Ongole

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Ongole
ఒంగోలు
City
Ongole Railway Station
Ongole Railway Station
Ongole is located in Andhra Pradesh
Ongole
Ongole
Coordinates: 15°30′N 80°03′E / 15.5°N 80.05°E / 15.5; 80.05Coordinates: 15°30′N 80°03′E / 15.5°N 80.05°E / 15.5; 80.05
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Coastal Andhra
District Prakasam
Government
 • Type democratic
 • Body Ongole Municipality[1]
Elevation 10 m (30 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • City 202,826
 • Rank 17th
 • Metro[3] 206,419
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 523 xxx
Telephone code (+91)8592
Vehicle registration AP 27 xx xxxx
Sex ratio 979:1000 /
Website Ongole Municipality

Ongole is a city and a Municipality in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Prakasam district. Prakasam District was earlier known as 'Ongole' District, which was renamed as Prakasam in order to pay homage to the great patriot and Andhra Leader, Tanguturi Prakasam Panthulu. Ongole is famous for its Ongolu Gitta, a breed of oxen.[4] This is one of the major Zebu cattle breeds in the world.

History[edit]

The town's history goes back to the era of the Mauryas and Sathavahanas who ruled most of what is now present day Andhra Pradesh. A few inscriptions dating to the Satavahana period were found in a village called China Ganjam, near Ongole. After the Satavahanas, this place came into the limelight again during the Kakatiya dynasty, when the nearby towns of Motupalli and Voda Revu served as major seaports. Ongole is also mentioned in the inscriptions of the Pallava rulers of the 3rd and 4th Century A.D. The City was also ruled by Krishna Deva Raya. The last dynasty to rule the Ongole region before the British was the Mandapati Dynasty(Zamindars). According to the historical inscriptions available at Sri Raja Rajeswara Swami Temple in Ongole City was Constructed by Cholas. Kaasi Visweswara Swami temple, Chenna Keswva Swami Temple and Veeranjaneya Swami temple were built in early 17th century by King Vankayalapati Mantri and Army Chief.

Geography[edit]

Ongole is located in eastern part of Prakasam District at 15°30′N 80°03′E / 15.5°N 80.05°E / 15.5; 80.05.[5] It has an average elevation of 10 m (33 ft)AMSL.With the initiative of Mr. Ravuri Ling Reddy Ex Sarpanch, Pernamitta, Ongole has got an all seasonal water resource 'Enugula Bavi' which serves water needs of 40,000 people any time.[6]

Climate[edit]

  • Winter: December To February
  • Summer: March to June
  • South West Monsoons - July to September
  • North East Monsoons - October to November

Rain storms and cyclones are common in the region during the rainy season, which starts with the monsoons in early June. The cyclones could occur any time of the year, but commonly between August and November.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 202,826. The total population constitute, 101,728 males and 101,098 females —a sex ratio of 994 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000.[7] 18,673 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 9,651 are boys and 9,022 are girls—a ratio of 935 per 1000. The average literacy rate stands at 83.57% (male 89.41%; female 77.73%) with 153,888 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[2][8]

The Urban agglomeration had a population of 206,419, of which males constitute 103,541, females constitute 102,878 —a sex ratio of 994 females per 1000 males and 19,126 are in the age group of 0–6 years. There are a total of 156,217 literates with an average literacy rate of 83.41%.[9]

Economy[edit]

Agriculture is the primary industry of Ongole, and is one of the major centres for tobacco trading in Andhra Pradesh.

During the 70s and 80s many small scale manufacturing enterprises dealing with shoes, paints, PVC and pharmaceuticals were prevalent but the vast majority did not survive competition from other parts of Andhra Pradesh and those out of state. The 80s and 90s saw a proliferation of hospitals and educational institutions. As the 90s progressed businesses involving granite mining, cutting and polishing companies sprang up around Ongole. Chimakurthy, which is located in close proximity to Ongole is famous for its galaxy granite which has been a great income fetcher to the Government through royalty. This particular type of granite is exported to several nations like the U.S, China, Japan etc. The Granite industry led to good employment to both local and non-local labour.

Ongole is the district headquarters of Prakasam District. Over the years it has developed into a city with good schools and colleges. Lately, the quality of education has become quite good and is comparable to that of most cities in the state. With the advent of reforms in the educational sector, private engineering and medical college have started to serve the city.

Real estate[edit]

Real estate business has boomed in the past few years. Apartments have sprung up in the vicinity of main roads. The town has been expanding horizontally mostly adjacent to the main roads. Granite mining in an adjacent town has brought in plenty of revenue. Last 3 years real estate business in Ongole became stagnant.

Export of oxen[edit]

The Ongole Bull

Ongole breed of Oxen is famous from Ongole. Ongole bulls have gone as far as the United States, the Netherlands, Malaysia, Brazil, and Mexico. The Brahmana bull in America is an off-breed of the Ongole. An Island in Malaysia where there are many Ongole Oxen is named as Ongole Island. The population of Ongole off-breed in Brazil is said to be around several millions. The original breed of Ongole stud bulls are found in a small region around Ongole town between rivers Gundlakamma, and Musi. Ongole Cattle are the pride of India for they are unequivocally world class.

Politics[edit]

Ongole Lok Sabha constituency returns an elected member to the Parliament of India. The eponymous Assembly constituency is represented in the Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh.

Transport[edit]

National Highway 5 at Ongole
Ongole railway station

Roadways

The town is also connected by a well maintained network of roads to all major towns and cities of the state and country. The NH 5 passing through the city forms a part of the Golden Quadrilateral Project and also NH 5 forming a part of AH 45 network, a part of Asian Highway Network. APSRTC runs buses from the city to all major towns and cities in the state. NH 214A, popularly called as Coastal Highway, is the shortest route from Chennai to Visakhapatnam which joins AH 45 at Naguluppalapadu near Ongole.

Railways

Ongole railway station, on the Howrah-Chennai main line is well connected to other parts of the state, with 46 pairs of major trains & 6 passenger trains and nearly 120 goods trains passing through it.

Seaport

The nearest port to Ongole is the Vodarevu port at a distance of (55 km). This Port is a Greenfield Port and Government have designated the Vodarevu Port as specialized port for Ship Breaking Industry. The Government is planning to develop this Port under private sector.

Airport

Vijayawada Airport (VGA/VOBZ) is the nearest airport with scheduled commercial flights. It is about 150 km from Ongole. A new greenfield airport site was approved for Ongole in February 2014.[10]

Education[edit]

There is a medical college in the city named as Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS)[11] Some of the famous educational institutes include QIS College of Engineering and Technology,[12] RISE Groups of Institutions,[13] Prakasam Engineering College,[14] Pace Institute of Technology & Science[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "City type". ongolemunicipality. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "Cities having population 1 lakh and above". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  3. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  4. ^ "Breeds of Livestock - Ongole Cattle". Ansi.okstate.edu. 2001-07-16. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  5. ^ Maps, Weather, Videos, and Airports for Ongole, India
  6. ^ "Yenugula Bavi is as sweet as ever". 15 April 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014. 
  7. ^ "Sex Ratio". The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  8. ^ "Chapter–3 (Literates and Literacy rate)" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  9. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  10. ^ "Ongole Airport Site Approved". Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 
  11. ^ "RIMS College - ONGOLE". Rimsongole.org. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  12. ^ "QIS College of Engineering & Technology :: Ongole". Qiscet.edu.in. 2013-07-12. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  13. ^ "Welcome to RISE groups of institutions". Risegroup.edu.in. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  14. ^ "Prakasam Engineering College". Prakasamec.com. 2013-04-06. Retrieved 2014-03-04. 
  15. ^ PACE. "PACE Institute of Technology And Science| Engineering College". Paceengineeringcollege.com. Retrieved 2014-03-04.