Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant
|Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant|
Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant Museum
|Construction began||January 1, 1951|
|Commission date||June 26, 1954|
|Decommission date||April 29, 2002|
|Owner(s)||Rosatom State corporation|
|Units decommissioned||1 x 5 MW|
Obninsk Nuclear Power Station, (Russian: Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES [ pronunciation (help·info)]), was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk, about 110 km southwest of Moscow. It was the first grid-connected nuclear power station in the world, i.e. the first nuclear reactor that produced commercial electricity, albeit at small scale. It was located at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. The plant is also known as APS-1 Obninsk (Atomic Power Station 1 Obninsk). It remained in operation between 1954 and 2002, although its production of electricity for the grid ceased in 1959; thereafter it functioned as a research and isotope production plant only.
According to Lev Kotchetkov, who was there at the time: "Although utilisation of generated heat was going on, and production of isotopes was even enhanced, the main task was to carry out experimental studies on 17 test loops installed in the reactor." The technology perfected in the Obninsk pilot plant was later employed on a much larger scale in the RBMK reactors.
The single reactor unit at the plant, AM-1 ("Атом Мирный", Russian for Atom Mirny, or "peaceful atom"), had a total electrical capacity of 6 MW and a net capacity of around 5 MWe. Thermal output was 30 MW. It was a prototype design using a graphite moderator and water coolant. This reactor was a forerunner of the RBMK reactors.
The Obninsk reactor used 5% enriched Uranium; this percentage would be lowered for subsequent reactors.
Construction started on 1 January 1951. First Criticality was achieved on 6 May 1954, and the first grid connection was made on 27 June 1954. For around 4 years, until the opening of the Siberian Nuclear Power Station, Obninsk remained the only nuclear power reactor in the Soviet Union; the power plant remained active until April 29, 2002 when it was finally shut down. According to Kotchetkov, in its 48 years of operation there were no significant incidents resulting in personnel overdose or mortality, or radioactive release to the environment exceeding permissible limits.
- Nuclear power in Russia
- F-1 (nuclear reactor) (the Soviet equivalent of Chicago Pile 1)
- Experimental Breeder Reactor I - World's first nuclear power plant (powered its own building, but was not grid-connected)
- BORAX III was briefly connected to the US power grid in 1955
- Magnox reactor prototypes at Calder Hall (1956) produced electricity although their main purpose was plutonium production
- Shippingport Atomic Power Station (1957) with 60 MWe power; it is described by the US government as the first full-scale nuclear power plant
- Nuclear Engineering International: Obninsk - number one, by Lev Kotchetkov, who was there at the time. Source for most of the information in this article.
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- International Atomic Energy Agency (1968). Nuclear Power Economics Vol II. Bibliographical Series no. 30. International Atomic Energy Agency. p. 95. OCLC 24577447.
first atomic power station Obninsk - pilot plant for the development of graphite-moderated steam-cooled ...
- S. E. Hunt (1980). Fission, Fusion and The Energy Crisis (2nd ed.). Pergamon Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-4831-4861-8.
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- Steven B Krivit; Jay H Lehr; Thomas B Kingery, ed. (2011). Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia: Science, Technology, and Applications. Wiley. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-118-04347-9.
- Paul R. Josephson (2005). Red Atom: Russia's Nuclear Power Program from Stalin to Today. University of Pittsburgh Pre. pp. 25–28. ISBN 978-0-8229-7847-3. Contains a more detailed account of the reactor's construction and early operational history.