Passiflora edulis

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"Passionfruit" and "Passion fruit" redirect here. For other uses, see Passion fruit (disambiguation)
Passion fruit, Maracujá, Lilikoʻi[1]
Passiflora edulis forma flavicarpa.jpg
Flowers
Passionfruit and cross section.jpg
Fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Passifloraceae
Genus: Passiflora
Species: P. edulis
Binomial name
Passiflora edulis
Sims, 1818

Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower that is native to Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. Its common names include passion fruit (US), passionfruit (UK and Commonwealth), and purple granadilla (South Africa).

It is cultivated commercially in tropical and subtropical areas for its sweet, seedy fruit and is widely grown in several countries of South America, Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, Southern Asia, Israel, Australia, Hawaii (Lilikoʻi)[1] and United States.

The passion fruit is round to oval, either yellow or dark purple at maturity, with a soft to firm, juicy interior filled with numerous seeds.[2][3] The fruit is both eaten and juiced; passion fruit juice is often added to other fruit juices to enhance aroma.[4]

Varieties[edit]

Several distinct varieties of passion fruit with clearly differing exterior appearances exist.[2] The bright yellow flavicarpa variety, also known as the Golden Passion Fruit, can grow up to the size of a grapefruit, has a smooth, glossy, light and airy rind, and has been used as a rootstock for the Purple Passion Fruit in Australia.[2] The dark purple edulis variety is smaller than a lemon, though it is less acidic than the yellow passion fruit, and has a richer aroma and flavour.

Several varieties of passion fruit are rich in polyphenol content,[5][6] and yellow [Note 1] varieties of the fruit were found to contain prunasin and other cyanogenic glycosides in the peel and juice.[7]

Uses[edit]

Across the world, passion fruit has a variety of uses related to its appealing taste as a whole fruit and juice.[2]

  • In Australia and New Zealand, where it is called "passionfruit", it is available commercially both fresh and tinned. It is added to fruit salads, and fresh fruit pulp or passion fruit sauce is commonly used in desserts, including as a topping for pavlova (a regional meringue cake) and ice cream, a flavouring for cheesecake, and in the icing of vanilla slices. A passionfruit-flavoured soft drink called Passiona has also been manufactured in Australia since the 1920s. It can be used in some alcoholic cocktails.
  • In Brazil, the term maracujá applies to passion fruit (maracujá azedo, or "sour") and granadillo (maracujá doce, or "sweet"). Passion fruit mousse is a common dessert, and passion fruit pulp is routinely used to decorate the tops of cakes. Passion fruit juice, ice pops and more recently soft drinks are also popular. When making caipirinha, one may use passion fruit instead of lime.
  • In Colombia, it is one of the most important fruits, especially for juices and desserts. It is widely available all over the country and three kinds of "maracuyá" fruit may be found.
  • In the Dominican Republic, where it is locally called chinola, it is used to make juice and Fruit preserves. Passion fruit-flavoured syrup is used on shaved ice, and the fruit is also eaten raw, sprinkled with sugar.
  • In Indonesia, there are two types of passionfruit (local name: markisa), white flesh and yellow flesh. The white one is normally eaten straight as a fruit, while the yellow variety is commonly strained to obtain its juice, which is cooked with sugar to make thick syrup.
  • In East Africa, passion fruit is used to make fruit juice and is commonly eaten as a whole fruit.[8]
  • In Mexico, passion fruit is used to make juice or is eaten raw with chilli powder and lime.
  • In Paraguay, passion fruit is used principally for its juice, to prepare desserts such as passion fruit mousse, cheesecake, ice cream, and to flavour yogurts and cocktails.
  • In Peru, passion fruit is used in several desserts, especially cheesecakes. Passion fruit juice is also drunk on its own and is used in ceviche variations and in cocktails, including the Maracuyá Sour, a variation of the Pisco Sour.
  • In the Philippines, passion fruit is commonly sold in public markets and in public schools. Some vendors sell the fruit with a straw to enable sucking out the seeds and juices inside.
  • In Portugal, especially the Azores and Madeira, passion fruit is used as a base for a variety of liqueurs and mousses.
  • In Puerto Rico, where the fruit is known as "parcha", it is used in juices, ice cream or pastries.
  • In South Africa, passion fruit, known locally as Granadilla (the yellow variety as Guavadilla), is used to flavour yogurt. It is also used to flavour soft drinks such as Schweppes' "Sparkling Granadilla" and numerous cordial drinks. It is often eaten raw or used as a topping for cakes and tarts. Granadilla juice is commonly available in restaurants. The yellow variety is used for juice processing, while the purple variety is sold in fresh-fruit markets.
  • In Sri Lanka, passion fruit juice, along with faluda, is one of the most popular refreshments. Passion fruit cordial is manufactured both at home as well as industrially by mixing the pulp with sugar. There are many cordial manufacturers, suppliers and exporters in the country.[9]
  • In Hawaii, passion fruit can be cut in half and the seeds scooped out with a spoon. Lilikoi-flavoured syrup is a popular topping for shave ice. It is used as a dessert flavouring for malasadas, cheesecakes, cookies, ice cream and mochi. Passion fruit is also favoured as a jam or jelly, as well as a butter. Lilikoi syrup can also be used to glaze or to marinate meat and vegetables.
  • In India, the government of Andhra Pradesh started growing passion fruits in the Chintapalli (Vizag) region forests to make them available to the local people. The fruit is found in the jungles of Assam and is known to local people as "lota bel".

Nutrition[edit]

Passion-fruit, (granadilla), purple, raw per
Energy 406 kJ (97 kcal)
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(8%)
64 μg
(7%)
743 μg
Riboflavin (B2)
(11%)
0.13 mg
Niacin (B3)
(10%)
1.5 mg
Vitamin B6
(8%)
0.1 mg
Folate (B9)
(4%)
14 μg
Choline
(2%)
7.6 mg
Vitamin C
(36%)
30 mg
Vitamin K
(1%)
0.7 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(1%)
12 mg
Iron
(12%)
1.6 mg
Magnesium
(8%)
29 mg
Phosphorus
(10%)
68 mg
Potassium
(7%)
348 mg
Sodium
(2%)
28 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.1 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Fresh passion fruit contains provitamin A beta carotene, vitamin C (36%), dietary fiber (42%) and iron (12%) in significant quantities as percent of the Daily Value; the vitamin A content converted from provitamin A sources is 25%.[10] Passion fruit juice is a good source of potassium, possibly making the fruit relevant as a nutrient source for lowering risk of high blood pressure.[11] Preliminary research indicated that consuming passion fruit peel may relieve asthma symptoms.[12] One report showed that the fruit pericarp contains lycopene.[13]

Culture[edit]

Passion fruit flower - the national flower of Paraguay

The passion fruit is so called because it is one of the many species of passion flower, leading to the English translation of the Latin genus name, Passiflora.[2] The name was given by Spanish missionaries to South America as an expository aid while trying to convert the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity.

The flower of the passion fruit is the national flower of Paraguay.[14]

Diseases[edit]

Viruses[edit]

Passion fruit woodiness virus is one of the most well known viruses to the passion fruit. It belongs to the Potyvirus group and can attack a plant at any age from nursery to mature plants. Some features include yellow leaves that display distortion in the leaf length and shape. As well as affecting the leaf, this virus influences fruit shape and size. Affected fruits become stone-like and under-sized, with many fruits becoming scabbed and cracked. The virus is spread through sap sucking insects such as aphids and mites. Woodiness can also spread through vegetation propagation such as infected scions or contaminated tools. There is no chemical control for this virus once the plant is infected but the use of clean planting material can reduce its dissemination.[15]

One of the most serious viruses pertaining to vegetation is the Cucumber mosaic virus. In the passion fruit, this virus appears with yellow mottling on leaves starting at random points on the vine and diminishing in intensity towards the tip. Expanding leaves typically become twisted, curl downward, and develop a "shoestring" appearance as a result of a restriction of the leaf surface. It is mobile and can spread easily through interactions with other plants such as brushing between leaves. This virus is naturally transmitted through aphids and can also be transmitted mechanically through seedlings. Varietal resistance is the primary management tool, and eliminating weeds and infected perennial ornamentals that may harbor the virus is critical. Once the plant has been infected, there is no possible management of control for the virus.[15]

Phytoplasma[edit]

Overshooting is the term used when Phytoplasma, a specialized bacterium, attacks the phloem of a plant. Phytoplasma infection is characterized by chlorotic small leaves, shortening of internodes, excessive lateral shoots and abnormal flowers. Although there have been reports of this disease within the passion fruit plant,[16] many infected plants are affected without visible signs of disease. Although Phytoplasma can be spread through grafting, it can be inhibited by periodic inspection of plant nurseries and areas that have had past infections.[16] Overshooting responds to treatment with tetracycline, a common broad-spectrum antibiotic.

Bacteria[edit]

Bacterial leaf spot, which causes vein clearing, forms bright yellow colonies causing infection and leaf wilt and, eventually, deterioration of fruit pulp, especially of young fruits. Under favorable conditions for the bacteria, infection occurs through natural openings or wounds from other pathogens that affect leaf inter-cellular spaces. Fertilizers or a copper chloride and mancozeb mixture can control the intensity of the disease, but are not a cure.[17]

The bacterial grease-spot of the passion fruit is caused by Pseudomonas syringae.[18] It appears with olive green to brown greasy looking spots or brown sunken circular lesions. On a later stage, a hard crust can cover the lesions showing a chlorotic halo. Affecting mainly the stomata, the grease-spot thrives in high temperatures and relative humidity. To avoid infection, measures that may be adopted include planting seeds from healthy plants and using existing healthy areas. Fungicide controls can aid in preventing further infection.[18]

Fungal diseases[edit]

Collar rot disease is caused from the fungus Fusarium solani. It is characterized by necrotic lesions at the collar region, browning of the stem at soil level, and dark discoloration of the stem. The rotting stem interferes with food and water transport within the plant, leading to withering of the plant until death. Infection occurs mostly through contaminated soil and infected plants which cause the plants to survive for only a few weeks. There are no chemical controls. Management includes planting seedlings in unaffected areas and using clean tools.[17]

The fungus called fusarium wilt commonly occurs in adult plants and is caused by Fusarium oxysporum. The pathogen has ability to survive for long periods, penetrating roots, invading the xylem and preventing the transport of water and nutrients to other organs of the plant. Once infected, this disease causes leaves to yellow and browning of the vascular system until it wilts and dies. It occurs in any type of soil infecting all plants. Management of crops include planting clean seedlings, uprooting and burning infected plants, and using sterilized tools.[18]

The anthracnose, a canker caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes, is a pathogen of the passion fruit creating dark and sunken lesions of the trunk.[19] By attacking mature passion fruit trees, these lesions cause intense defoliation and fruit rot. Many leaves die due to the foliar lesions and the skin of fruits becomes papery. Under warm and humid conditions, this disease can worsen, causing red and orange spores eventually killing the plant. Infection is carried out through the residues of the passion flower, infected seeds, seedlings, and cuttings. Managing this disease involves a combination of using pathogen-free seedlings, eliminating infected areas, and improving ventilation and light conditions. Copper-based fungicides on injured areas can prevent the spread of disease.[19]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Specific mention of P. edulis f. flavicarpa juice and peel[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003). "lookup of lilikoʻi ". in Hawaiian Dictionary. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library, University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved 2014-11-02. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Morton JF (1987). "Passionfruit, p. 320–328; In: Fruits of warm climates". NewCrop, Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN, USA. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  3. ^ Boning, Charles R. (2006). Florida's Best Fruiting Plants: Native and Exotic Trees, Shrubs, and Vines. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press, Inc. pp. 168–171. 
  4. ^ "Passiflora edulis Sims". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-06-25. Retrieved 2010-01-07. 
  5. ^ Talcott ST, Percival SS, Pittet-Moore J, Celoria C (2003). "Phytochemical composition and antioxidant stability of fortified yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis)". J Agric Food Chem 51 (4): 935–41. doi:10.1021/jf020769q. PMID 12568552. 
  6. ^ Devi Ramaiya S, Bujang JS, Zakaria MH, King WS, Shaffiq Sahrir MA (2013). "Sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in passion fruit (Passiflora) cultivars". J Sci Food Agric 93 (5): 1198–1205. doi:10.1002/jsfa.587. PMID 23027609. 
  7. ^ a b Chassagne D, Crouzet JC, Bayonove CL, Baumes RL (1996). "Identification and Quantification of Passion Fruit Cyanogenic Glycosides". J Agric Food Chem 44 (12): 3817–3820. doi:10.1021/jf960381t. 
  8. ^ Ngotho A (October 30, 2012). "Passion fruit farming the next frontier in agribusiness". The Star, Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved July 16, 2014. 
  9. ^ Passion fruit cordial Faluda and Sri Lankan food - TasteSpotting
  10. ^ "Nutrition facts for Passion-fruit, (granadilla), purple, raw, 100 g". USDA Nutrient Data, SR-21. Conde Nast. Retrieved April 2, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Oral administration of purple passion fruit peel extract attenuates blood pressure in female spontaneously hypertensive rats and humans | Industrial Research Ltd". Irl.cri.nz. 2012-07-23. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2007.05.004. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  12. ^ "Passion fruit peel ‘relief’ for asthmatics - Health news - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  13. ^ Mourvaki E, Gizzi E, Rossi R, Rufini S (2005). "Passionflower fruit — a "new" source of lycopene?". J Med Food 8 (1): 104–106. doi:10.1089/jmf.2005.8.104. PMID 15857218. 
  14. ^ "Paraguay: national flower". Paraguay.com. 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  15. ^ a b Fischer, Ivan H., Rezende, Jorge A. M. (2008). Pest Technology: Diseases of Passion Flower (Passiflora spp.). Global Science Books. Retrieved 13 December 2014. 
  16. ^ a b Amata RL et al. (June 2011). "Manual for identification of passion fruit diseases and their management". www.kari.org. Horticulture and Industrial Crops, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Nairobi. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  17. ^ a b Joy PP, Sherin CG (2012). "Diseases of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis)". Kerala University, Kerala, India. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c Baigent NL, Starr MP (5 January 2012). "Bacterial grease-spot disease of passion fruit". Plant Diseases Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Auckland. doi:10.1080/00288233.1963.10419317. Retrieved 16 December 2014. 
  19. ^ a b Tarnowski TLB, Ploetz RC (2010). "First Report of Colletotrichum boninense, C. capsici, and a Glomerella sp. as Causes of Postharvest Anthracnose of Passion Fruit in Florida". Plant Disease 94 (6): 786. doi:10.1094/PDIS-94-6-0786C. 

External links[edit]