|Chapters of the Book of Daniel|
1: Induction into Babylon
Daniel 2 is the second chapter of the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew Bible. The chapter's source text is predominantly written in Aramaic. According to the text, Nebuchadnezzar is the king of Babylon who is troubled by his dreams. He demands an interpretation for his dreams or will have his mystic interpreters executed. Daniel seeks Divine Wisdom to interpret the king's dreams and praises God with a short psalm. God gives Daniel a vision in the night to reveal the king's dream. Able to satisfy the king, Daniel is promoted over the whole province of Babylon.
- 1 Content
- 2 Literary analysis
- 3 Narrative analysis
- 4 Interpretations of idol image
- 5 Criticism of vision
- 6 Dead sea scrolls
- 7 Appendix
- 8 Footnotes
- 9 References
King troubled by dreams
The second chapter of Daniel introduces the time setting “in the second year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar”.KJV The king is distressed by his dreams [v.1] and summons his interpreters.[v.2] A dialogue, in Aramaic, occurs between the king and Chaldeans [v.3] where they request from the king that he relate his dream to them.[v.4] However, the king threatens the Chaldeans that they show him his dream and interpret it, lest they be executed.[v.5] Should they fulfill his request, he promises gifts. The king imposes on the Chaldeans the impossible demand, that they show him the dream and interpret it.[v.6] The Chaldeans request a second time for the king to relate the dream to them.[v.7] The king responds by charging them for buying time,[v.8] and charging them for conspiracy to lie. The impossible demand was renewed.[v.9] The Chaldeans deny that any man can do it, and deny that any king has ever asked it [v.10] and assert that only the gods can do it.[v.11] The dialogue concludes with the king acting in fury and demanding the execution of all the wise men in Babylon.[v.12]
Daniel and Arioch
After Daniel is introduced as one of the wise men,[v.13] dialogue occurs between Daniel and the captain of the king’s guard, Arioch.[v.14] Daniel’s prudence is noticed and he requests an explanation of the things that are happening. The captain responds with an indirect report.[v.15] Daniel requests for an appointment with the king.[v.16] Daniel makes known the king’s decree to his three companions [v.17] and instructs them to pray for God’s mercy to receive revelation of the king’s dream.[v.18] God then reveals the mystery to Daniel in a vision that night.[v.19]
Daniel’s doxology is a benediction that affirms God’s Divine wisdom and might.[v.20] It illustrates the control of times, power over kings, distribution of wisdom and knowledge,[v.21] and the Revelation of mysteries. The acknowledgement of darkness is contrasted with the association of light.[v.22] A declaration of thanks and praise is given for what God has given to Daniel, namely: wisdom, strength and the revelation of the king’s dream.[v.23]
Daniel approaches the king
In verses 24-30, Daniel goes to the king and asks for a chance to tell him what the dream was and its interpretation. Daniel then prays for the God of Heaven to reveal the dream and the interpretation. Daniel then explains it to Nebuchadnezzar as presaging what shall be "in the last days" (Aramaic:באחרית יומיא) (28).
The description of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream includes a "great image, whose brightness [was] excellent... and the form thereof [was] terrible."[v.31] A general description of the personified image is given from head to toe: whose head was made of fine gold, a chest and arms of silver, a belly of brass,[v.32] legs of iron, and feet made partly of iron and partly of clay.[v.33] The vision is then continued by relating the Vision of stone, its characterization: "not cut by hands", and its action that causes a dispersion of the statue’s metals,[v.34] smashing them into stubble. The stone grows to fill the whole Earth.[v.35] Thus concludes the presentation of the dream followed by its interpretation, by the formula: “this is the dream”.[v.36]
The king, Nebuchadnezzar, is the head of gold.[v.37-38] There will be another kingdom who will rise, succeeding Nebuchadnezzar, but inferior.[v.39] Followed by a Third kingdom who will rule over the whole earth.[v.39] Then, a Fourth kingdom will be as strong as iron and will crush all others.[v.40] The kingdom of iron becomes divided,[v.41] being partly strong like iron, and partly weak like clay.[v.42] The intermarriage between the two parts will fail.[v.43] "And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand forever." [v.44].
The second chapter of Daniel concludes with the king expressing homage to Daniel for relating his dream and interpreting it.[v.46] The king also relates his own doxology by affirming that God is god of gods for revealing the mystery of his dream.[v.47] The king honors Daniel and promotes him as chief governor over the whole province of Babylon.[v.48] At Daniel’s request, the companions are also promoted. Daniel remains at the king’s court.[v.49]
A. Introduction (v.1)
- B. The king and his unwise courtiers (vv.2-12)
- C. Daniel and Arioch (vv.13-16)
- D. Daniel and his friends pray to God (vv.17-23)
- C'. Daniel and Arioch (vv.24-25)
- C. Daniel and Arioch (vv.13-16)
- B'. The king and Daniel, the wise courtier (vv.26-47)
- B. The king and his unwise courtiers (vv.2-12)
A'. Result (vv.48-49)
The literary structure of the Book of Daniel illustrates the use of Aramaic in Daniel chapter 2. The first three verses of the source text are written in Hebrew. In verse 4, the Hebrew text says, "Then the Chaldeans spoke to the king in Aramaic"NKJV The actual source text is then written in Aramaic once they begin speaking to the king. It has been suggested that this was done on purpose to cue the reader, that what is to follow next in the reading, is now in Aramaic. It is also an indication that this was the language that the wise men spoke as this was, after all, the official language in use at that time. The text continues in Aramaic to the end of Chapter 7. Then starting with Chapter 8:1, the source text returns to being written in Hebraic Masoretic text to the end of the book.
The lack of continuity with other portions of Daniel are sometimes cited as evidence of editorial activity. Danna N. Fewell suggests that the biblical text compromises the narrator’s reliability as an accurate storyteller. However, John E. Goldingay suggests that these instances of repetitiveness and the lack of continuity in Daniel chapter 2, is the "responsibility of the author as a redactor".
With the second chapter being set in the second year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign,[v.1] it appears to conflict with Chapter 1, where Daniel and his companions were supposed to go through a three-year training course in the Babylonian academy.[1:5] Their final examination wouldn’t be due until the end of that three-year period.[1:18] However, literary irony could be drawn from the narrative in that Daniel was a mere trainee in the Babylonian academy, who was able to outperform the king’s full-fledged experts. A common motif in similar stories of the same literary genre, is the novice making fools of the experts. From the perspective of redaction criticism, the focus would be on the theological motif in that attention is not given to Daniel’s gifts, nor his Chaldean education. Rather, events unfold due to the Divine Wisdom and power that belongs to God alone.[v.13-19] This is indicated when Daniel urged his companions to seek God’s mercy for the interpretation of the king’s dreams and from Daniel’s doxology.[v.20-23] Numerous other solutions have been proposed for the seeming anachronism, as early as Flavius Josephus. Jerome and several others suggested the second year of Nebuchadnezzar was counted not from his rule over Babylon alone, but from his universal rule following his conquest of Egypt. One recent study proposes the second year dates from the consolidation of the Babylonian kingdom when Nebuchadnezzar appointed Zedekiah, placing the dream in 595 BCE.
According to form critics, Daniel 2 is made up numerous literary subgenres: a court tale, a dream report, a legend, an aretalogy, a doxology, and a midrash. In regards to the theme of interpreting kings’ dreams and being promoted to prominence, parallels can be drawn between Daniel in Nebuchadnezzar’s court and Joseph in Pharaoh’s court. Form-critical scholars attribute this to a shared folklore pattern of a success story where the lower-class hero solves a problem for the higher-class person and is then rewarded for doing so.
The narrative plot of Daniel chapter 2 is one of contest on a human level and a spiritual level. On the human level of understanding, the narrative conflict is the king’s dreams that cause him to rival against his corps of royal advisors. Daniel’s role is one of contest against the royal advisors to interpret the king’s dream. On a spiritual level, the narrative plot is the conflict between Yahweh, the god of Israel as the true god, verses the pantheon of idolized Babylonian gods. The cosmic dimension of the contest, to interpret the king’s dream, is the ultimate source of knowledge and wisdom: the god of the Hebrews or the occult lore of the Babylonian wise men.
Commentaries on verses
- Verses 1-12
Introduces Nebuchadnezzar’s volatile behavior. The king of Babylon experienced dreams that troubled him and kept him awake at nights. He demands an interpretation of the dreams and threatens a violent execution if he is not satisfied. The text implies a hint of distrust toward his magicians’ abilities to interpret his dreams. According to Artimedorus’s “Oneirocritica”: Dreams, especially those of kings, were regarded as portents. Because this class of servants failed to interpret his dreams, the king orders their deaths throughout all of Babylon. It is suggested that the king’s order to have these wise men of Babylon killed, foreshadows his irrational behavior in Daniel chapter 4.
- Verses 13-19
Daniel seeks divine aid, which suggests that he and his colleagues were not present at the earlier meeting with the king. The captain of the king’s guard, Arioch, is unattested in historical criticism. He is willing to disregard the king’s order to kill all the wise men of Babylon, in order to help Daniel. This appears to contrast with verse 24 where Daniel requires Arioch’s intervention in order to see the king. This discrepancy along with the reintroduction of Daniel’s companions in verse 17, suggests that verses 13-23 are later additions to the story. Daniel urged his companions to seek God’s mercy to reveal the mystery or secret of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream. The term Mystery is frequently found in the scrolls from Qumran, the Dead Sea Scrolls, that often indicates a secret that can be learned through divine wisdom. Daniel receives a vision in the night, to interpret Nebuchadnezzar’s dream.
- Verses 20-23
The doxology of Daniel is a short psalm that emphasizes the Divine as a repository of wisdom. Hymns and prayers are frequently inserted into postexilic narratives. Daniel's praise of God and his ability to depose kings, serves to foreshadow the end of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign.
- Verses 31-35
The personified giant image in the king's dream, was made up of metals of decreasing worth, starting from the head to the toes. They represent the Golden Age through the Silver, Bronze and Iron periods. Parallels can also be drawn from Greek (Hesiod, Works and Days), Latin (Ovid, Metamorphosis) and Persian (Bahman Yasht) writings. The mention of clay however is unexpected due to its weakness in substance. There is an irony, or potential humor, that can be drawn by the description of the clay serving as a support for the weightier metals.
- Verses 46-49
Nebuchadnezzar prostrated himself and worshiped Daniel, commanding offerings and incense to him. This suggests that the king viewed Daniel as divine. The king acknowledges the god of Daniel and honors him. However, Nebuchadnezzar never converts. This parallels the narrative of Antiochus IV Epiphanes who made death-bed promises, as indicated in 2 Maccabees 9:17. Daniel is then given gifts and is promoted to rule over the whole province of Babylon as Chief Governor over the wise men. Daniel takes this opportunity to have his companions: Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego appointed over the affairs of the province. The mention and promotion of the companions builds anticipation for the events they will face in the proceeding chapter, where their allegiance is tested.
Image of kingdoms
Daniel's interpretation of the body parts, of the personified image, are symbolic of nations. These kingdoms will be world empires who “will rule over the whole earth”. The identification of the kingdoms, following Nebuchadnezzar, are symbolized by inferior metals: silver, bronze, iron/clay, which imply gradual decline.
John Phillips even compares each of the metal’s specific gravity as being significant to the prophecy. Gold has a specific gravity of 19.3, silver at 10.51, brass at 8.5, iron at 7.6 and clay at 1.9.
Head of gold
The king, Nebuchadnezzar, is the head of gold.[v.37-38]
- As Babylon
David P. Jeremiah points out that the chief deity of Babylon was Marduk who was considered to be the “god of gold”. The historian Herodotus described the image of Marduk as a golden statue seated upon a golden throne before a golden table and a golden alter. Pliny also notes that the robes of Marduk’s priests were interlaced with gold.
Mark Mangano points out that the use of the word “another”, in v.39, suggests that the Neo-Babylonian Empire had been implied in the identification of Nebuchadnezzar with the “head of gold”. The Neo-Babylonian Empire had been founded by Nabopolassar (626-605 BCE), the father of Nebuchadnezzar. Nebuchadnezzar was followed by Amel-Marduk (562-560 BCE), the Evil-Merodach of the Book of 2 Kings 25:27-30, Neriglissar (560-556 BCE), Labashi-Marduk (556 BCE), and Nabonidus (556-539 BCE), the final king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
However, John Phillips contests that it was only Nebuchadnezzar who was the head of gold. He rejects the idea that the Babylonian empire was part of the head of gold, because he points out the following: The father, Nabopolassar didn't achieve what his son Nebuchadnezzar did, and that was conquering Jerusalem. Evil-Merodach only sat on the Babylonian throne for two years. Neriglassar only had the kingdom for three years and accomplished little beyond building a palace that ended up falling into Persian hands. Though Nabonidus reigned fifteen years, his reign was overshadowed by the Medes and Persians. Finally, Phillips views Belshazzar as being a dissolute young prince who imagined Babylon to be impregnable.
Chest and arms of silver
This will be another kingdom who will rise, succeeding Nebuchadnezzar, but inferior.[v.39]
Belly and thighs of bronze
This is the third kingdom who will rule over the whole earth.[v.39]
Legs of iron
A fourth kingdom will be as strong as iron and will crush all others.[v.40]
Feet of iron and clay
The feet made of iron and clay show that this kingdom becomes divided,[v.41] being partly strong like iron, and partly weak like clay.[v.42] The intermarriage between the two parts will fail.[v.43]
Jerome postulates that since clay and iron do not bond together, this kingdom is intrinsically weak. Unity is impossible and the kingdom is vulnerable because it seeks to unite elements that do not coalesce.
Vision of the stone
God will set up a kingdom that will shatter the other kingdoms and it will stand forever.[v.44] The stone is described as being cut out of the mountain without hands and reiterates how it will break all at once into pieces the image of metal: the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver, and the gold. It concludes with an affirmation of divine revelation and a certainty of the interpretation.[v.45]
Interpretations of idol image
Over the centuries, scholars have proposed two alternative interpretations regarding the identification of the four kingdoms in Daniel 2. The oldest view holds that the second kingdom of silver represents the Persian Achaemenid Empire, which historically succeeded the Babylonian Empire. As the Persian empire already included the Median Empire by this time, it is sometimes referred to as the "Medo-Persian Empire". An alternate view considers Median empire as a separate one in relation to the Daniel narrative, notwithstanding the fact that the Median Empire alone never historically succeeded the Babylonian one.
The following view has traditionally been more prevalent among Christian scholars:
- Head of gold - Babylon
- Breast and arms of silver- Medo-Persia
- Belly and thighs of brass- Hellenistic Greece
- Legs of iron - Rome
- Feet partly of iron and partly of molded clay - The divided Roman Empire
Supporters of this view since classical antiquity through the middle ages are: Flavius Josephus, Hippolytus, Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, and Martin Luther. Jewish expositors have also held this view, such as: Japet Ibn Ali, Saadia, Rashi, Abraham Ibn Ezra. "The Reformation ... was really born of a twofold discovery--first, the rediscovery of Christ and His salvation; and second, the discovery of the identity of Antichrist and his subversions." "The reformers were unanimous in its acceptance. And it was this interpretation of prophecy that lent emphasis to their reformatory action. It led them to protest against Rome with extraordinary strength and undaunted courage. ... This was the rallying point and the battle cry that made the Reformation unconquerable." Modern scholars who hold this view are: E. J. Young, Gerhard Pfandl, and John F. Walvoord. Evangelicals, such as Henrietta C. Mears, and Billy Graham also share this view.
Seventh-day Adventist interpretation
The Seventh-day Adventist interpretation of the statue is inherited from the Millerite movement.
|Chapter||Parallel sequence of prophetic elements as understood by Historicists|
|Chest & 2 arms
|Belly and thighs
|2 Feet with toes
Clay & Iron
God's unending kingdom
left to no other people
As the iron and clay are materials that simply cannot be used together to form a durable structure, Adventist scholars interpret this as the many short-lived successes throughout European history by various people to form a large empire or to form Europe into one large entity, such as the Holy Roman Empire, Napoleonic France, Nazi Germany, The European Union. Some propose a future religo-political power developed and enforced by a global superpower—a Common Government
Jehovah's Witnesses interpretation
- The gold head - Babylon
- The silver breast and arms - Medo-Persia
- The copper belly and thighs - Greece
- The iron legs - Rome
- The feet partly of iron and partly of molded clay - The Anglo-American World Power
The Anglo-American power is seen as the last dominant world power, emerging from a part of the Roman Empire (the iron legs) first as the British Empire, and then with the formation of the United States of America, to develop into the present-day special relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom. However the prophecy comments on the general state of human rule in addition to the last dominant human world power. This state is represented by the iron-and-clay, feet and toes of the statue. The iron and clay represent three characteristics of human rule, in general, during the time of the end (Vss 41-43): 1) These are incompatible materials, in that they do not mix. This represents traditional authoritarian rule uneasily coexisting with democratic rule. 2) The "lack of sticking together" describes the political fragmentation throughout human rule in the last days. 3) The focus of the clay as "the offspring of mankind" represents the common people having a say in how they are ruled during this time.
The "kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and ... not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand forever", in verse 44 of the prophecy, is said by Witnesses to be the heavenly kingdom established by God, with Jesus as appointed king, which will ultimately bring to an end human rulership. This kingdom will rule the Earth. It is a special government sponsored by God's universal sovereignty (the mountain in vs 35) to restore humans to perfection and restore the physical earth to its original and intended state of paradise.
Jehovah's Witnesses also believe that the sequence of world powers in Nebuchadnezzar's dream parallels that given in the vision in the Book of Revelation Chapter 17, verse 10 which speaks of "seven kings: five have fallen, one is, the other has not yet arrived". (Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia and Greece having "fallen" by the time Revelation was written; Rome was the world power at the time - "one is" - while the British Empire and subsequent emergence of the United States and their later alliance was then yet to come, hence "the other has not yet arrived".)
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) interpretation
The story in Daniel 2 has significant meaning to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, who believe that the true church was restored to the earth in the "latter days" through a modern prophet, Joseph Smith, in 1830.
Spencer Kimball explained in 1976, "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was restored in 1830. ...This is the kingdom, set up by the god of heaven, that would never be destroyed nor superseded, and the stone cut out of the mountain without hands that would become a great mountain and would fill the whole earth." Kimball agreed with the view of most Christians that the third kingdom represented that of Alexander the Great, the fourth represented the Roman Empire, and the feet of iron and clay represented a group of European nations, which were the great political powers at the time the Latter Day Saint movement was founded.
Interpretation according to the Maccabean thesis
Adherents of the Maccabean thesis view the four successive empires as culminating with the Seleucid Greek period of king Antiochus IV Epiphanes. These scholars argue that Daniel had believed that the Median empire followed Babylon, and was then displaced by Persia. Therefore, in their analysis of the narrative, the Median and Persian Empires should be viewed as separate. Those who subscribe to the Maccabean thesis are: Hartman, Alexander Di Lella, Lacocque, Montgomery, Norman Porteous, and John J. Collins. Conservative Christian scholars who also share this view are: H. H. Rowley, Gurney, Ernest Lucas, and J. H. Walton.
The proposed identities are:
- Head of gold - Babylonian Empire
- Breast and arms of silver - Median Empire
- Belly and thighs of copper - Persian Empire
- Legs of iron - Greek Empire of Alexander
- Feet partly of iron and partly of molded clay - The Seleucids and the Ptolemies
Daniel 2:43 ("they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another") in the second view refers to the unsuccessful marriage alliances between the Seleucids and Ptolemies.(Daniel 11:6, 11:17) According to scholars who hold to this view, only these two successors to the Greek kingdom were of interest to the author and his Jewish readers since these two dynasties had direct relation to Jewish affairs. They often fought over the ownership of Judea and the control of Jews in the 2nd century BC (Daniel 11:2-35).
The challenge to this view is that in other places in the book of Daniel, the kingdoms of Media and Persia are nowhere separated into two different kingdoms, one coming after the other, but are rather the two are combined into one kingdom, Medio-Persia and are treated as one unit. Daniel 9:20 ("“ The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.") Daniel 5:28 ("PERES; Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians")
Criticism of vision
The criticism of the book of Daniel is that it is a pseudepigraph dated to the mid-2nd century BC, concerned primarily with the Maccabean era and the reign of the Seleucid king Antiochus Epiphanes. The vision of the four kingdoms: Babylon, Media, Persia, and Greece, are associated with the theory that the book of Daniel terminates in the Hellenist era, and the "kingdom" represented by the stone may refer to the Hasmonean dynasty. This dynasty was set up by the Maccabees after their defeat of the Seleucid forces.
However, many Christian scholars[clarification needed] do not accept this interpretation, largely because Jesus is said in Matthew 24 to have quoted Daniel as a prophet who foretold future events. Some scholars believe that Jesus placed the fulfillment of Daniel's prophecy at the fall of Jerusalem in AD 70,; others think he was describing the "end of the age" (Matt. 24:3), immediately preceding Judgement Day. Therefore, their identification of the metals in the statue with empires tends to differ somewhat from the above-mentioned view of the scholars. Instead, the vision is considered to be about the development of Babylon and its successors, from the time of Nebuchadnezzar all the way to the future day when God's eternal kingdom will be established.
The identification of the gold head is not disputed, as the text clearly indicates that it represents Nebuchadnezzar himself, and by extension, the Babylonian Empire. However, in this view, the second kingdom, represented by the chest and arms of silver, is identified with the combined Medo-Persian empire (which commenced when the Persian king Cyrus the Great defeated Babylon.) The third kingdom, represented by the belly of bronze, is thought to be the Hellenic empire of Alexander and his successors. The fourth kingdom of iron legs becomes the Roman Empire, and the feet and toes of part iron and part clay are sometimes said to be nations that arise from the ashes of the Roman Empire, that will still be ruling when the "end" comes (the rock representing God's kingdom that will strike the idol).
In Christian interpretations[by whom?], the Kingdom of God (represented by the stone that destroys the statue) may be considered in a spiritual sense, as the kingdom set up by Jesus through his death and resurrection during the time of the Roman empire; or alternatively as the literal and physical kingdom that Jesus will set up at his second coming, in which case the feet and toes of part iron and part clay must represent the nations which take the place of the Roman empire until the end of time.
Aside from certain scholarly views[by whom?] that maintain the book was written in the time of Antiochus IV, the chapter itself claims to take place in the "second year of Nebuchadnezzar". This could refer to 604 BC, the second year he reigned in Babylon, or it might also possibly mean 587 BC, the second year of his reign over Judah after deposing his last puppet, king Zedekiah.
Dead sea scrolls
- 1QDana (2:2-6)
- 4QDana (2:9-11, 19-49)
Over the centuries Bible Scholars have identified specific kingdoms as fulfillment of the symbols in the image as illustrated in the following table.
|Interpretations of the kingdoms of Daniel 2 by Biblical expositors from the 1st to 19th centuries|
- Collins 1984, pp. 46–7
- Collins 1984, p. 47
- Collins 1984, p. 48
- Collins 1984, pp. 48–9
- Prinsloo, G.T.M. (1993). Two Poems in a Sea of Prose: The Context and Content of Daniel 2.20-23 and 6.27-28. Sheffield: JSOT Press. p. 99.
- J. G. Baldwin, "Book of Daniel" in New Bible Dictionary3rd edition, IVP
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, pp. 1255, footnote 2.1–12
- Longman & Garland 2009, p. 57
- editor, Danna Nolan Fewell, (1992). Reading between texts : intertextuality and the Hebrew Bible (1st ed. ed.). Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-664-25393-6.
- Goldingay 1989, p. 44
- Seow, C.L. (2003). Daniel (1st ed. ed.). Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-664-25675-9.
- The Times of Daniel, by George Duke of Manchester, 1845 p. 96.
- Daniel: Absolutes in a Gray World, 2009 p.131
- Goldingay 1989, p. 36
- Longman & Garland 2009, p. 58
- Redditt, Paul L. (1999). Daniel : based on the New Revised Standard Version. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-84127-009-8.
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1255, footnote 2.5
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1255, footnote 2.1
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.12
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.14
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.16
- Note: The companions were first introduced in Daniel 1:6-7 – Oxford annotated Bible. 2007. p. 1256, See footnote 2.17.
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.18
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.19
- Psalms 36:9, 41:13, 106:48, 139:11-12
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, pp. 1256, footnote 2.20–23
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1256, footnote 2.21
- Porteous, Norman W. (1965). Daniel : a commentary (null ed.). Philadelphia: Westminster Press. pp. 45–6. ISBN 978-0-664-22317-5.
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, pp. 1257, footnote 2.32–33
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1257, footnote 2.33
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1258, footnote 2.46
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1258, footnote 2.47
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1258, footnote 2.48
- Oxford annotated Bible 2007, p. 1258, footnote 2.49
- Mangano, Mark (2001). Esther & Daniel (null ed.). Joplin, Mo.: College Press Pub. p. 188. ISBN 0-89900-885-2.
- Phillips, John (2004). Exploring the book of Daniel : an expository commentary (null ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications. p. 53. ISBN 0-8254-3399-1.
- Jeremiah, David (2008). "3. Modern Europe...Ancient Rome". What in the world is going on? : 10 prophetic clues you cannot afford to ignore. Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson. ISBN 0-7852-2887-X.
- Mangano, Mark (2001). Esther & Daniel. College Press Pub. p. 323. ISBN 9780899008851.
- Mangano, Mark (2001). Esther & Daniel. College Press Pub. pp. 187–8. ISBN 9780899008851.
- Walvoord, John F. (2010). "11: World History in Prophetic Outline". Major Bible Prophecies: 37 Crucial Prophecies That Affect You Today. Zondervan. ISBN 0-310-87311-8.
- Phillips, John (2004). Exploring the book of Daniel : an expository commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications. pp. 53–4. ISBN 0-8254-3399-1.
- Baldwin, Joyce G. (2009). Daniel : an introduction and commentary (null ed.). Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic. p. 93. ISBN 0-8308-4223-3.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin, 1948, The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, 4 Volumes, Review and Herald Publishing Association. Pp. 4000+/-
- Froom 1948, p. 243
- Froom 1948, pp. 244, 245
- E. J. Young, The Messianic Prophecies of Daniel, 1952.
- Pfandl, Gerhard 2004, Daniel, the Seer of Babylon, Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 59.
- Mears, Henrietta (1999). What the Bible is all about (null ed.). Ventura, Calif.: Regal Books. p. 174. ISBN 0-8307-4329-4.
- Smith, U., 1944, Daniel and Revelation, Southern Publishing Association, Nashvill, TN
- Anderson, A., 1975, Pacific PRess Pub. Assoc., Unfolding Daniel's Prophecies, Mountain View, CA
- Pay Attention to Daniel's Prophecy! published by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society
- The Stone Cut Without Hands, Spencer Kimball, Ensign, May 1976
- Daniel Among the Babylonians
- Miller, Stephen R. (1994). Daniel. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-8054-0118-9.
- Miller, Stephen R. (1994). Daniel. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman & Holman. pp. 173–4. ISBN 978-0-8054-0118-9.
- Porteous, Norman W. (1965). Daniel: A Commentary. Westminster Press. p. 48.
- The apocalyptic imagination: an introduction to Jewish apocalyptic literature, John Joseph Collins, p. 95
- H. H. Rowley, Darius the Mede and the Four World empires in the Book of Daniel, 1935
- Ernest C. Lucas, Daniel, Apollos Old Testament Commentary
- J. H. Walton, "The Four Kingdoms of Daniel," JETS 29(1986):25-36.
- Collins, Daniel, p. 170
- Cf. H. H. Rowley: Darius the Mede and the Four World Empires, pp. 96
- Hartmann and DiLella, The Book of Daniel, p. 148
- Dillard and Longman, An Introduction to the Old Testament, Apollos 1995, pp. 329-350.
- Ronald Wallace (1979). The Message of Daniel. IVP. pp. 17–19, 58.
- H. H. Rowley (1935). Darius the Mede and the Four World empires in the Book of Daniel. p. 97.
- Craig Blomberg, Jesus and the Gospels, Apollos 1997, pp.322-326
- N. T. Wright, Jesus and the Victory of God, Fortress 1996, p. 348ff.
- Reginald H. Fuller (1988). James L Mays, ed. Harper's Bible Commentary. p. 977.
- Ronald Wallace (1979). The Message of Daniel. IVP. p. 58.
- VanderKam 2002, p. 423
- After table in Froom 1950, pp. 456–7
- After table in Froom 1950, pp. 894–5
- After table in Froom 1948, pp. 528–9
- After table in Froom 1948, pp. 784–5
- After table in Froom 1946, pp. 252–3
- After table in Froom 1946, pp. 744–5
- Bar, Shaul; Transl. by Lenn J. Schramm (2001). A letter that has not been read : dreams in the Hebrew Bible. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press. pp. 205–216. ISBN 9780878204243.
- Goldingay, John E. (1989). Daniel. Dallas, Tex.: Word Books. ISBN 978-0-8499-0229-1.
- Longman & Garland, editors, Tremper Longman III & David E. Garland (2009). Daniel-Malachi (Rev. ed. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan. pp. 19–212. ISBN 978-0-310-26893-2.
- Oxford annotated Bible, editors, Michael D. Coogan, editor ; Marc Z. Brettler, Carol A. Newsom, Pheme Perkins, associate (2007). The new Oxford annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical books : New Revised Standard Version (Augm. 3rd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1255–58. ISBN 978-0-19-528880-3.
- Collins, John J. (1984). Daniel: with an introduction to apocalyptic literature (Reprinted. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans. pp. 46–49. ISBN 0-8028-0020-3.
- VanderKam, James; Flint, Peter (2002). The meaning of the Dead Sea scrolls: their significance for understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity (1st paperback ed. ed.). London: T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-08468-2.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1950). Early Church Exposition, Subsequent Deflections, and Medieval Revival. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 1. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 1006.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1948). Pre-Reformation and Reformation Restoration, and Second Departure. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 2. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 863.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1946). PART I, Colonial and Early National American Exposition. PART II, Old World Nineteenth Century Advent Awakening. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 3. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 802.