Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant

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Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant
RIAN archive 409173 World's first nuclear power plant in Obninsk.jpg
Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant Museum
Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant is located in Russia
Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant
Location of Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant
Country Russia
Coordinates 55°05′03″N 36°34′11″E / 55.08417°N 36.56972°E / 55.08417; 36.56972Coordinates: 55°05′03″N 36°34′11″E / 55.08417°N 36.56972°E / 55.08417; 36.56972
Status Decommissioned
Construction began January 1, 1951
Commission date June 26, 1954
Decommission date April 29, 2002
Owner(s) Rosatom State corporation
Operator(s) Energoatom
Power generation
Units decommissioned 1 x 6 MW

Obninsk Nuclear Power Station, (Russian: Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES [About this sound pronunciation ]), was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk,[1] about 110 km southwest of Moscow. It was the first non-military research[unbalanced opinion] nuclear power station in the world at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering[2] The plant is also known as APS-1 Obninsk (Atomic Power Station 1 Obninsk).

According to Lev Kotchetkov, who was there at the time: "Although utilisation of generated heat was going on, and production of isotopes was even enhanced, the main task was to carry out experimental studies on 17 test loops installed in the reactor.".[1]


The single reactor unit at the plant, AM-1 ("Атом Мирный", Russian for Atom Mirny, or "peaceful atom"), had a total electrical capacity of 6 MW and a net capacity of around 5 MWe. Thermal output was 30 MW. It was a prototype design using a graphite moderator and water coolant. This reactor was a forerunner of the RBMK reactors.


Construction started on 1 January, 1951. First Criticality was achieved on 6 May, 1954, and the first grid connection was made on 27 June, 1954.[3] [4]For around 4 years, until the opening of the Siberian Nuclear Power Station, Obninsk remained the only nuclear power reactor in the Soviet Union; the power plant remained active until April 29, 2002 when it was finally shut down. According to Kotchetkov, in its 48 years of operation there were no significant incidents resulting in personnel overdose or mortality, or radioactive release to the environment exceeding permissible limits.[1]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Nuclear Engineering International: Obninsk - number one, by Lev Kotchetkov, who was there at the time. Source for most of the information in this article.
  2. ^ "Nuclear Power in Russia". World Nuclear Association. Retrieved June 27, 2006. 
  3. ^ "APS-1 OBNINSK (Atomic Power Station 1 Obninsk)". Power Reactor Information System. IAEA. Retrieved 23 July 2014. 
  4. ^ "Nuclear Power Plants in Russia". Gallery. Power Plants Around The World. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 23 July 2014.