Prophecy of Seventy Weeks
|Chapters of the Book of Daniel|
The Prophecy of Seventy Weeks (Daniel 9 in the Book of Daniel) is a prophecy in which Daniel, pondering the meaning of Jeremiah's prediction that Jerusalem would remain desolate for seventy years, is told by the angel Gabriel about various things that would take place within a time span of seventy weeks of years.
The Book of Daniel is set in the late 7th and 6th centuries BCE, the period of the Babylonian exile; the majority of scholars do not take this at face value and see it as a product of the 2nd century BCE. Apocalyptic authors of the Hellenistic age reinterpreted the prophets (in this case, Jeremiah) in the light of their own circumstances, so that the 70 years predicted by Jeremiah was taken to mean seventy weeks of years, or 490 years.
- 1 Structure
- 2 Background
- 3 Interpretation
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Daniel 9 consists of an introduction (verses 1-3), a prayer (commonly called the Prayer of Daniel, verses 4-19), and an angelic discourse explaining verses 25:11-12 and 29:10 from the Book of Jeremiah (verses 20-27):
- Introduction, verses 1-3: the vision is set in "the first year of Darius son of Xerxes, a Mede by descent, who had been appointed king over Babylon;" its subject is "the word of the Lord given to Jeremiah the prophet, that the desolation of Jerusalem would last seventy years."
- Prayer of Daniel, verses 4-19: Daniel prays to God admitting the sins of Israel and the justice of God's punishment (i.e., the destruction of Jerusalem and its temple and the exile of the Jews in Babylon); he reminds God of his past salvation of Israel from Egypt, and asks him to forgive Israel's sins and restore the city and the temple.
- Angelic discourse (verses 20-27): The angel Gabriel tells Daniel of Seventy 'sevens' to come for his people.
- A. Jerusalem Construction: Know therefore and discern, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem
- Daniel 9:25a (ASV)
- B. Anointed one: unto the anointed one, the prince, shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks:
- Daniel 9:25b
- C. Jerusalem Construction: it shall be built again, with street and moat, even in troublous times.
- Daniel 9:25c
- D. Anointed one: And after the threescore and two weeks shall the anointed one (i.e., Onias III, the High Priest) be cut off, and shall have nothing:
- Daniel 9:26a
- D. Anointed one: And after the threescore and two weeks shall the anointed one (i.e., Onias III, the High Priest) be cut off, and shall have nothing:
- Daniel 9:25c
- C'. Jerusalem Destroyed: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and even unto the end shall be war; desolations are determined.
- Daniel 9:26b
- C. Jerusalem Construction: it shall be built again, with street and moat, even in troublous times.
- Daniel 9:25b
- B'. Anointed one: And he shall make a firm covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease;
- Daniel 9:27a
- B. Anointed one: unto the anointed one, the prince, shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks:
- Daniel 9:25a (ASV)
- A'. Jerusalem Destroyed: and upon the wing of abominations shall come one that maketh desolate; and even unto the full end, and that determined, shall wrath be poured out upon the desolate.
- Daniel 9:27b
Book of Daniel
The second half of the Book of Daniel (i.e., chapters 7-12) is a Jewish apocalypse, one of a large class of writings in which an ancient seer is given a revelation pertaining to the age in which it was written. Like these other writings, the Book of Daniel is pseudonymous, possibly taking its prophet from the figure mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel alongside Noah and Job as righteous and wise men of the distant past. As observed by Collins, the broad consensus in historical-critical scholarship is that the stories in the first half of the book (i.e., chapters 1-6) are legendary while the visions in the second half "were composed by persons unknown in the Maccabean era."
The Book of Daniel is set during the Babylonian exile of the Jews, although only a minority of scholars accept this at face value. The exile lasted approximately fifty years, from the capture of Jerusalem by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BCE to the fall of Babylon to the Persian king Cyrus the Great in 538. However, the deportation in Jehoiakim's third year (605 BCE, excluding accession year) mentioned in Daniel 1 refers to an earlier siege on Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar during his campaign in Syria and Palestine. Chapter 9 gives the setting for the seventy weeks prophecy in the first year of a Babylonian king by the name of Darius the Mede (verse 1), though no such person is known to history by that name. However, it might be the case that Darius is simply a fictional Median name for Cyrus that was taken from the Persian king by that name mentioned in the Book of Ezra.
Persian rule lasted a couple centuries before it was brought to an end by Alexander the Great. After Alexander's death in 323 BC his empire split into rival kingdoms, and two of these, the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Selucid dynasty in Syria, fought for control of Palestine. By 202 BCE the Seleucids had the upper hand, but the wars had left them almost bankrupt. Antiochus IV Epiphanes attempted to recoup his fortunes by selling the post of high priest to the highest bidder, and the existing high priest, Onias III, a man respected for upholding Jewish tradition, was deposed and later murdered. Jerusalem became split between those Jews who supported the Greeks and those who supported tradition. In 168 BCE Antiochus came down forcefully on the side of the Hellenisers: Jewish worship was forbidden, the daily sacrifice abolished, and an altar to Zeus set up in the Temple (December 168 BCE). As persecutor of the Jews, Antiochus became the new Nebuchadnezzar for the generation that wrote Daniel.
Jeremiah's prophecy of seventy years and Daniel's seventy weeks of years
In verse 2 Daniel reads Jeremiah's prediction that Jerusalem would remain desolate for seventy years. Daniel doesn't identify the passage, but chapters 25:11-12 and 29:10 are the obvious candidates: "This whole country will become a desolate wasteland, and these nations will serve the king of Babylon seventy years..." (Jeremiah 25:11-12); "This is what the Lord says: When seventy years are completed for Babylon, I will come to you and fulfill my good promise to bring you back to this place..." (Jeremiah 29:10).
The Babylonian exile ended in 538 BCE with the decree of Cyrus, the Persian conqueror of Babylon, inviting exiles (not only the Jews) to return to their homes. That was several centuries before the time of the authors of Daniel in the 2nd century, yet it seemed to them that the desolation of Jerusalem had not ended: the people had returned and the Temple had been rebuilt, but salvation for Israel had not been achieved and the people were still suffering. As Jeremiah's seventy years could not apply literally to the time of Antiochus, the author of Daniel provided a creative solution that transformed its meaning. Daniel turns to God in prayer, and the angel Gabriel clarifies Jeremiah's words for him: Jeremiah's "shiv'im" (seventy) is to be understood as "shavu'im shiv'im" (seventy weeks), 490 years. This reinterpretation was based ultimately on the idea of the jubilee year taken from Leviticus 25; similar number schemes are found in other Jewish apocalypses from the same time as Daniel, such as the "seventy generations" of 1 Enoch.
The angelic discourse of Daniel 9:20-27
In verses 20-27 Gabriel explains the meaning of the 70 weeks. After a preamble in verses 20-23 he tells Daniel that the "seventy sevens" are decreed for the people and city (i.e., the Jews and Jerusalem) "to finish the transgression, to put an end to sin, and to atone for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal (i.e. validate) both vision and prophet, and to anoint a most holy place". The "sin" and "iniquity" are not specified, but probably include the desecration of the Temple by Antiochus and the Hellenizing Jews. Because the series focuses on the re-dedication of the Temple at the end of the time period, it is apparent that is not an ongoing process for the full seventy weeks, but will happen at the end and coincide with the re-dedication of the Temple (the anointing of the "most holy place").
Gabriel then gives a more detailed explanation. "From the time the word goes out to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until the Anointed One, the ruler, comes, there will be seven sevens" (verse 25). The first "seven sevens," or 49 years, thus begins with the "word" to rebuild Jerusalem, and ends with the arrival of an "anointed prince", meaning either Zerubbabel, the Davidic prince sent by the Persians to become governor of Judah, or (more likely) Joshua, the first high priest after the exile.
The next 62 weeks, or 434 years, pass without comment, and the prophecy focuses in verses 26-27 on the events of the final week. Gabriel has already told Daniel that these events are preordained, and the prophetic message is that the period of Gentile power is coming to an end. "After the 62 sevens the Anointed One will be put to death and will have nothing. The people of the ruler who will come will destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end will come like a flood: War will continue until the end, and desolations have been decreed" (verse 26). The ruler "will confirm a covenant with many for one seven, he will put an end to sacrifice and offering, and at the Temple he will put up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him" (verse 27). This is a broad outline of the oppression of the Jews by Antiochus (the "ruler who will come") and his allies the Hellenizing Jews (the "many" with whom he "will confirm a covenant"), from the murder of Onias the high priest (the "anointed one" who is "cut off") in 171 BCE, to December 168, when sacrifices in the Temple were ended and replaced with a pagan altar, the "abomination that causes desolation".
Rashi  explains that the 7 and 62 weeks mentioned in Daniel 9 verse 25 encompass the whole 70 weeks mentioned in verse 24, that the missing week is split between the two groups (of 7 and 62). He explains verse 25 that after 7 weeks of years plus 3 more years (after the destruction of the first temple in 3338) the Mashiach Nagid, King Cyrus the great (elsewhere called a messiah), began to rebuild the temple. The verse goes on to explain that the temple would stand until 62 weeks (of years). Rashi explains that this is 62 weeks of years plus the remaining four years. Accordingly, the second temple stood until 490 years after the destruction of the first temple. Rashi here follows the Rabbinic chronology of the second temple period.
One can further notice a seemingly blatant contradiction between verse 24 and verse 26. Verse 24 indicates that after the 70 weeks of years the holy of holies would be anointed, whereas verse 26 says the exact opposite that the temple would then be destroyed. Rashi explains that the destruction of the temple was the beginning of the process of purifying Israel until the Messiah would come in the end of days. Rabbi Saadia Gaon, however, takes the literal approach. His opinion is that the anointing of the holy of holies (of verse 24) is not referring to after the 70 weeks of years, but to during the 70 weeks of years. Accordingly, verse 24 refers to the second temple period which had the holy of holies of the second temple as well as the atonement of sin through sacrifices. Furthermore, the sealing of prophecy mentioned does not refer to the fulfillment of prophecy, rather, as Rabbi Saadia Gaon explains, to the end of the era of prophets during the second temple period. Now verse 24 and 26 are in full agreement that after this period the second temple would then be destroyed.
Traditional interpretation of Bible prophecy starts with the position (contrasting with modern scholarship noted above) that the book of Daniel was written by Daniel, a noble Jew exiled to Babylon, in the 5th century BCE, not by anonymous Jewish authors of the 2nd century BCE. Daniel has challenged prophetic interpreters for over two millennia.
The early Christians took Daniel 9's "anointed one" to be Jesus, with Daniel 9:26, which says that an "anointed one" would be "cut off" after sixty-two weeks, being a reference to his death. The "abomination that makes desolate," described in 1 Maccabees 1:54 as a pagan altar erected over the sacrificial altar in the Temple, was understood in the New Testament (Matthew 24:15 and Mark 13:14) as meaning the future destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, and in later traditions it was sometimes interpreted as the Antichrist.
The four major interpretation methodologies—Protestant Historicism, Catholic Counter-Reformation Preterism and Futurism, and modern Protestant and Evangelical Dispensationalism—deal with this vision in different ways. Historicists and Preterists have generally interpreted this prophecy along similar lines described in the previous paragraph. However, Futurists and Dispensationalists favor a different reading, in which the rise of the Church interrupted the prophecy, so that its final stages occur in the future.
Daniel 9:25 states that the 'seventy weeks' (generally interpreted as 490 years according to the day-year principle) is to begin "from the time the word goes out to restore and rebuild Jerusalem," but it fails to specify what this "word" is, who issues it, or when. As a result the start-date of the prophecy remains vague. Possible answers have included the date of Jeremiah's original prophecy, the first year of Darius during which Daniel received his revelation, the decree of Cyrus allowing the Jews to return to Jerusalem, or one of two directives issued by the later Persian king Artaxerxes I, the first to Ezra, the second to Nehemiah. No matter which of these explanations is used, the 490 years ended within a few years of the life of Jesus.
The use of Biblical prophecy to interpret history began before the 1st century CE and continues to the present. Froom has given lists of Biblical scholars ranging over nearly two millennia who have interpreted the 70 weeks vision in the Historistical fashion.
They interpret the 70 weeks as dealing with the Jewish nation, from about the middle of the 5th century BCE until not long after the death of Jesus in the 1st century CE, and so do not suppose it to be concerned with current or future history. There is however considerable variation about the exact dates assigned to the endpoints, and about whether the Crucifixion marks the beginning, middle, or end of the final week. Traditional Historicists consider Antiochus Epiphanies irrelevant to the fulfillment of the prophecy.
|List of Historicist Biblical Expositors who commented on the 70 weeks
from the 3rd to 19th centuries
The Historicist biblical interpretation was the viewpoint of almost all Protestant Reformers from the Reformation into the 19th century when both the Preterist and Futurist schools put forth by Jesuit scholars to divert the Protestant application of Daniel's "little horn" prophecy and Revelation's "beast" prediction to the rise and work of Papal Rome began to make inroads.
Spanish Jesuit Francisco Ribera (1537-1591) published a commentary on the book of Revelation in which he assigned the first few chapters to ancient Rome but proposed that the bulk of the prophecies would be fulfilled in a brief three-and-one-half-year period at the end of the Christian era. He claimed that a single individual who would be the antichrist would rebuild the Jerusalem Temple and be received by the Jews, would pretend to be god, and conquer the world. So from this view, the Protestant contention that the apocalyptic symbols of antichrist denoted an apostate religious system was set aside, and the focus of the prophecies was diverted from the time of ancient Babylon to the present to the far distant future.
Another Spanish Jesuit, Luis de Alcazar (1554-1613), also published a scholarly work on Revelation to refute the Protestant view, and this system of interpretation became known as preterism (from the Latin praeter, meaning 'past'). He wrote that all the prophecies of Revelation had been fulfilled in the past, that is, by the fifth and sixth centuries A.D., the early centuries of Christianity.
With the passage of time, these distinctive systems of counterinterpretations began successfully to penetrate Protestant thought. This was picked up and now many leaders in mainstream Protestant churches have changed what was held from the start of the Reformation by Protestant reformers, including Martin Luther, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer, John Thomas, John Knox, and Cotton Mather, felt the early church had been led into apostasy by the Papacy and identified it as the Antichrist. The Centuriators of Magdeburg, a group of Lutheran scholars in Magdeburg headed by Matthias Flacius, wrote the 12-volume "Magdeburg Centuries" to discredit the papacy and identify the pope as the Antichrist. The fifth round of talks in the Lutheran-Roman Catholic dialogue notes,
- In calling the pope the "antichrist," the early Lutherans stood in a tradition that reached back into the eleventh century. Not only dissidents and heretics but even saints had called the bishop of Rome the "antichrist" when they wished to castigate his abuse of power.
The four most important traditions to emerge directly from the reformation were the Lutheran tradition, the Reformed/Calvinist/Presbyterian tradition, the Anabaptist tradition, and the Anglican tradition. Subsequent Protestant traditions generally trace their roots back to these initial four schools of the Reformation. It also led to the Catholic or Counter Reformation within the Roman Catholic Church. Lutherans, Reformed, Anabaptists, and Methodists all included references to the Papacy as the Antichrist in their confessions of faith:
Smalcald Articles, Article four (1537)
- ...the Pope is the very Antichrist, who has exalted himself above, and opposed himself against Christ because he will not permit Christians to be saved without his power, which, nevertheless, is nothing, and is neither ordained nor commanded by God. This is, properly speaking to exalt himself above all that is called God as Paul says, 2 Thess. 2, 4. Even the Turks or the Tartars, great enemies of Christians as they are, do not do this, but they allow whoever wishes to believe in Christ, and take bodily tribute and obedience from Christians... Therefore, just as little as we can worship the devil himself as Lord and God, we can endure his apostle, the Pope, or Antichrist, in his rule as head or lord. For to lie and to kill, and to destroy body and soul eternally, that is wherein his papal government really consists... The Pope, however, prohibits this faith, saying that to be saved a person must obey him. This we are unwilling to do, even though on this account we must die in God's name. This all proceeds from the fact that the Pope has wished to be called the supreme head of the Christian Church by divine right. Accordingly he had to make himself equal and superior to Christ, and had to cause himself to be proclaimed the head and then the lord of the Church, and finally of the whole world, and simply God on earth, until he has dared to issue commands even to the angels in heaven...
- ...Now, it is manifest that the Roman pontiffs, with their adherents, defend [and practice] godless doctrines and godless services. And the marks [all the vices] of Antichrist plainly agree with the kingdom of the Pope and his adherents. For Paul, in describing Antichrist to the Thessalonians, calls him 2 Thess. 2, 3: an adversary of Christ, who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God. He speaks therefore of one ruling in the Church, not of heathen kings, and he calls this one the adversary of Christ, because he will devise doctrine conflicting with the Gospel, and will assume to himself divine authority...
Westminster Confession (1646)
- 25.6. There is no other head of the Church but the Lord Jesus Christ: nor can the Pope of Rome in any sense be head thereof; but is that Antichrist, that man of sin and son of perdition, that exalts himself in the Church against Christ, and all that is called God.
- Seventh-day Adventists
The Seventh-day Adventist interpretation of Daniel chapter 9 presents the 490 years as an uninterrupted period. Like others before them they equate the beginning of the 70 weeks "from the time the word goes out to rebuild and restore Jerusalem," of Daniel 9:25 with the decree by Artaxerxes I in 458/7 BCE which provided money for rebuilding the temple and Jerusalem and allowed for restoration of a Jewish administration. It ends 3½ years after the crucifixion. The appearance of "Messiah the Prince" at the end of the 69 weeks (483 years) is aligned with Jesus' baptism in 27 CE, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar. The 'cutting off' of the "anointed one" refers to the crucifixion 3½ years after the end of the 483 years, bringing "atonement for iniquity" and "everlasting righteousness". Jesus is said to 'confirm' the "covenant" between God and mankind by his death on the cross in the Spring (about Easter time) of 31 CE "in the midst of" the last seven years. At the moment of his death the 4 inch (10 cm) thick curtain between the Holy and Most Holy Places in the Temple ripped from top to bottom marking the end of the Temple's sacrificial system. The last week ends 3½ years after the crucifixion (i.e., in 34 CE) when the gospel was redirected from only the Jews to all peoples.
Some of the representative voices among exegetes of the last 150 years are E. W. Hengstenberg, J. N. Andrews, E. B. Pusey, J. Raska, J. Hontheim, Boutflower, Uriah Smith, and O. Gerhardt.
|Illustrations explaining the beginning and ending dates of the 70 weeks
according to Seventh Day Adventist interpretation
- Jehovah's Witnesses
Similarly to other Historicist and Preterist interpretations, Jehovah's Witnesses believe the 70 'weeks' represent 490 years. However, they believe that Artaxerxes' first year of rule was 474 BCE (rather than the secularly determined 464 BCE), and that the period began when Nehemiah went to rebuild the walls around Jerusalem "in the twentieth year of Artaxerxes", which they believe was 455 BCE.
They hold that the sixty-ninth week ended in 29 CE, when they believe Jesus was identified as the Messiah at his baptism. In their interpretation, Jesus was then "cut off" (executed) half way through the seventieth week, which ended in 36 CE.
In the view of historic premillennialism, Philip Mauro (1921) proposed that the discourse on the Mount Olivet (Matthew 24, Mark 13, Luke 21) is an expansion of Daniel's "seventy weeks" prophecy. His research was influenced by the works of Martin Anstey (1913). In addition to the historical-messianic interpretation above, Mauro adds that, "the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary" (9:25) is prophetic of the "desolation" of Jerusalem and the temple in 70 CE (Matthew 24:1-22; Luke 21:20-24) Mauro compares the words of Gabriel: "seventy weeks are determined upon thy people to finish the transgression" (Daniel 9:24) with Jesus' words: "Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers" (Matthew 23:32), interpreting these narratives as referring to the rejection and crucifixion of the Christ.
The Preterist method was fully developed during the Catholic counter-reformation movement.
The Catholic Church's position as documented by Catholic theologian Taylor Marshall follows the early Church Father's identification of the “going forth of the word to restore and build Jerusalem” (Dan 9:25) as having occurred when King Artaxerxes of Persia issued the proclamation to restore and rebuild Jerusalem in 453 B.C. This would then locate Daniel's 69th week as ending at the baptism of Jesus of Nazareth in A.D. 30, and his being "cut off" (Dan 9:26) in the middle of the 70th week. This would then conveniently place the death of the Messiah in the year A.D. 33. The end of the 70th week or entire 490 Danielic cycle would thus end in AD 36 or 37, the traditional year of Saint Paul's conversion to Christianity, in the ninth chapter of Acts, and Saint Peter's vision of the unclean animals and the baptism of non-Jewish believers in the tenth chapter of Acts.
The Dispensational interpretation (beginning in the 19th century) extends the last week beyond the present day as in:
The consistent symbolical interpretation reads the numbers in verses 24 to 27 as symbolic. In this view the 490 years begin with the edict of Cyrus in 538 BCE, which permitted the Jews to return to Jerusalem2 Chronicles 36:22-23 = Ezra 1:2-4. The first division of 7 weeks ends with the first advent of Christ. The second division is the period of the Christian church, stretching from the first and to Second Advent. The third division of one week is the last period of history—the time of tribulation caused by the Antichrist—which begins with the advent of the Antichrist and ends with his defeat.
Supporters of this view include Kliefoth, who is credited to be the first to establish exegetically the symbolic interpretation. He is followed, by and large, by Keil, Delitzsch, Leupold, Philip, Grelot and others.
The dispensational interpretation begins the 490 years with the permission Artaxerxes I Longimanus gave to NehemiahNehemiah 2:5-8. This is dated by most dispensationalists to 445 BCE (e.g. Sir Robert Anderson), but by some to 444 BCE. The “messiah” at the end of the 7+62 weeks is Jesus Christ, but because 7+62 = 69 weeks = 483 years from 445/4 BCE would extend to about CE 40—far beyond the lifetime of Christ—the 483 years are reduced to 476 years by interpreting these 490 years as "prophetic years" each consisting of only 360 literal days. Consequently the 483 years end with the crucifixion in CE 33 or 32. The 70th week is separated from the 69th week by a vast gap of over nineteen centuries. The entire "church age" is a gap during which the prophetic clock has stopped ticking. The 70th week does not start until the end of the church age, when the church will be "raptured” from the earth. During the 70th week the Antichrist—a revived Roman tyrant that will oppose God—will oppress the Jews and bring upon the world, during the latter half of a delayed seventieth week, a 3½ year tribulation.
The dispensational interpretation of the chronological scheme of 9:24-27 is very widely used today in the English-speaking world and beyond. Of the leading voices the following are representative JA Seiss, Sir Robert Anderson, The Scofield Reference Bible; LS Chafer; AJ McClain and HA Ironside.
In dispensational premillennialism, described in more detail above, a 'hiatus', which some refer to as a 'biblical parenthesis', occurs between the 69th and 70th week of the prophecy, into which the "church age" is inserted (also known as the "gap theory" of Daniel 9). The seventieth week of the prophecy is expected to commence after the rapture of the church, which will incorporate the establishment of an economic system using the number '666', the reign of the beast (the Antichrist), the false religious system (the harlot), the Great Tribulation and Armageddon.
- Bandstra 2008, p. 445.
- Reid 2000, p. 315.
- Collins 2003, p. 75.
- Knibb 2006, p. 435.
- Holbrook 1986, p. 110.
- Hammer 1976, p. 2.
- Hammer 1976, p. 3.
- Collins 2002, p. 2.
- Bar 2001, p. 211.
- Pasachoff & Littman 2005, p. 43-45.
- C. Hassell Bullock. An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophetic Books. p. 340.
The following comparisons of the two systems indicates that the "third year of Jehoiakim" was the year 605 B.C. according to Daniel's accession-year system
- Hammer 1976, p. 8.
- Collins 1998, p. 86.
- Colless 1992, p. 113-26.
- Hammer 1976, p. 8-11.
- Seow 2003, p. 30.
- Brettler 2010, p. 214.
- Kratz 2001, p. 109.
- Portier-Young 2013, p. 270.
- Gallagher 2011, p. 137.
- Brettler 2010, p. 214-215.
- Collins 1998, p. 109.
- Collins 1998, p. 94.
- Nelson 2013.
- Collins 1998, p. 108-109.
- Seow 2003, p. 180.
- ad loc
- Boyer 1992, p. 30.
- Collins 2013, p. 86.
- Collins 2013, p. 87.
- Froom 1950, pp. 17–18, "The molding, energizing force of Old Testament prophecy was already evident in Jewish history long before the dawn of the Christian Era. The Messianic hope of the Jews, and their national aspirations, which were based on prophecies, profoundly affected their fundamental attitude toward other nations. It permeated their entire thinking and action..."
- Froom 1950, pp. 456–7, 894–5 Froom 1948, pp. 528–9, 784–5 Froom 1946, pp. 252–3, 744–5
- After table in Froom 1950, pp. 456–7
- After table in Froom 1950, pp. 894–5
- After table in Froom 1948, pp. 528–9
- After table in Froom 1948, pp. 784–5
- After table in Froom 1946, pp. 252–3
- After table in Froom 1946, pp. 744–5
- The AntiChrist and The Protestant Reformation
- See Building Unity, edited by Burgess and Gross
- Smalcald Articles, Article 4 in the Triglot translation of the Book of Concord
- Treatise on the Power and in the Triglot translation of the Book of Concord
- Col. 1:18; Matt. 28:18-20; Eph. 4:11-12; 2 Thess. 2:2-9
- Daniel 9:25
- Ezra 7:15-26 "With this money be sure to buy ... offerings, and sacrifice them on the altar of the temple of your God in Jerusalem ... then do whatever seems best with the rest of the silver and gold ... anything else needed for the temple of your God that you are responsible to supply ... appoint magistrates and judges to administer justice to all the people of Trans-Euphrates—all who know the laws of your God."
- Based on General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists 2005, pp. 358–359
- Daniel 9:24
- Daniel 9:27
- Matthew 27:51
- Mark 15:38
- Luke 23:45
- E.W. Hengstenberg, Christology of the Old Testament (reprint; McDill AFB, FL, 1973), pp. 803-930
- J.N. Andrews, The Commandment to Restore and to Rebuild Jerusalem (Battle Creek, MI 1865)
- E.B. Pusey, Daniel the Prophet, 2nd ed. (New York 1885), pp. 184-269
- J. Raska, Zur Berechnung der Siebzig Wochen Daniels, Theologisch-Praktische Quartal-schrift 54 (1904), pp. 13-27
- J. Hontheim, Das Todesjahr Christi und die Danielische Wochenprophetie, Katholik 34 (1906): 12-36, 96-128, 176-88, 254-81
- Boutflower, In and Around the Book of Daniel, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, 1963), pp. 168-211
- Smith, Uriah (1878). The Prophecies of Daniel and the Revelation. p. 828.
- O. Gerhardt, Die messianische Weissagung Daniel 9:24-27, NKZ 38 (1927): 561-87
- "11". Pay Attention to Daniel's Prophecy!. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.
- "How Daniel’s Prophecy Foretells the Messiah’s Arrival". Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 2009.
- Insight on the Scriptures (Vol. II ed.). Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. pp. 899–901.
- Mauro, Philip (1944) . The Seventy Weeks and the Great Tribulation. Philip Mauro Library. pp. 136:3.
- Mauro, Philip (1921). The Seventy Weeks and the Great Tribulation (1988 Revised ed.). Grace Abounding Ministries. pp. 1–4.
- Marshall, Taylor (2012). The Eternal City: Rome and the Origins of Catholic Christianity. Saint John Press. p. 43.
- T Kliefoth, Das Buch Daniel (1868)
- C. F. Keil, "The Book of Daniel," Commentary on the Old Testament, eds. C. F. Keil
- F. Delitzsch (Edinburgh, 1891), pp. 399-402
- H. C. Leupold, Exposition of Daniel, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, 1969) pp. 403-410
- J. Philip, By the Rivers of Babylon. Studies in the Book of Daniel (Aberdeen, 1972), p. 134
- P. Grelot, "Soixante-dixsemaines d'annees," Bib 50 (1969): 169-86
- J. A. Seiss, Voices From Babylon (Philadelphia, 1879)
- Sir Robert Anderson, The Coming Prince (London, 1909)
- C. I. Scofield, ed.. The Scofield Reference Bible (New York, 1911)
- L. S. Chafer, The Kingdom in History and Prophecy (Chicago, 1936)
- A. J. McClain, Daniel's Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks (Grand Rapids, 1940)
- H. A. Ironside, The Great Parenthesis (Grand Rapids, 1943)
- Pentecost, J. Dwight (1958). Things to Come: A Study in Biblical Eschatology (Zondervan reprint ed.). Dunham Publishing Co. ISBN 0310873959.
- Bandstra, Barry L. (2008). Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
- Bar, Shaul (2001). A letter that has not been read: dreams in the Hebrew Bible. Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press. ISBN 9780878204243.
- Beckwith, Carl L. (2012). Ezekiel, Daniel. IVP Academic.
- Biddle, Mark E. (2007). "Jeremiah". In Coogan, Michael D.; Brettler, Mark Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: New Revised Standard Version. Oxford University Press.
- Boyer, Paul S. (1992). When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-95129-8.
- Brettler, Mark Zvi (2005). How To Read the Bible. Jewish Publication Society.
- Carroll, John T. (2000). "Eschatology". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Cohn, Shaye J.D. (2006). From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Collins, John J. (1984). Daniel: With an Introduction to Apocalyptic Literature. Eerdmans.
- Colless, Brian (1992). "Cyrus the Persian as Darius the Mede in the Book of Daniel". Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 17: 113–26. doi:10.1177/030908929201705607.
- Collins, John J. (1998). The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature. Eerdmans.
- Collins, John J. (2002). "Current Issues in the Study of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Collins, John J. (2003). "From Prophecy to Apocalypticism: The Expectation of the End". In McGinn, Bernard; Collins, John J.; Stein, Stephen J. The Continuum History of Apocalypticism. Continuum.
- Collins, John J. (2013). "Daniel". In Lieb, Michael; Mason, Emma; Roberts, Jonathan. The Oxford Handbook of the Reception History of the Bible. Oxford UNiversity Press.
- Coogan, Michael (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 400.
- Crawford, Sidnie White (2000). "Apocalyptic". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Davidson, Robert (1993). "Jeremiah, Book of". In Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press.
- Davies, Philip (2006). "Apocalyptic". In Rogerson, J. W.; Lieu, Judith M. The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford Handbooks Online.
- DeChant, Dell (2009). "Apocalyptic Communities". In Neusner, Jacob. World Religions in America: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Doukhan, Jacques (2000). Secrets of Daniel: wisdom and dreams of a Jewish prince in exile. Review and Herald Pub Assoc.
- Dunn, James D.G. (2002). "The Danilic Son of Man in the New Testament". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1950). Early Church Exposition, Subsequent Deflections, and Medieval Revival. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 1. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 1006.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1948). Pre-Reformation and Reformation Restoration, and Second Departure. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 2. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 863.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1946). PART I, Colonial and Early National American Exposition. PART II, Old World Nineteenth Century Advent Awakening. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 3. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 802.
- Gallagher, Eugene V. (2011). "Millennialism, Scripture, and Tradition". In Wessinger, Catherine. The Oxford Handbook of Millennialism. Oxford University Press.
- General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists (2005). Seventh-day Adventists Believe (2nd ed.). pp. 358–359.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2010). An Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel, and Jesus. Continuum.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2002a). Judaic Religion in the Second Temple Period: Belief and Practice from the Exile to Yavneh. Routledge.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2002b). "A Dan(iel) For All Seasons". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Hammer, Raymond (1976). The Book of Daniel. Cambridge University Press.
- Harrington, Daniel J. (1999). Invitation to the Apocrypha. Eerdmans.
- Hill, Andrew E. (2009). "Daniel". In Garland, David E.; Longman, Tremper. Daniel—Malachi. Zondervan.
- Hill, Charles E. (2000). "Antichrist". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Holbrook, Frank B. (1986). The Seventy Weeks, Leviticus, and the Nature of Prophecy (Volume 3 of Daniel and Revelation Committee Series ed.). Biblical Research Institute, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. ISBN 0925675024.
- Horsley, Richard A. (2007). Scribes, Visionaries, and the Politics of Second Temple Judea. Presbyterian Publishing Corp.
- Horton, Michael (2012). "Eschatology". In Kapic,, Kelly M.; McCormack, Bruce L. Mapping Modern Theology: A Thematic and Historical Introduction. Baker Books.
- Huey, F.B. (1993). Jeremiah, Lamentations. B&H Publishing.
- Knibb, Michael (2009). Essays on the Book of Enoch and Other Early Jewish Texts and Traditions. BRILL.
- Knibb, Michael (2002). "The Book of Daniel in its Context". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Koch, Klaus (2002). "Stages in the Canonization of the Book of daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Kratz, Reinhard (2002). "The Visions of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Lucas, Ernest C. (2005). "Daniel, Book of". In Vanhoozer, Kevin J.; Bartholomew, Craig G.; Treier, Daniel J. Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible. Baker Academic.
- Matthews, Victor H.; Moyer, James C. (2012). The Old Testament: Text and Context. Baker Books.
- Nelson, William (2013). Daniel. Baker Books.
- Nichol, F., ed. (1954). "chronology chart". SDA Bible Commentary. pp. 326–327.
- Niskanen, Paul (2004). The Human and the Divine in History: Herodotus and the Book of Daniel. Continuum.
- Littman, Robert J. (2005). A Concise History of the Jewish People. Rowman & Littlefield.
- Portier-Young, Anathea E. (2013). Apocalypse Against Empire: Theologies of Resistance in Early Judaism. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Provan, Iain (2003). "Daniel". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Redditt, Paul L. (2009). Introduction to the Prophets. Eerdmans.
- Reid, Stephen Breck (2000). "Daniel, Book of". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Rowland, Christopher (2007). "Apocalyptic Literature". In Hass, Andrew; Jasper, David; Jay, Elisabeth. The Oxford Handbook of English Literature and Theology. Oxford University Press.
- Ryken,, Leland; Wilhoit, Jim; Longman, Tremper (1998). Dictionary of Biblical Imagery. InterVarsity Press.
- Sacchi, Paolo (2004). The History of the Second Temple Period. Continuum.
- Schwartz, Daniel R. (1992). Studies in the Jewish Background of Christianity. Mohr Siebeck.
- Seow, C.L. (2003). Daniel. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Schiffman, Lawrence H. (1991). From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism. KTAV Publishing House.
- Spencer, Richard A. (2002). "Additions to Daniel". In Mills, Watson E.; Wilson, Richard F. The Deuterocanonicals/Apocrypha. Mercer University Press.
- Towner, W. Sibley (1984). Daniel. Westminster John Knox Press.
- VanderKam, James C. (2010). The Dead Sea Scrolls Today. Eerdmans.
- VanderKam, James C.; Flint, Peter (2013). The meaning of the Dead Sea scrolls: their significance for understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity. HarperCollins.
- Weber, Timothy P. (2007). "Millennialism". In Walls, Jerry L. The Oxford Handbook of Eschatology. Oxford University Press.
- Wesselius, Jan-Wim (2002). "The Writing of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Hoehner, Harold W. (1978). Chronological aspects of the life of Christ ([5th print.] ed.). Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 115. ISBN 9780310262114.
- Montgomery, James A (1927). A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Daniel (BiblioBazaar, 2010 Reprint ed.). Edinburgh: T & T Clark. pp. 372–404. ISBN 9781176278707.
- Walvoord, A commentary by John F. (1989). Daniel: the key to prophetic revelation. (Moody Paperback ed. ed.). Chicago: Moody Press. ISBN 9780802417534.
- Daniel 9 The Seventy Weeks, Jews for Judaism audio file
- The 9th chapter of Daniyyel by Mordochai ben Tziyyon, former Professor of Jewish Bible Studies at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
- The 70 Weeks and 457 B.C.
- When Did the Seventy Weeks of Daniel 9:24 Begin?
- A Critical Examination of the Seventy Weeks Prophecy