Guntur

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Guntur
గుంటూరు, گنٹور ہجے
Gunturu
Garthapuri
Metropolitian City
Greater Guntur Montage

Clockwise from Top Left: Jinna Tower Center, Guntur Railway Junction, Rain Tree Park Near Guntur, Guntur Medical College, Guntur Municipal Corporation, Lodge Centre In Guntur
Nickname(s): City of Spices, City of Chillies
Guntur is located in Andhra Pradesh
Guntur
Guntur
Coordinates: 16°18′03″N 80°26′34″E / 16.3008°N 80.4428°E / 16.3008; 80.4428Coordinates: 16°18′03″N 80°26′34″E / 16.3008°N 80.4428°E / 16.3008; 80.4428
Country  India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Coastal Andhra
District Guntur
Government
 • Body GMC[1]
 • Mayor None
 • Municipal Commissioner N. Sudhakar, Smt.P.Nagaveni
 • M.P. R Sambasiva Rao
Area
 • Metropolitian City 230 km2 (90 sq mi)
Elevation 30 m (100 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Metropolitian City 651,382
 • Rank 65
 • Density 2,800/km2 (7,300/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,300,252[citation needed]
Languages
 • Official Telugu, Urdu[2]
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 522 0xx
Telephone code 91-863
Vehicle registration AP 07 AP08 Reserved
Sex ratio 984[3] /
Lok Sabha constituency Guntur
Planning agency GMC, VGTMUDA
Website www.gunturcorporation.org

Guntur (Greater Guntur) About this sound pronunciation  (Teluguగుంటూరు, Guntur ? Hindiगुन्टूर, Guntur ? is a city and a municipal corporation in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Located 40 miles (64 km) to the west of the Bay of Bengal, it is approximately 165 miles (266 km) south-east of the state capital, Hyderabad. The city has a population of 673,952 (as per the 2011 census).[4] In the year 2012, the city limits was expanded by merging ten surrounding villages into the corporation and the population of the city has increased to more than a million with an urban agglomeration around 1,300,252.[citation needed] It is the fourth largest city in the state by population[5] and the fourth largest in the state by area.[6]

Guntur is a centre of learning and is the administrative capital of Guntur district, which is home to the historically significant Amaravati, Undavalli caves, Kondavid Fort and Sitanagaram monuments. The city is also a centre for business/commerce,[7][8] industry, and agriculture. The region is identified as a major transportation and textile hub in India.[citation needed] In agriculture, Guntur is internationally known for its exports of chilies, cotton and tobacco.

Greater Guntur Skyline Main

History[edit]

An old temple at Garthapuri
Inscriptions at Sivalayam

The earliest recorded reference of Guntur comes from the Idern plates of Ammaraja I (922–929 CE), the Vengi Chalukyan king[citation needed]. Guntur also appears in two other inscriptions dated 1147 CE and 1158 CE[citation needed]. The Sanskrit (ancient Vedic culture/tradition) name for Guntur was Garthapuri, a place surrounded by water ponds (garta/gunta) as per the writings in the old Agasthyeswara-Shivalayam temple of the old city. There are inscriptions in the temple on stones in 'Naga Lipi' (an ancient script) dating back to about 1100 CE. It is considered one of the most famous temples in the city. It is said that Agastya built the temple in the last Treta yuga around the Swayambhu Linga and hence it has this name. The 'Nagas' were said to have ruled the region at that time. The region has been historically known for Buddhism and the first Kalachakra ceremony performed by Buddha himself.[9][10]

LumbiniVanam

The place of Sitanagaram and the Guthikonda Caves are referred in the ancient texts (Vedic puranas) going back to the Treta yuga and Dwapara yuga (traditional time scale). Also check Timeline of Guntur.

Modern Guntur[edit]

With the arrival of the Europeans the city has attained national and international significance. The French shifted their headquarters from Kondavid Fort to here in 1752, probably because of the ample availability of water due to the two large tanks. This settlement formed the nucleus of the modern city.

A city street

The Nizams and Haidar Ali also ruled the town until it came under the British in 1788. It was made the headquarters of a district named after it that was abolished in 1859, only to be reconstituted in 1904. The city rapidly became a major market for agricultural produce from the surrounding countryside due to the opening of the railway link in 1890. The expansion continued post independence as well and was concentrated in what is now called "New Guntur", with many urban areas such as Brodiepet, Arundelpet and suburban areas like Pattabhi Puram, Chandramouli nagar, Sitarama nagar, Brindavan Gardens etc. The current size of the city has an inner radius of about 6 miles (9.7 km). The City-region comprises the surrounding suburban and rural areas spanning in all the directions.[11][12] New townships are mushrooming in these areas. On 13 July 2012 a new government order was issued adding 10 adjacent villages to be part of the city with 'Greater' status.

Hotel in Greater City

Geography[edit]

Guntur Region from a Satellite
  • Guntur Plains: Guntur is located at 16°12′N 80°16′E / 16.20°N 80.27°E / 16.20; 80.27.[13] It has an average elevation of 33 metres (108 ft) and situated on the plains. There are a few hills in the surrounding suburban areas. The city is located around 40 miles (64 km) to the west of the Bay of Bengal on the east coast of India. The Krishna Delta lies partly in Guntur district. There are other smaller rivers and channels in the region such as Guntur Channel, Chandravanka, Naagileru, Guntur Branch Canal[14] etc.
  • As quoted in NASA's website[15] "it is typical of the wider deltas along the southeast coast of India (known as the Coromandel Coast). The braided stream channels, broad floodplain, and extensive sandbars suggest that this part of the Krishna River flows through relatively flat terrain and carries a substantial amount of sediment, especially during the monsoon season." Image Website of NASA of the Guntur City and District/Region of India. With the ocean on the top portion of the image, the actual location of the city is on the bottom right side portion of the image.
  • Rain storms and hurricanes are common in the region during the rainy season, which starts with the monsoons in early June. The hurricanes could occur any time of the year, but commonly between May and November.

Climate[edit]

A sunny day in the city.

As per Köppen-Geiger climate classification system the climate in Guntur is tropical . The average temperature is warm to hot around the year. Summer clothing suffices through most of the year. The summer season (especially during May/June) has the highest temperatures, but these are usually followed by monsoon rains in that season.

The winter season (from October to February) is the most enjoyable with a pleasant climate. Winter months may get more rainfall than summer but there are dry spells during the winter season. The wettest month is July. The average annual temperature is 28.5 C and annual rain fall/precipitation is about 905 mm.

Climate data for Guntur City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.8
(85.6)
32.2
(90)
34.7
(94.5)
36.9
(98.4)
39.3
(102.7)
37.5
(99.5)
33.2
(91.8)
32.9
(91.2)
32.8
(91)
31.7
(89.1)
30.3
(86.5)
29.2
(84.6)
33.37
(92.08)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.4
(75.9)
26.2
(79.2)
28.7
(83.7)
31.4
(88.5)
33.6
(92.5)
32.6
(90.7)
29.4
(84.9)
29.2
(84.6)
29
(84)
27.9
(82.2)
25.7
(78.3)
24
(75)
28.51
(83.29)
Average low °C (°F) 19
(66)
20.3
(68.5)
22.8
(73)
25.9
(78.6)
28
(82)
27.7
(81.9)
25.6
(78.1)
25.5
(77.9)
25.3
(77.5)
24.2
(75.6)
21.1
(70)
18.9
(66)
23.69
(74.59)
Precipitation mm (inches) 1
(0.04)
4
(0.16)
6
(0.24)
14
(0.55)
56
(2.2)
115
(4.53)
172
(6.77)
160
(6.3)
151
(5.94)
158
(6.22)
58
(2.28)
10
(0.39)
905
(35.62)
Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 1m[16]

Conservation[edit]

Green Motto

Green Guntur A social forestry project for Guntur is on the anvil to make the Guntur region greener;[17] (since only about 35% of the forest in the district has survived as per available statistics, a common issue throughout India). The government is closely working with corporations like ITC Ltd,[18] which has been actively associated with Guntur for many years, due to the presence of Indian Leaf Tobacco Development (ILTD) Division. The government and ITC have coordinated to plan projects which have helped the government in meeting the goals of Green Guntur.[19] As a part of this Green Guntur project, one crore saplings have been planted in the city. The city's UDA is also developing many medium and large scale parks throughout the city.

Demographics[edit]

As of the 2011 India census,[20] Guntur has a population of 800,000 and with the addition of 10 villages (as of 13 July 2012) into the city, the population has increased to more than 750,000. Guntur has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 70%: male literacy is 78%, and female literacy is 70%. 11% of the population in the city is under 6 years of age. The city's female population is slightly higher than the male population.

The region extends over an area of 11.68 sq. miles, and its population was about 25,000 by the 1866 census and 30,183 by the 1902 census. While in the 1961 census, Guntur had a population of 187,122, it has grown about six times in size during these 60 years. Currently the city is estimated to have population of around 0.9 million with Urban Agglomeration.[21]

Administration[edit]

Local governance, The GMC[edit]

Administrative
eService

Bureaucrats and elected officials manage the city affairs and issues. The municipal commissioner and district collector are usually from the Indian Administrative Service (IAS). The MP, MLAs, Mayor, corporators constitute the local elected officials. Initiatives such as E-Governance are being put in place to reduce red-tapism, thereby enabling transparency in administration. The Guntur Municipal Corporation is among the select cities (4) across the world where an 'eco-budget' is being implemented.[22] In 1866, the Guntur was constituted into Municipality with a Population of about 25,000. From 1891, it was upgraded from III Grade to I Grade till 1917, then to special grade in 1952 and to selection grade in 1960. Later, in 1994 it was declared "Municipal Corporation". In 1995, First Election of Municipal Corporation was held.[23]

Law and order[edit]

City Court

Guntur is the regional headquarters of the Andhra Pradesh Police Department with its own Inspector General covering three nearby districts (including Guntur district). The High Court was in Guntur briefly after the separation from the erstwhile Madras State,[24] which was later moved to the current state capital after the formation of AP. There is a demand for setting up of High Court bench at Guntur, for the coastal districts.[25] Guntur also hosts one of the Indian Army recruitment and training centres.[26]

Health care[edit]

Sanakara Eye Hospital

The region of Guntur is one of the medical hubs in India. It offers wide access to top medical care at reasonable prices and has a variety of charity hospitals that serve as a safety net for the destitute. It boasts major medical facilities (super speciality hospitals) and related research institutions. The General Hospital provides free health care to people across the coastal districts. The Sankar Eye Hospital,[27] Kugler Hospital, and St. Joseph Hospital are just a few of the many premier hospitals in the region. A new medical facility VIMS [1] is established at Viswanagar to serve the people in the rural areas that are to the south and west of the city.

Culture and diversity[edit]

Festival Parade

With the culture and traditions of ageless Sanatana Dharma/Ancient Vedic Civilization (known as Hinduism)GntSivalayam.jpg and its principles (Sarvē Janā Sukhinō Bhavantu), the Guntur Region had a place for all religions, castes, sects and creeds. Guntur is known for its diverse culture. One of the purportedly lost tribes of Israel called Bene Ephraim, has a presence in Guntur, with even a Jewish synagogue. Religious faiths such as Islam and Christianity lead a harmonious, peaceful existence.

Language and festivals[edit]

Street Fireworks

Telugu is the main language of communication in the city while Urdu is the other widely spoken language. One of the earlier forms of Telugu language can be noticed in this region.[28] The famous Mahakavi Tikkana (Telugu: తిక్కన్న) (1205–1288) was born in this region. Most of the Muslims in the city speak Urdu as their mother tongue,[2] though they are fluent in Telugu. The culture is vibrant with many festivals (that have been celebrated over thousands of years). Those festivals observed in Guntur with great pomp and splendour are: Deepavali, Krishna-Ashtami, Rama Navami, Sankranti, Shivaratri, Ugadi, Vijaya Dasami, Vinayaka-Chaviti, Ekadasi, Karthika Purnima. Also, noticeable are festivals introduced before a few centuries, including Christmas, Eid ul-Fitr, Muharram, Ramadan. The 30th International Kalachakra festival was held at Amaravati near Guntur.

City lifestyle[edit]

The city's lifestyle has a mixture of both urban and rural with some cosmopolitan element. The majority of the population is from middle class and lower-middle-class families. With a reasonable cost of living and most basic amenities readily available, the city attracts people from other regions. Guntur is known for its fusion of traditional Indian and Western cultures. Guntur's residents wear both Indian style and Western style clothing. The common traditional clothing for women is a Saree, Salwar and for men formally, a Dhovathi

Local cuisine[edit]

Breakfast

Guntur City is famous for food items such as mirchi bajji (mirapakaya bajji), aavakaaya pickle, gongura pickle, with traditional Andhra style meals and common breakfast items such as Idli, dosa and puri.[29] There are many top quality restaurants that offer varieties of food items (from several regions of India). The common masala stands, jilebi push-carts, and sugar cane juice sellers can be noticed in every corner of the city. There are also International Fast Food and pizza outlets. The city has many star class lodgings, inns and hotels. Also international restaurant chains like KFC and Domino's Pizza have opened up outlets in the city, which are becoming popular with the people.

Economy[edit]

Cotton-tobacco-chilli city[edit]

Main Market

Guntur city and its region are a major commercial centre in Andhra Pradesh. Cotton, tobacco and chilli are some of the major commodities that are exported from here to different parts of the world. The city hosts the largest Asian market[30] for red chillies. The Tobacco Board, India, a part of the Government of India, is headquartered in Guntur. The chillies that are grown in this region are some of the spiciest in the world, and are in constant competition[31] with chillies from Mexico. One of the first of its kind, a global 'Spice Park' is currently being set up in the area.[32] The cotton that grows in the region is used in making some of the finest sarees in India.[33]

Industrialisation[edit]

The industrial development in the Guntur Region is of medium scale. On a positive note, the region has minimal industrial and related pollution as compared to other major cities in the country. It has a large skilled and educated workforce. Some of the industries in the area are: textile mills/handloom, silk, Sangam Dairy, Cement, Chemical and Biotechnology, Andhra Fertilizers, jute mills, granite industries, diamond and other ore processing (Hindustan Zinc Limited), Auto-Nagar and software/IT Companies. There are many small to medium scale industries such as Bharathi Soap Works, Tulasi Seeds, Crane Group, Nuziveedu Seeds Limited under the name NSL Textiles with spinning mills at Edlapadu, Ginning mills at Gurazla and Garmenting at Budampadu. Eastern Condiments has Chillies processing centre at Narakoduru. Textile Hub is being developed on the southwestern side of the city,[34] and the government is also encouraging the setting up of new industries. Another ongoing project is a 8.50 billion IT park in Guntur outskirts.[35] Possible future plans include a large scale Biotechnology Park,[36] as well as a Knowledge Park.

Farming and vegetation[edit]

Farming outside city

The Guntur region is one of the delta areas in Andhra Pradesh. With the River Krishna flowing to the north of the district, the area has many farmlands and paddy fields growing wide varieties of rice, other food grains, and other various crops. The Guntur Branch Canal (GBC) and other smaller rivers serve water to the farmlands in the region.

Ports and shore points[edit]

Coastline, located about 40 miles (64 km) from the city, it has abundant oppurtunity for trade, transport, and tourism. Though the exports from Guntur region mainly depend on Chennai harbour, there is a push to bring back one of its shore points as a harbour, with a chemical park also under consideration.[37]

Guntur Container Terminal is an ICD (Inland Container Depot) Facilitating port operations in Guntur Region. It is a port facility, which has been brought into Guntur for the benefit of the trade.

Transportation[edit]

Roadways[edit]

Autos on a Street
Central Bus Station

The city is the regional headquarters of the State owned APSRTC buses. NTR Bus Terminal in the city is biggest bus station serving many passengers to the nearby towns and districts. It is connected to all the major cities of the country through various national and state highways. NH 5 that pass through city which runs from Kolkata to Chennai is a part of Golden Quadrilateral Project under taken by NHAI. The State Highway (India)2 from Hyderabad - Piduguralla - Sattenapalli -Guntur is a state highway connecting the state capital. GunturNagarjuna SagarHyderabad highway (which can take to other major routes like Mumbai and Delhi) and the Guntur— VinukondaKurnoolBellary highway. Many intersections have innovative traffic signals and video cameras to control and monitor the traffic.[38] Common modes of road transport within the city are cars, motorcycles, buses, and auto-rickshaws; antique pedal rickshaws can still be seen.

Railways[edit]

Central Train Station

Guntur junction is one of the Divisional headquarters (Guntur division) and a major transit point of the Indian Railways System. All four metro cities and most state capitals can be accessed through this transit point. Proposed Greater Guntur has the following stations: the Main Station (near Arundelpet and Railpet) and the others at Nallapadu, University-Center (Namburu), New Guntur (Reddipalem). Two other major transit points close to Guntur are: Tenali and Vijayawada with a future plan of running suburban trains in the suburban region.

Airports[edit]

The closest international airport is located at Hyderabad (4.5 hours travel). Vijayawada Airport is the nearest domestic airport. This airport offers flights to Hyderabad, Chennai, Mumbai, Bangalore, Delhi and Jaipur. There is a proposal to build a more practical airport for the residents on the south-west side of Guntur city but there is no news about the same.[39]

Academics/education and research[edit]

The Campus of a medical institute in the city of Guntur
College Transport

Guntur is one of the first cities to provide higher education and graduate programs in India. The Acharya Nagarjuna University is one of the largest universities in the country, and covers various institutions from 3 districts. There are a number of graduate schools, colleges, and high schools providing basic and higher education (agricultural, arts, bio-med, engineering, management, medical, nursing, pharmaceutical, sciences, technology) in the region. The Guntur Institute of Medical Sciences is one of many premier institutes in the city region. The Vedic University near Guntur specialises in the teaching of Vedic Sciences, other related philosophies, and the Vedanta.

City affairs[edit]

Market and retail shopping malls[edit]

Supermarket

There are numerous markets selling vegetables, fruits, flowers and other commodities throughout the city. Also, many Super Markets and malls are opening due to the rapidly expanding middle and upper classes. The 'Patnam Bazar' area of the city is famous for its wholesale market of many consumer goods. The traditional method of selling vegetables, flowers and other consumer goods using push-carts is still very common and effective. There are special Rythu Bazaars[41] in every corner of the city to sell fresh produce. Locally famous fruits and vegetables include Sapodilla(sapota/chikoo), Mango, Custard apple, and Cucumber. Big Bazaar, Reliance Market and Global retail chains Nmart and Walmart have opened stores in the city.[42]

Entertainment and events[edit]

A Cineplex
ExpCamelOnRide

Motion Pictures/Films are a common form of entertainment in the city as well as in the rest of India. Guntur has many cinemas with updated 3D Screens that play Telugu, English, and Hindi movies with many multiplex theatres. Though not as popular, traditional drama and theatrical events also have their presence in the city.[43] The Guntur Nataka Rangam, and Guntur Cultural Association[44] are premier organisations in the state that promote and conduct theatrical events. During the early summer season there are festivals and fairs that take place in the city, many types of rides, shows, novelties and food. There are numerous places of interest and parks in and around the city/district for entertainment, culture, and history. Suryalanka is the closest beach/shore-point for the city. There are also many shopping malls that have come up in the city area, and in the coming days there is a proposal of INOX in the city.

Museum

.

Media[edit]

News sources, in Telugu, such as Sakshi, Eenadu, Vaartha and those in English, such as The Hindu (newspaper), Indian Express, Deccan Chronicle are widely used. Many newspaper headquarters are located within the city. Cable TV news has become another common mode for news information.

Tourism and places of interest[edit]

  • Uppalapadu Nature Conservation (Guntur city Rural, 4 miles S) Endangered bird species.
  • Amaravathi, Bhattiprolu, Chebrolu (Guntur Rural/District, 15 miles) Ancient Relics.
  • Kondaveedu Fort: (Guntur city/Rural, 8 miles W) Ancient fort and temple structures.
  • Kotappakonda, Chejarla: (Guntur District. 25 miles S-W) Ancient temple and mountainous region, Kapotheswara (Dakshina Kashi).
  • Pedakakani: (Guntur District. 3 miles S-W) Ancient temple.
  • Downtown, City(Urban, District): Parks, city-centers, Jinnah Tower, Theme Parks (Haailand, ManasaSarovar), Kakani temple.
  • Mangalagiri: (Guntur District, 12 miles N-E) Ancient temple.
  • Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, Ethipothala Falls: (Guntur District) Largest dam and water falls.
  • Ponnur: (Guntur District, 25 miles S) Ancient temples with monolithic statues.
  • Prakasam Barrage: (Guntur District, 18 miles E) Bridge and Barrage across river Krishna.
  • Sitanagaram: (Guntur District, 16 miles N-E) Very ancient site related to Ramayanam.
  • Sringeri Mutt: (Guntur city/Sampath Nagar) Spiritual Center, encompasses within its complex many temples.
  • Undavalli caves: (Guntur District, 15 miles E) Ancient Caves.
  • Viswa Nagar: (Guntur City/Rural, 8 miles S-W) Spiritual center.

Sports and stadiums[edit]

The city has hosted several national and international level sporting events for various sports. It is one of the places in India to host the International Grandmaster Chess tournaments.[45] Cricket is the most common and well followed sporting event, there are other sports such as kabbadi, volleyball, basketball, tennis, badminton, table tennis hosted regularly. Following is a list of stadiums in and around the city.[46]

Parade Ground.
  • Brahmananda Reddy Stadium
  • Tennis clubs
  • Gunta Ground
  • NTR Stadium, Brindavan Gardens
  • Police Parade Ground
  • Prakasam Stadium
  • Public Works Department Ground
  • Zilla Parishad
  • Krishna Cricket Academy
  • ACA Women Cricket Academy[47][48]
  • Mangalagiri International Cricket Stadium (15 miles from the the center City)

Formation of new Capital city[edit]

Centre Appoints 5-Member Expert Panel on 28 March to select Capital of the residual Andhra Pradesh, once Telangana is formed on 2 June. [49] Nellore, Tirupati, Kurnool, Ongole, Vijayawada, Guntur, Amaravathi, Visakhapatnam and a new greenfield city are doing the rounds in media reports as the probable capital of Seemandhra.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ =http://www.gunturcorporation.org
  2. ^ a b http://www.languageinindia.com/april2003/urduinap.html
  3. ^ "ZP chief talks tough on pre natal tests". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 4 September 2007. 
  4. ^ "Guntur Census 2011". 
  5. ^ "Guntur Census". Census India 2011. 1 January 2011. 
  6. ^ "Greater status". City limits expanded. 12 July 2012. 
  7. ^ "Guntur, AP listed a major E-Commerce in the country". NY Daily News (New York). 16 August 2013. 
  8. ^ "Guntur region listed a major E-Commerce in the country". Deccan Chronicle. 16 August 2013. 
  9. ^ Buddha's Preaching of the Kalachakra Tantra at the Stupa of Dhanyakataka, H. Hoffman, in: German Scholars on India, Vol. I, 1973, PP. 136–140, Varanasi
  10. ^ Taranatha; http://www.kalacakra.org/history/khistor2.htm
  11. ^ {{cite web|url=http://mangalagiri.net/uda.html%7Ctitle=Mangalagiri%7Cpublisher=Mangalagiri.net}}
  12. ^ "Mangalagiri township". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 27 August 2006. 
  13. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics-Guntur". Falling Rain Genomics Inc. 
  14. ^ "Guntur irrigation". Government of India. 
  15. ^ "Coastal formations". NASA. 
  16. ^ "Climate: Guntur - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  17. ^ "Mangrove protection programme". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 5 June 2006. 
  18. ^ http://aboutguntur.com/guntur%20city%20info.pdf
  19. ^ "Green road divider inaugurated". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 11 September 2004. 
  20. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  21. ^ "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  22. ^ "EU to help GMC implement Eco-budget". Online edition of the New Indian Express. Retrieved 1 August 2007. 
  23. ^ vgtmuda http://www.vgtmuda.gov.in/innerpages/aboutvgtm.aspx |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  24. ^ "Former High Court July 06, 1954". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 6 July 2004. 
  25. ^ "High Court bench requirement". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 25 February 2006. 
  26. ^ "Army recruitment rally". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 17 January 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2008. 
  27. ^ "Sankara Eye Hospital goes hi-tech". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 1 March 2007. 
  28. ^ "Old poetry about the city". Old Poetry. 27 August 2012. 
  29. ^ "Guntur Cuisine". Online edition of Outlook magazine-free registration required. Retrieved 1 August 2007. 
  30. ^ "Largest Asian market for chillies". Online edition of the Economic Times (The Economic Times). 17 May 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2007. 
  31. ^ "Guntur Chillies". Online edition of Outlook magazine-free registration required. Retrieved 1 August 2007. 
  32. ^ "Spice Park proposed". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 4 February 2007. 
  33. ^ "Guntur & Mangalagiri sarees". SariSafari.com. Retrieved 23 August 2007. 
  34. ^ "Guntur set to become a textile hub". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 25 April 2006. 
  35. ^ "Slowdown shadow on SEZ?". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 29 October 2008. 
  36. ^ "BioTech Park". JustAndhra.com. 
  37. ^ "Stage set for incorporation of Nizampatnam port complex". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 17 March 2007. 
  38. ^ "Cyber Cops". Guntur Police. 
  39. ^ "Airport proposed at Guntur". Economic Times. 27 June 2013. 
  40. ^ "Addresses of the Central Agmark Laboratory and Regional Agmark Laboratories". AGMARK. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 
  41. ^ "Agricultural Market Yard:Rythu bazars sell essentials". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 24 July 2007. 
  42. ^ "Walmart in Guntur". Busineess Standard (Chennai, India). 17 November 2011. 
  43. ^ "Folk art fete in Guntur". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 7 August 2006. 
  44. ^ "Guntur Cultural Association". Online edition of the New Indian Express. Retrieved 31 July 2007. 
  45. ^ "International Grandmaster Chess tournament". 
  46. ^ "List of Stadia/Grounds in Guntur.". Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  47. ^ "ACA Women Cricket Academy.". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 16 September 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
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  49. ^ http://au.ibtimes.com/articles/545645/20140329/seemandhra-centre-appoints-5-member-expert-panel.htm

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