Europe,[5] and divided his time between Paris and Munich (occasionally traveling to Canada and the United States).[5]

Post-1989[edit]

Djuvara returned to his native country soon after the Romanian Revolution of 1989. Between 1991 and 1998, he was an Associate Professor at the University of Bucharest. During the early 1990s, he was a noted critic of Romanian political developments, and especially of the Mineriad and the National Salvation Front government.[1][5]

He has since joined the National Liberal Party,[6] and expressed his concern that President Traian Băsescu was unable to complete planned reforms in the wake of Romania's accession to the European Union, as well as his belief that the former Securitate was still in a position of power.[6] He has also taken a conservative stance on European affairs, being a vocal critic of Europe's multiculturalism.[6]

He received a number of honours including the Grand Cross of the Romanian National Order "Faithful Service" (Ordinul naţional "Serviciul Credincios"). Most of his works in Romanian have been published by Humanitas.

Work as a historian[edit]

Most of Djuvara's work concerns the history of Romania and that of the Romanian people, although he has published significant works pertaining to the philosophy of history, particularly questioning the existence of what he calles "truthful history".[7]

Regarding Romanian history, Djuvara advocates continued and extensive research into what he believes is still unexplored territory. His views are often seen as undermining a Romanian national identity, mainly because of his expressing doubts on the scientific accuracy of most historic research done in Romania since the unification of 1918, and putting forward controversial hypotheses concerning the origin of the Romanians, such as advancing the theory that the vast majority of the nobility in the medieval states that made up the territory of modern-day Romania was of Cuman origin.[8][9]

He has also published extensively regarding the relationship between his native Romania and Europe, placing the country politically and culturally "between East and West",[10][11][12] citing it as the "last to enter what is commonly called the European concert",[9] referring not to Romania's 2007 accession to the European Union, but to the country's change of orientation towards adopting a Western political and cultural model. He has voiced his concern regarding multiculturalism in Europe, a policy which he views as detrimental to stability within the EU.[6]

He is a critic of what he perceives to be an excessively pro-Western attitude in Romanian politics, suggesting that Romanian society and culture cannot be classified as Western, citing Orthodoxy as the predominant religion, the presence of many non-Latin elements in the modern Romanian language and the country's history in the past centuries as arguments.[9]

He has also written about what he called the "American hegemony" and its premises, analysing the influence which the United States of America and its foreign policy have had on the World and, more specifically, on Europe. He characterises the efforts of the United States to establish what resembles a hegemony in Europe and other parts of the World as a "Seventy-Seven Years' War" waged throughout most of the 20th century.[13]

Neagu Djuvara can be seen as a populariser and "de-mystifier" of history, having published books aimed a younger audience as well as books seeking to explain the historical basis for mythical figures such as Dracula or Negru Vodă. He has also published memories from his exile, recounting his life and work in Paris, France and Niamey, Niger.[14]

Criticism[edit]

Though his diverse theories have been rejected by some mainstream historians, Neagu Djuvara remains one of the most influential Romanian historians of the 20th century, encouraging a critical approach to researching Romanian history and history in general. His work has been dismissed as "anti-Romanian" and he has been accused by prominent nationalist political figures of being a negative influence on Romanian self-perception and the perception of Romanians outside of Romania.

He has also encountered resistance in putting forward his theories by fellow historians who, by his own account, regard him as an "amateur".[9] Djuvara's credentials are, however, verified, and his works have seen increased support in recent years, largely due to his popularity in Romania.

Notable works[edit]

  • A Brief Illustrated History of Romanians, Humanitas 2014
  • The Mystery of the Stockholm Telegram of 23 August 1944 and Several Incredible Details Regarding Our Capitulation, Humanitas 2011
  • Who Were Wallachia’s Great Boyars? The Grădişteanu Family Saga (16th-20th Century), Humanitas 2010
  • The Seventy-Seven Years’ War (1914-1991) and the Premises of American Hegemony. An Essay in Political Science, Humanitas 2009
  • Churches of Moldavia, Editorial Artec 2009
  • Thocomerius – Negru-Vodă. A Voivode of Cuman Descent and the Beginnings of Wallachia, Humanitas 2007
  • Recollections of Exile", Humanitas 2005
  • Bucharest-Paris-Niamey and Return or Memoirs of 42 Years in Exile (1948-1990)", L'Harmattan 2004
  • Is There Such a Thing as True History?, Humanitas 2004
  • The Journal of Georges Milesco (autobiographic novel)", Humanitas 2004
  • From Vlad Ţepeş to Dracula the Vampire", Humanitas 2003
  • The Genesis of the Romanian People, Humanitas 2001
  • Mircea the Elder and His Wars Against the Turks", Humanitas 2001
  • The Aromanians: History, Language, Destiny", Editura Fundaţiei Culturale Române 1996
  • Between East and West. The Romanian Principalities at the Beginning of the Modern Age", Humanitas 1995
  • Civilisations and Historical Patterns. A Comparative Study of Civilisations, Mouton 1975

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l (Romanian) Bogdan Nicolai, "«Regret ca numele Djuvara va disparea odata cu mine»" ("«I Regret that the Name of Djuvara Will Be Extinguished with Me»"), interview with Neagu Djuvara, in Evenimentul Zilei, January 22, 2006 (hosted by www.presa-zilei.ro), retrieved June 13, 2007
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u (Romanian) Toma Roman Jr, "«Politiceşte, Ion Antonescu habar n-avea ce face»" ("«Politically, Ion Antonescu Had No Idea of What He Was Doing»"), interview with Neagu Djuvara, in Plai cu Boi, No.11, retrieved June 13, 2007
  3. ^ a b c (Romanian) Dan Giju, "Neagu Djuvara - Curierul de Stockholm" ("Neagu Djuvara -the Stockholm Courier"), interview with Djuvara at the Romanian Defense Ministry site, retrieved June 13, 2007
  4. ^ a b c Dennis Deletant, Communist Terror in Romania: Gheorghiu-Dej and the Police State, 1948-1965, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, London, 1999 ISBN 1-85065-386-0
  5. ^ a b c d (French) Jean-Pierre Longre, "Les tribulations d’un Roumain dans le monde" ("The Tribulations of a Romanian throughout the World"), at Sitartmag, retrieved June 13, 2007
  6. ^ a b c d (Romanian) Ovidiu Şimonca, "Neagu Djuvara: Sînt foarte îngrijorat de viitorul Europei unite" ("Neagu Djuvara: I Am Very Worried over the Future of United Europe"), interview with Neagu Djuvara at LiterNet, retrieved June 13, 2007
  7. ^ Există istorie adevarată? ("Is There a Truthful History?"), Humanitas, 2004
  8. ^ (Romanian) Eugen Istodor, "Revolutia lui Djuvara: „Romanii erau numiti cumanii negri“ ", interview with Neagu Djuvara in Cotidianul, retrieved June 19, 2007
  9. ^ a b c d (Romanian) Robert Turcescu, "Neagu Djuvara invited at 100% talk-show with Robert Turcescu on Realitatea TV"
  10. ^ Les pays roumains entre Orient et Occident. Les Principautés danubiennes au début du XIXe siecle ("The Romanian Lands between Orient and Occident. The Danubian Principalities at the Beginning of the 19th Century"), Publications Orientalistes de France, 1989
  11. ^ Între Orient şi Occident. Ţările române la începutul epocii moderne ("Between East and West. The Romanian Lands at the Beginning of the Modern Era"), Humanitas, 1995
  12. ^ Cum s-a născut poporul român? ("How Was the Romanian People Born?"), Humanitas, 2001
  13. ^ Războiul de şaptezeci şi şapte de ani (1914–1991) şi premisele hegemoniei americane ("The Seventy-Seven Years' War (1914–1991) and the Premises of the American Hegemony", Humanitas, 2009
  14. ^ Bucarest-Paris-Niamey et retour ou Souvenirs de 42 ans d'exil (1948–1990) ("Bucharest-Paris-Niamey and Back or Recollections from 42 Years of Exile (1948–1990)"), L'Harmattan, 2004

External links[edit]