Prophecy of Seventy Weeks
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2012)|
|Chapters of the Book of Daniel|
1: Induction into Babylon
The Prophecy of Seventy Weeks (literally "seventy times seven"), Daniel 9 in the Book of Daniel, is a prophecy given to Daniel by the angel Gabriel. Daniel ponders the meaning of Jeremiah's prediction that Jerusalem would remain desolate for seventy years, and is told that the seventy years really means seventy weeks of years, or 490 years.
The Book of Daniel is set in the late 7th and 6th centuries BCE, the period of the Babylonian exile, but the majority of scholars do not take this at face value and see it as a product of the 2nd century BCE. The "seventy weeks" prophecy demonstrates how apocalyptic authors of the Hellenistic age reinterpreted the prophets (in this case, Jeremiah) in the light of their own circumstances. It was subsequently recycled by Christian interpreters to calculate the end of the world.
- 1 Summary: content and structure
- 2 Background
- 3 Later interpretations
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes and references
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Summary: content and structure
Daniel 9 consists of an introduction (verses 1-3), a prayer (commonly called the Prayer of Daniel, verses 4-19), and an angelic discourse explaining verses 25:11-12 and 29:10 from the Book of Jeremiah (verses 20-27):
- Introduction, verses 1-3: the vision is set in "the first year of Darius son of Xerxes, a Mede by descent, who had been appointed king over Babylon." and its subject is "the word of the Lord given to Jeremiah the prophet, that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years";
- Prayer of Daniel, verses 4-19: Daniel prays to God admitting the sins of Israel and the justice of God's punishment (i.e., the destruction of Jerusalem and its Temple and the exile of the Jews in Babylon), reminds God of his past salvation of Israel from Egypt, and asks him to forgive Israel's sins and restore the city and the Temple;
- Angelic discourse (verses 20-27): The angel Gabriel explains the meaning of Jeremiah's prophecy.
The Book of Daniel is set in the late 7th and 6th centuries BCE, the period of the Babylonian exile, but the majority of scholars do not take this at face value and see it as a product of the 2nd century BCE. It contains references to the period between 605 BCE—after the Battle of Charcamish and during the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim when Daniel was among the young Jewish nobility carried off by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon—and 165 BCE, the year before the death of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the Greek king of Syria. It also supposes that the Babylonian empire was succeeded by a Median empire under "Darius the Mede", who, it is implied in Daniel 6:28, gave way to Cyrus the Persian, but no Darius is known to history and Cyrus the Great of Persia was the conqueror of Babylon (538 BCE). The kings of Media and Persia are represented as single ram having two horns in Daniel 8:20.
The Persians were overthrown by Alexander the Great. Alexander's empire split after his death, and a long period of wars followed between the Greek kings of Egypt and Syria (the later are called the Seleucids). By 202 BCE the Seleucids had gained control of Palestine and Jerusalem, but the wars had left them almost bankrupt. Antiochus IV attempted to recoup his fortunes by selling the post of high priest to the highest bidder, and the existing high priest, Onias II, who stood for strict observance of the Law and loyalty to the past, was deposed and later murdered (the murder is referred to in Daniel 9:26). Jerusalem was split between those Jews who supported the Greeks and those who supported tradition, and Antiochus came down on the side of the Hellenisers: Jewish worship was forbidden, the daily sacrifice abolished, and an altar to Zeus set up in the Temple (December 168 BCE).
As persecutor of the Jews, Antiochus IV became the new Nebuchadnezzar for the generation that wrote Daniel. The question many Jews asked, and which Daniel 9 attempts to answer, is how long the persecution will last.
The prophecy of seventy weeks
In verse 2 Daniel reads Jeremiah's prediction regarding Israel and the Babylonian captivity: "This whole country will become a desolate wasteland, and these nations will serve the king of Babylon seventy years..." (Jeremiah 25:11-12); "This is what the Lord says: When seventy years are completed for Babylon, I will come to you and fulfill my good promise to bring you back to this place..." (Jeremiah 29:10). Jeremiah's promise is that there will be 70 years of Babylonian world domination (beginning 605 BCE, the date of his prophecy), followed by the restoration of Israel. But seventy years would not reach the time of Antiochus, so the book's author provides a creative solution that preserves the tradition while transforming its meaning. Daniel turns to God in prayer, and the angel Gabriel clarifies Jeremiah's words for him: Jeremiah's "shiv'im" (seventy) in the phrase "seventy years" is reinterpreted as "shavu'im shiv'im" (seventy weeks), equivalent to 490 years. This number is based ultimately on the idea of the jubilee year taken from Leviticus 25; similar number schemes are found in other Jewish apocalypses from the same time as Daniel, such as the "seventy generations" of 1 Enoch.
The first seven weeks represent the period from the order to rebuild Jerusalem at the time of Daniel's prayer (verse 9:23) to the coming of "an anointed one," meaning either Zerubbabel, the Davidic prince sent by the Persians to become governor of Judah, or (more likely) Joshua, the first high priest after the exile. The next 62 weeks pass without comment, and the prophecy focuses on the major events of the final week, the real time of the author of Daniel, notably the murder of the high priest Onias III (the "anointed one" who is "cut off") and the profanation of the Temple. Gabriel has already told Daniel that these events are preordained; the author's main concern is not to speculate on the future but to assure his audience that the period of Gentile power is coming to an end.
The Jewish rabbis took little interest in apocalypticism after the failure of the Jewish revolts against Rome in the late 1st/early 2nd centuries CE, and the book of Daniel was the only apocalyptic text preserved by them.
In the Christian world the seventy weeks are traditionally interpreted as a prophesy of Jesus Christ the "anointed one", or "messiah", who was "cut off" (crucified) in the first century CE. There exist today several main schools of thought. There are many variations within each to each of these. The following summarizes the most frequently encountered interpretations:
The consistent symbolical interpretation read the numbers in verses 24 to 27 as symbolic. In this view the 490 years begin with the edict of Cyrus in 538 BCE, which permitted the Jews to return to Jerusalem2 Chronicles 36:22-23 = Ezra 1:2-4. The first division of 7 weeks ends with the first advent of Christ. The second division is the period of the Christian church, stretching from the first and to Second Advent. The third division of one week is the last period of history—the time of tribulation caused by the Antichrist—which begins with the advent of the Antichrist and ends with his defeat.
Supporters of this view include Kliefoth, who is credited to be the first to establish exegetically the symbolic interpretation. He is followed, by and large, by Keil, Delitzsch, Leupold, Philip, Grelot and others.
The dispensational interpretation begins the 490 years with the permission Artaxerxes I Longimanus gave to NehemiahNehemiah 2:5-8. This is dated by most dispensationalists to 445 BCE (e.g. Sir Robert Anderson), but by some to 444 BCE. The “messiah” at the end of the 7+62 weeks is Jesus Christ, but because 7+62 = 69 weeks = 483 years from 445/4 BCE would extend to about CE 40—far beyond the lifetime of Christ—the 483 years are reduced to 476 years by interpreting these 490 years as "prophetic years" each consisting of only 360 literal days. Consequently the 483 years end with the crucifixion in CE 33 or 32. The 70th week is separated from the 69th week by a vast gap of over nineteen centuries. The entire "church age" is a gap during which the prophetic clock has stopped ticking. The 70th week does not start until the end of the church age, when the church will be "raptured” from the earth. During the 70th week the Antichrist—a revived Roman tyrant that will oppose God—will oppress the Jews and bring upon the world, during the latter half of a delayed seventieth week, a 3½ year tribulation.
The dispensational interpretation of the chronological scheme of 9:24-27 is very widely used today in the English-speaking world and beyond. Of the leading voices the following are representative JA Seiss, Sir Robert Anderson, The Scofield Reference Bible; LS Chafer; AJ McClain and HA Ironside.
The historical-messianic interpretation also interprets the Messiah in Daniel 9 as Jesus Christ, but it understands the 490 years as an uninterrupted, continuous unit that ended 3½ years after His death. The 490 years begin with the decree by Artaxerxes I in 458/7 BCE (Ezra 7). The appearance of “Messiah the Prince” at the end of the 7+62 weeks (483 years) (9:25) is the anointed of Jesus Christ as Messiah at His baptism in 26/7 CE. This inaugurated His public ministry. The "cut off" of the “anointed one” (9:26) refers to His crucifixion 3½ years “after” (9:26) the end of the 483 years. Thus He made “atonement for iniquity” and brought in “everlasting righteousness” (9:24). The covenant (9:27) is the covenant between God and Israel, as extended by the prophecy of Daniel 9. Jesus “confirms” (KJV) this covenant for one week (9:27) firstly by His personal ministry while on earth and secondly by the ministry of the Holy Spirit for another 3½ years after His crucifixion. He caused the cessation of the entire system of sacrifices of Old Testament times by His death "in the midst of" (9:27) the last seven years, therefore in CE 30 or 31. The last week ends 3½ years after the crucifixion when the Jews finally rejected the Holy Spirit by persecuting the people that had the Holy Spirit (Acts 8, 9). At that time the gospel was redirected from the Jews to all peoples (Acts 8 to 11). This includes the vision in which God showed Peter “that God is not one to show partiality, but in every nation the man who fears Him and does what is right is welcome to Him” (Acts 10:34-35).
The Messianic interpretation of chapter 9 has been eclipsed almost completely in historical-critical scholarship. Some of the representative voices among exegetes of the last 150 years are EW Hengstenberg, JN Andrews, EB Pusey, J Raska, J Hontheim, Boutflower and O Gerhardt.
In Martin Luther's commentary on Daniel, Preface to the Prophet Daniel, Luther follows the day-year principle to calculate the timespan of the prophecy of seventy weeks as weeks of years. Thus, he explains that seven days in a week multiplied by seventy weeks gives 490 years.
Luther starts the prophecy in the "second year of King Darius also known as 'the long handed'", in a period when Jerusalem was being rebuilt (according to Luther, also mentioned in Haggai 1:1-15; Zechariah 1:1-17). At the end of the first 69 weeks (483 years), is the first coming of Christ. From Darius, Luther calculates 456 years to Christ's birth and another 30 years to Christ's baptism (Luke 3:23), totaling 486 years. Any discrepancies in time, Luther dismisses with, "We cannot find and determine all days and hours so precisely, when we write history it is enough for us that we come pretty close, ...".
Similarly to the historical-messianic interpretation, Jehovah's Witnesses believe the 70 'weeks' represent 490 years. However, they believe that Artaxerxes' first year of rule was 474 BCE (rather than the secularly determined 464 BCE), and that the period began when Nehemiah went to rebuild the walls around Jerusalem "in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes", which they believe was 455 BCE.
They hold that the sixty-ninth week ended in 29 CE, when they believe Jesus was identified as the Messiah at his baptism. In their interpretation, Jesus was then "cut off" (executed) half way through the seventieth week, which then ended in 36 CE.
In historic premillennialism, Philip Mauro (1921) proposed the discourse on the Mount Olivet (Matthew 24, Mark 13, Luke 21) to be an expansion of Daniel’s “seventy weeks” prophecy. His research on the Daniel prophecy was in part, influenced by the works of Martin Anstey (1913). He fully supported the view that the decree of Cyrus, in Ezra 1:1, exhorting the Jews to return to their land, was a real event. Like many others, he agreed that the period designated by the Daniel prophesy was “seventy sevens of years” (490 years). He points to the significance of 69 sevens, interpreted as a period of 483 years, as being the length of time to the Messiah. Thus, in the remaining “seven years” the Messiah would be “cut off and have nothing”. He further relates that, “the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary;” (9:25) is prophetic of the “desolation” of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 CE (Matthew 24:1-22; Luke 21:20-24) Therefore, similar to Luther and the Jehovah’s Witnesses discussed above, historic premillennialism follow a historical-messianic interpretation.
Mauro agreed with Anstey that the angel Gabriel of the Hebrew Bible, who visited Daniel, is the same angel who visited Mary in the New Testament (Luke 1:11-19; 26). He compared Gabriel’s expression to Daniel “thou art greatly beloved” as an exact equivalent to “thou art highly favored” which was spoken to Mary by her visiting angel, also known as Gabriel. By establishing Gabriel as visiting both Daniel and Mary in his commentary, Mauro further expounds on the words of Gabriel: “seventy weeks are determined upon thy people to finish the transgression” (Daniel 9:24), thus making a comparison to the Christ’s words: “Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers” (Matthew 23:32). Mauro interpreted these narratives as referring to the rejection and crucifixion of the Christ.
In dispensational premillennialism, described in more detail above, a 'hiatus' which some refer to as a 'biblical parenthesis', occurs between the 69th and 70th week of the prophecy, into which the "church age" is inserted (also known as the "gap theory" of Daniel 9). The seventieth week of the prophecy is expected to commence after the rapture of the church, which will incorporate the establishment of an economic system using the number '666', the reign of the beast (the Antichrist), the false religious system (the harlot), the Great Tribulation and Armageddon.
Following the Historicist line of interpretation during the 19th century the Seventh-day Adventist Church interprets the 70 weeks as a 490 year period, according to the day-year principle. The first 69 weeks (483 years) begins with the decree of Artaxerxes I to rebuild Jerusalem in 457 BCE (Daniel 9:25) and ends in 27 CE. Jesus Christ's ministry begins at His baptism that year, at which time he is anointed by the Holy Ghost (Acts 10:38) in the form of a dove. Jesus is crucified in the middle of the final week (31 CE) (Daniel 9:27), and the gospel is preached to the Gentiles in 34, the close of the 70 week period.
Notes and references
- Collins 2003, p. 75.
- Bandstra 2008, p. 445.
- Reid 2000, p. 315.
- Knibb 2006, p. 435.
- Holbrook 1986, p. 110.
- Coogan 2009, p. 400.
- Hammer 1976, p. 8.
- Collins 1998, p. 86.
- Hammer 1976, p. 8-11.
- Seow 2003, p. 30.
- Kratz 2001, p. 109.
- Brettler 2010, p. 214.
- Gallagher 2011, p. 137.
- Brettler 2010, p. 214-215.
- Collins 1998, p. 109.
- Collins 1998, p. 108-109.
- Collins 2003, p. 84.
- J. Barton Payne, Encyclopedia of Biblical Prophecy (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1997), 383-389
- T Kliefoth, Das Buch Daniel (1868)
- C. F. Keil, "The Book of Daniel," Commentary on the Old Testament, eds. C. F. Keil
- F. Delitzsch (Edinburgh, 1891), pp. 399-402
- H. C. Leupold, Exposition of Daniel, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, 1969) pp. 403-410
- J. Philip, By the Rivers of Babylon. Studies in the Book of Daniel (Aberdeen, 1972), p. 134
- P. Grelot, "Soixante-dixsemaines d'annees," Bib 50 (1969): 169-86
- J. A. Seiss, Voices From Babylon (Philadelphia, 1879)
- Sir Robert Anderson, The Coming Prince (London, 1909)
- C. I. Scofield, ed.. The Scofield Reference Bible (New York, 1911)
- L. S. Chafer, The Kingdom in History and Prophecy (Chicago, 1936)
- A. J. McClain, Daniel's Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks (Grand Rapids, 1940)
- H. A. Ironside, The Great Parenthesis (Grand Rapids, 1943)
- EW Hengstenberg, Christology of the Old Testament (reprint; McDill AFB, FL, 1973), pp. 803-930
- JN Andrews, The Commandment to Restore and to Rebuild Jerusalem (Battle Creek, MI 1865)
- EB Pusey, Daniel the Prophet, 2nd ed. (New York 1885), pp. 184-269
- J Raska, "Zur Berechnung der Siebzig Wochen Daniels," Theologisch-Praktische Quartal-schrift 54 (1904), pp. 13-27
- J Hontheim, "Das Todesjahr Christi und die Danielische Wochenprophetie," Katholik 34 (1906): 12-36, 96-128, 176-88, 254-81
- Boutflower, In and Around the Book of Daniel, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, 1963), pp. 168-211
- O Gerhardt, "Die messianische Weissagung Daniel 9:24-27," NKZ 38 (1927): 561-87
- Beckwith, Carl L., Editor; general editor, Timothy George ; associate general editor, Scott M. Manetsch (2012). Ezekiel, Daniel: Volume 12 of Reformation Commentary on Scripture Series. Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic. p. 368. ISBN 9780830829620.
- Beckwith, Carl L., Editor; general editor, Timothy George ; associate general editor, Scott M. Manetsch (2012). Ezekiel, Daniel: Volume 12 of Reformation Commentary on Scripture Series. Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic. pp. 368–369. ISBN 9780830829620.
- "11". Pay Attention to Daniel's Prophecy!. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.
- "How Daniel’s Prophecy Foretells the Messiah’s Arrival". Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 2009.
- Insight on the Scriptures (Vol. II ed.). Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. pp. 899–901.
- Mauro, Philip (1921, revised 1944). The Seventy Weeks and the Great Tribulation. Philip Mauro Library. pp. 136:3.
- Mauro, Philip (1921). The Seventy Weeks and the Great Tribulation (1988 Revised ed.). Grace Abounding Ministries. pp. 1–4.
- Anstey, Martin (1913). The Romance of Bible chronology. Marshall Bros. p. 276.
- Pentecost, J. Dwight (1958). Things to Come: A Study in Biblical Eschatology (Zondervan reprint ed.). Dunham Publishing Co. ISBN 0310873959.
- General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists (2005), Seventh-day Adventists Believe (2nd ed.), pp. 358–359
- Bandstra, Barry L. (2008). Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
- Bar, Shaul (2001). A letter that has not been read: dreams in the Hebrew Bible. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press. ISBN 9780878204243.
- Boyer, Paul S. (1992). When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-95129-8.
- Brettler, Mark Zvi (2005). How To Read the Bible. Jewish Publication Society.
- Carroll, John T. (2000). "Eschatology". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Cohn, Shaye J.D. (2006). From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Collins, John J. (1984). Daniel: With an Introduction to Apocalyptic Literature. Eerdmans.
- Collins, John J. (1998). The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature. Eerdmans.
- Collins, John J. (2002). "Current Issues in the Study of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Collins, John J. (2003). "From Prophecy to Apocalypticism: The Expectation of the End". In McGinn, Bernard; Collins, John J.; Stein, Stephen J. The Continuum History of Apocalypticism. Continuum.
- Coogan, Michael (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 400.
- Crawford, Sidnie White (2000). "Apocalyptic". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Davies, Philip (2006). "Apocalyptic". In Rogerson, J. W.; Lieu, Judith M. The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford Handbooks Online.
- DeChant, Dell (2009). "Apocalyptic Communities". In Neusner, Jacob. World Religions in America: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Doukhan, Jacques (2000). Secrets of Daniel: wisdom and dreams of a Jewish prince in exile. Review and Herald Pub Assoc.
- Dunn, James D.G. (2002). "The Danilic Son of Man in the New Testament". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Gallagher, Eugene V. (2011). "Millennialism, Scripture, and Tradition". In Wessinger, Catherine. The Oxford Handbook of Millennialism. Oxford University Press.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2010). An Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel, and Jesus. Continuum.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2002a). Judaic Religion in the Second Temple Period: Belief and Practice from the Exile to Yavneh. Routledge.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2002b). "A Dan(iel) For All Seasons". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Hammer, Raymond (1976). The Book of Daniel. Cambridge University Press.
- Harrington, Daniel J. (1999). Invitation to the Apocrypha. Eerdmans.
- Hill, Andrew E. (2009). "Daniel". In Garland, David E.; Longman, Tremper. Daniel—Malachi. Zondervan.
- Hill, Charles E. (2000). "Antichrist". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Holbrook, Frank B. (1986). The Seventy Weeks, Leviticus, and the Nature of Prophecy (Volume 3 of Daniel and Revelation Committee Series ed.). Biblical Research Institute, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. ISBN 0925675024.
- Horsley, Richard A. (2007). Scribes, Visionaries, and the Politics of Second Temple Judea. Presbyterian Publishing Corp.
- Knibb, Michael (2002). "The Book of Daniel in its Context". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Kratz, Reinhard (2002). "The Visions of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Lucas, Ernest C. (2005). "Daniel, Book of". In Vanhoozer, Kevin J.; Bartholomew, Craig G.; Treier, Daniel J. Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible. Baker Academic.
- Matthews, Victor H.; Moyer, James C. (2012). The Old Testament: Text and Context. Baker Books.
- Niskanen, Paul (2004). The Human and the Divine in History: Herodotus and the Book of Daniel. Continuum.
- Provan, Iain (2003). "Daniel". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Redditt, Paul L. (2009). Introduction to the Prophets. Eerdmans.
- Reid, Stephen Breck (2000). "Daniel, Book of". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Rowland, Christopher (2007). "Apocalyptic Literature". In Hass, Andrew; Jasper, David; Jay, Elisabeth. The Oxford Handbook of English Literature and Theology. Oxford University Press.
- Ryken,, Leland; Wilhoit, Jim; Longman, Tremper (1998). Dictionary of Biblical Imagery. InterVarsity Press.
- Sacchi, Paolo (2004). The History of the Second Temple Period. Continuum.
- Schwartz, Daniel R. (1992). Studies in the Jewish Background of Christianity. Mohr Siebeck.
- Seow, C.L. (2003). Daniel. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Schiffman, Lawrence H. (1991). From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism. KTAV Publishing House.
- Spencer, Richard A. (2002). "Additions to Daniel". In Mills, Watson E.; Wilson, Richard F. The Deuterocanonicals/Apocrypha. Mercer University Press.
- Towner, W. Sibley (1984). Daniel. Westminster John Knox Press.
- VanderKam, James C. (2010). The Dead Sea Scrolls Today. Eerdmans.
- VanderKam, James C.; Flint, Peter (2013). The meaning of the Dead Sea scrolls: their significance for understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity. HarperCollins.
- Weber, Timothy P. (2007). "Millennialism". In Walls, Jerry L. The Oxford Handbook of Eschatology. Oxford University Press.
- Wesselius, Jan-Wim (2002). "The Writing of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Hoehner, Harold W. (1978). Chronological aspects of the life of Christ ([5th print.] ed.). Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 115. ISBN 9780310262114.
- Montgomery, James A (1927). A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Daniel (BiblioBazaar, 2010 Reprint ed.). Edinburgh: T & T Clark. pp. 372–404. ISBN 9781176278707.
- Walvoord, A commentary by John F. (1989). Daniel: the key to prophetic revelation. (Moody Paperback ed. ed.). Chicago: Moody Press. ISBN 9780802417534.
- Daniel 9 The Seventy Weeks, Jews for Judaism audio file
- True Messiah - Properly Anointed; False Messiah - Smeared with Ointment, Virtual Yeshiva article by UriYosef
- The 9th chapter of Daniyyel by Mordochai ben Tziyyon, former Professor of Jewish Bible Studies at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
- The 70 Weeks and 457 B.C.
- When Did the Seventy Weeks of Daniel 9:24 Begin?
- A Critical Examination of the Seventy Weeks Prophecy