Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant
||The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. The dispute is about Was Obninsk the first NPS in the world or it was just research NPS?. (October 2013)|
|Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant|
Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant Museum
|Construction began||January 1, 1951|
|Commission date||June 26, 1954|
|Decommission date||April 29, 2002|
|Owner(s)||Rosatom State corporation|
|Units decommissioned||1 x 6 MW|
Obninsk Nuclear Power Station, (Russian: Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES [ pronunciation (help·info)]), was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk, about 110 km southwest of Moscow. It was the first non-military research[unbalanced opinion] nuclear power station in the world at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering The plant is also known as APS-1 Obninsk (Atomic Power Station 1 Obninsk).
According to Lev Kotchetkov, who was there at the time: "Although utilisation of generated heat was going on, and production of isotopes was even enhanced, the main task was to carry out experimental studies on 17 test loops installed in the reactor.".
The single reactor unit at the plant, AM-1 ("Атом Мирный", Russian for Atom Mirny, or "peaceful atom"), had a total electrical capacity of 6 MW and a net capacity of around 5 MWe. Thermal output was 30 MW. It was a prototype design using a graphite moderator and water coolant. This reactor was a forerunner of the RBMK reactors.
Construction started on January 1, 1951, startup was on June 1, 1954, and the first grid connection was made on June 26, 1954. For around 4 years, till opening of Siberian Nuclear Power Station, Obninsk remained the only nuclear power reactor in the Soviet Union; the power plant remained active until April 29, 2002 when it was finally shut down. According to Kotchetkov, in its 48 years of operation there were no significant incidents resulting in personnel overdose or mortality, or radioactive release to the environment exceeding permissible limits.
- Nuclear Engineering International: Obninsk - number one, by Lev Kotchetkov, who was there at the time. Source for most of the information in this article.
- "Nuclear Power in Russia". World Nuclear Association. Retrieved June 27, 2006.