Paul J. Lioy

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Paul J. Lioy is an American working in the field of Environmental Health and specializing in Exposure Science. He is one of the world’s leading experts in personal exposure to toxins.

His work has been recognized by the International Society of Exposure Analysis (now International Society of Exposure Science) (Lifetime Achievement Award) and the Air and Waste Management Association (Lifetime Achievement Award) for his research and application to environmental policy. Since 2002 he has been one of Information Sciences Institute’s Most Highly Cited Scientists in the Category of Environment and Ecology, and is one of the founders of the International Society of Exposure (Analysis) Science (1989).

His books include DUST: The inside Story of its Role in the September 11th Aftermath (forward By Gov. Tom Kean), Toxic Air Pollution, with Joan Daisey, and, most recently, Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications, with Clifford Weisel. He has Published 285 scientific papers in the areas of Exposure Science, air pollution, airborne and deposited particles, Homeland Security, and Hazardous Wastes.

He is currently Professor and Vice Chair, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers University - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Deputy Director of Government Relations and Director of Exposure Science, at the Rutgers Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute in Piscataway, New Jersey.

Biography[edit]

Exposure science[edit]

Lioy’s reputation evolved primarily based upon his role is developing scientific principles and refining the approaches that define the field of exposure science. This discipline is associated with the field of environmental and occupational health sciences, which includes epidemiology and risk assessment, and prevention. In a 1990 article published in Environmental Science and Technology[1] he was the first to properly locate exposure science as the bridge between traditional environmental sciences and the understanding of human health outcomes. This source to effects schematic has been expanded upon by many over the course of the past 25 years. Based upon these initial ideas, his colleague, Panos G. Georgopoulos, developed a multifaceted source to dose modeling system called MENTOR.[2] Building upon the work of occupational hygiene and the work of Wayne Ott,[3] Lioy has clearly shown that the most important aspect of total human exposure is whether or not an individual comes into contact with a toxin, and this is discussed more recently in a 2010 review article on exposure science[4] and his recent book on exposure science.[5] Thus, prevention is a key part of the application of this field of science. He has re-analyzed the work of the Father of Occupational Medicine, Bernardino Ramazzini who actually provided the initial reasons for examining contact with an agent to define ways to control occupational illness. This historical analysis can now be used to improve the way exposure science evolves in the future.[6] Lioy is also a Fellow of the Collegium Ramazzini.

Dr. Lioy has been a central figure in understanding exposure to the air pollutant tropospheric ozone, chloroform and other toxicant exposures from shower water, hexavalent chromium wastes, and most recently, the exposures derived from the dust and smoke released in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001.[7] He has also been a major figure in defining some of the basic data requirements (and providing exposure indices) for examining human exposures within the National Children's Study.[8] He was a Co-Principal Investigator within the portion of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) conducted in five mid-western states, led by Edo Pellizzari of Research Triangle Institute.[9] Currently his research addresses human exposure to engineered nanotechnology consumer products[10][11][12] and the exposure of athletes to artificial turf used on athletic fields. In addition, from 1987 to 1991 he was the Chairman of the First National Research Council (NRC) Committee that directly addressed human exposure issues and published Human Exposure to Air Pollutants: Advances and Opportunities,” also called “White Book.[13]” He was Vice Chair of the NRC committee on Exposure Science that produced the report entitled "Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy".[14] He was also vice chair of the WTC Technical Panel that was formed to address the issues of residential cleanup during the WTC Aftermath.

Selected issue-specific research[edit]

Ozone[edit]

During the early 1980s Lioy recognized that the public health metric for defining exposure of the general population to troposphere ozone (smog) was incorrect and that the one hour standard for peak ozone levels should be replaced by an eight hour standard. Independently, Peter Rombout, RIVM, Netherlands, discovered the same issue. In 1986, they collaborated and published an article on the need for an eight hour ozone standard.[15] Lioy's group also conducted research on the relationship between ozone exposure and visits to emergency rooms during the summertime. In 2002, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published an eight-hour NAAQS ozone standard based upon the scientific exposure–response evidence from multiple laboratories that exposures to asthmatics and others to eight hours of ozone above 0.80 ppm.[16] More recently, this standard for protection of public health was tightened to 0.75 ppm but remains as an 8 hour contact with the air pollutant.[17]

Semivolatile chemical exposures in the home[edit]

The work of Dr. Lioy’s laboratory in the 1990s became increasingly focused on dust in the home as a potential metric of exposure to metals and organic compounds. Included was the concurrent scientific issue of the semi-volatility of the materials associated with dust particles. This led to studies that demonstrated that semi-volatile pesticides should not just be considered just residues after application, but as toxin that can be spread throughout the home based process of evaporation and absorption and adsorption. This process was described in an article Published in 1998, and focused on the accumulation of pesticides in children’s toys,[18] and ways to protect toys were summarized in popular magazines and web sites. The work was used in revisions the EPA standards for use of the pesticide chlorpyrifos indoors. The complex issues of dust and semi-volatile toxins in homes were published in 2002 and 2006 review articles.[19][20] Additionally he has expanded this work to encompass releases and deposition of many chemicals in carpets and other plush surfaces.

Chromium wastes[edit]

During the late 1980s the state of NJ discovered that wastes from the refining and production of the chrome plated products had been used as apparent Clean fill in various residential settings, and was also had contaminated a number other industrial locations. Dr. Lioy conducted a comprehensive study of chromium wastes in Jersey City, including residential exposures and the bioavailability and size distribution if the wastes.[21][22] The work found that similar to current lead problems, the chromium exposures indoors were highly related to the levels found in house dust and not ambient air. In addition the use of dust laden corium as a marker of exposure was extremely valuable in conclusively defining that the removal of the wastes in the residential neighborhoods brought the levels of chromium down to background by the end of 2000.[23] The efforts are continuing in Jersey City and are now using analytical methods perfected at EOHSI to measure the levels of the hexavalent chromium (carcinogenic form) in human blood and in the areas around remaining industrial sites, that are beginning to receive final remediation. Acomprehensive review paper on this work was published by Stern, Gochfeld and Lioy.[24]

WTC dust[edit]

In the wake of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC), one major environmental and occupational health related issue that became important during the aftermath was the size range and composition of the dust and smoke that was released during the first hours to days post collapse of the twin towers, and subsequently the dust that had deposited indoors and required cleanup. In collaboration with multiple laboratories, Dr. Lioy examined the composition and size distribution of the WTC dust in detail for inorganic, organic and ionic species. The results were published in a 2002 article titled Characterization of the dust/smoke aerosol that settled east of the WTC in lower Manhattan after the collapse of the WTC September 11, 2001,[25] and have been used to understand the cause of the WTC cough and other health outcomes.[26] In other work that Lioy and colleagues published through 2009, they described the time line of exposure to the local population and workers from the moments after the collapse through December 2001, and pointed out the many lessons that can be learned from the WTC in order to effectively respond to other disasters.[27][28] He is currently working with Dr. Philip J. Landrigan et al. of Mount Sinai School of Medicine on the long-term health effects experienced by WTC workers. During the aftermath Lioy was interviewed many times by the Media on WTC Dust related issues from October 2001 through 2011 (See, e.g. Decade 9/11 and Please Explain: Dust - interviews with Leonard Lopate on National Public Radio; Terror in the Dust - a documentary with Dr. Sanjay Gupta on CNN; and The Memo Blog: Exploring 9/11 - The World Before and After - Exploring Health Effects of WTC Dust). The work of Lioy and his colleagues is mentioned in a book by Anthony Depalma entitled City of Dust: Illness, Arrogance, and 9/11.[29] Lioy recently published a book on the WTC dust and his experiences entitled Dust: the Inside Story of its Role in the September 11th Aftermath in 2010.[30] It is now out in paperback. In 2009 he received an Ellen Hardin Walworth National Patriotism Medal from the Daughters of the American Revolution for his work on the World Trade Center aftermath. Now, eleven years after the disaster, the media continue to ask the question "What was in the World Trade Center Plume?"

See also Exposure issues in responders to disasters-offering some ideas and lessons learned from the response to the World Trade Center September 11th tragedy.

Education[edit]

Lioy graduated from Passaic High School in 1965, and Montclair State College (today University), NJ in 1969. (Magnum Cum Laude) He received a Masters Degree from Auburn University, AL, in Physics, 1971, and an M.S. and Ph.D. from Rutgers University in 1975.

Professional career[edit]

University appointments[edit]

  • 1989–present: Professor, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (RWJMS), Piscataway, NJ (formerly UMDNJ)
  • 2000–present: Professor, Rutgers - School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ (formerly UMDNJ)
  • 1986–present: Professor, Graduate Faculty of Rutgers University: Department of Environmental Science, Public Health Program, and Toxicology Program, New Brunswick, NJ
  • 1985-1989: Associate Professor, Department of Environmental and Community Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ
  • 1982-1985: Associate Professor, Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University Medical Center, New York City, NY
  • 1978-1982: Assistant Professor, Institute of Environmental Medicine, New York University Medical Center, New York City, NY
  • 1976- 1978: Lecturer, Department of Civil Environmental Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of New York, New York City, NY

Major administrative responsibilities[edit]

  • 2004–present: Vice Chair, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers-RWJMS
  • 2003–present: Deputy Director Government Relations, Rutgers Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (formerly sponsored by UMDNJ and Rutgers University)
  • 2001-2003: Acting Associate Director, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, UMDNJ-RWJMS and Rutgers University
  • 1999–present: Co-Director, Center for Exposure and Risk Modeling, EOHSI
  • 1995-2001: Deputy Director, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, UMDNJ-RWJMS and Rutgers University
  • 1994-1995: Acting Deputy Director, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, UMDNJ-RWJMS and Rutgers University
  • 1992–present: Director, Controlled Exposure Facility, EOHSI
  • 1990-2002: Faculty Administrator, EOHSI Analytical Laboratories
  • 1986–present: Chief, Exposure Measurement and Assessment Division, DECM of Rutgers-RWJMS
  • 1986–present: Director, Exposure Science Division, Rutgers Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, (EOHSI) (formerly sponsored by UMDNJ and Rutgers University)
  • 1984-1985: Associate Director, Laboratory of Aerosol and Inhalation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, NYU Medical Center

Other professional positions[edit]

  • 1975-1978: Senior Air Pollution Engineer, Interstate Sanitation Commission, New York City, NY
  • 1973-1975: Physical Scientist (part-time) U.S. EPA, Region II, Surveillance and Analysis Division, NJ

Adjunct positions[edit]

  • 2006-2009 and 2012–present: Adjunct Professor, (volunteer) Department of Environmental and Occupational Health University of Pittsburgh Graduate School Public Health
  • 1996: Visiting Professor, Department of Biometry and Biostatistics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC
  • 1990: Visiting Scientist, RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands

Awards and recognition[edit]

  • Recipient of Cranford Chamber of Commerce Meritorious Service Award, acknowledged by resolution from the State Legislature, Union County, and Township of Cranford, 2012
  • Recipient of the Daughters of the American Revolution Founders Award, The Ellen Hardin Walworth Medal for Patriotism, 2009. A Resolution also approved by the New Jersey State Legislature.
  • Recipient of the National Medal for Conservation from The Daughters of the American Revolution; 2009: Chapter and State of New Jersey Medalist
  • Recipient of the 2009-2011 Distinguished Lecturer Award from the International Society of Exposure Science], Pasadena, CA, 2008.
  • Recipient of the 2008 Distinguished Alumnus Award from Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Engineering, Rutgers University Graduate School
  • Recipient of the 2006 R. Walter Schesinger Basic Science Mentoring Award, UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
  • Recipient of Frank A. Chambers Award for outstanding achievement in the science and art of air pollution control from the Air Waste Management Association, 2003
  • Institute for Scientific Information – Highly Cited Scientist – Environment and Ecology, 2002–present
  • Fellow, International Academy of Indoor Air Sciences, (Elected) 1999–Present
  • Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini, Environmental & Occupational Medicine and Health, Carpi, Italy (Elected) 1999–Present
  • Extraordinary Citizen of Week, Union County, Star Ledger, September 1999
  • Resolution for selection as a fellow by the Collegium provided by Union County, Board of Freeholders
  • Recipient of Jerome Wesolowski Award for Lifetime Excellence in Exposure Assessment Research, International Society of Exposure Analysis, 1998
  • Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Nominee for the UMDNJ Excellence Award, Biomedical Researcher 1992
  • Fellow of New York Academy of Sciences, Elected 1979
  • Member of Sigma XI, 1980–2007
  • University Fellow, Rutgers University, 1973–1975
  • Russell Scholar, Rutgers University, 1973–1974
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency Air Pollution Fellow, Rutgers University, 1971–1973
  • First Year Physics Graduate Student Award for Academics, Auburn University, 1970
  • National Defense Education Act, Title IV Fellow, Auburn University, 1969–1971

Advisory committee and boards[edit]

  • Member, State of New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Science Advisory Board, 2010–present
  • Executive Committee, University Center for Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Response, 2007 – present
  • Member, Research Advisory Board, Office of the Vice President for Research, Auburn University, 2009–present
  • Executive Committee, New Jersey Office of Homeland Security and Preparedness College, 2007–2009
  • Co-Chair, New Jersey Universities Consortium on Homeland Security Research 2006–2012
  • Member, The College of Science and Mathematics Advisory Council, Montclair State University, 2005–present
  • Member, Executive Committee, Rutgers University Homeland Security Initiative, 2003–2011
  • Member, Citizens Advisory Committee New York City DEP Brooklyn-Queens Aquifer Feasibility Study, 2002–2006
  • Member, Douglass College, Rutgers University Academic Councilors, 1998–Present
  • Member, Council of Academic Policy Advisors to the New Jersey Legislature, 1998–2004
  • Chair, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science Advisory Board, Committee on Health and Ecological Effects Valuation, Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis, 1997–2002 (see EPA-SAB bio)
  • Member, Science Advisory Board, European - EXPOLIS (Air Pollution Exposure Distribution of Adult Population in Europe) 1997-2004
  • Member, Technical Advisory Committee on Aggregate Exposure and Risk, Hampshire Research Institute, 1999–2000
  • Member, Dean's Advisory Council of the College of Science and Mathematics, Auburn University, 1996–1999
  • Member, EPA Science Advisory Board, 1992–2002, 2005–present
  • Member, International Joint Commission: Board on Air Quality, 1992–2006
  • Past President, International Society of Exposure Analysis, 1994–1995
  • President, International Society of Exposure Analysis, 1993–1994
  • Chair, Science Advisory Board, Pelham Bay Landfill, NY Remediation, 1990–1997
  • Member, Board of Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Academy of Sciences, 1989–1992
  • Treasurer, International Society of Exposure Analysis, 1989–1991 (Co-Founder of Organization)
  • Counselor, International Society for Environmental Epidemiology, 1988-1990 (Founding), Board of Directors
  • Board Member, Mid-Atlantic States Section Air Pollution Control Association, 1978–1982
  • Advisor, New Jersey Italian and Italian American Heritage Commission, Rutgers University
  • Member, College of Science and Mathematics Advisory Council, Montclair State University

Major committee assignments - international, national, and regional[edit]

  • Member, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, External Advisory Committee, NIEHS Center, 2013–present
  • Member, Harvard School of Public Health, Superfund External Advisory Committee, 2010 – present
  • Vice Chair, National Research Council Committee on Exposure Science, 2010 – 2012
  • Member, Committee on Human and Environmental Exposure Science in the 21st Century, National Academies, 2010–2012
  • Member, EPA Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Panel on Exposure Assessment Protocols, 2009 – 2011
  • Member, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) ton children’s health of phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children’s toys and child care articles, 2010–Present
  • Senior Technical Advisor, Pediatric Environmental Medicine Center, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, 2009 – 2012
  • Member, EPA Science Advisory Board panel on asbestos, 2008–Present
  • Member, Advisory Board of University of Pittsburgh Academic Consortium for Excellence (UPACE) in Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) (in collaboration with Drexel University), 2006 – 2009
  • Member, EPA Science Advisory Board, Council on Homeland Security, 2005–Present.
  • Member, Homeland Security Policy Committee, NJ 2005-2006
  • Member, Executive Leadership Group of the New Jersey Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-Explosive Center for Training and Research at UMDNJ, 2005–2006
  • Member, University Committee for Environmental Affairs, Rutgers, 2005–2008
  • Vice-Chair, US EPA, World Trade Center Expert Technical Panel – Indoor Clean-up Issues, 2004–2005
  • Member, New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Cancer Cluster Task Force, 2003–2005
  • Member, Healthcare Issues Advisory Task Force of NJ, 2002–2004
  • Member, Harvard University Particulate Matter Center Advisory Committee, 2000–2004
  • Member, New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, Trenton/Hamilton Processing Center Environmental Clearance Committee (anthrax), 2002–2004
  • Member, Advisory Committee on NJ Southdown Quarry Exposure/Risk Characterization, 2000–2001
  • Member, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council Committee on Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter, 1998–2005
  • Member, EPA Science Advisory Board Committee on the Particulate Matter Centers Research Program, Review Panel, 2001
  • Temporary Councilor, World Health Organization, 1997
  • Member, Air Pollution Guidelines Committee for Europe, 1993–1994
  • Member, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council Committee on Risk Management in Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration Program, 1993–1994
  • Chair, Particle Total Exposure Assessment Methodology Review Panel, EPA, Science Advisory Board, 1989–1994
  • Member, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council Committee on Tropospheric Ozone Formation and Measurement, 1989–1991
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Committee, Center for Environmental Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, School of Public Health, 1988–1992
  • Chairman, NAS, National Research Council Committee on Exposure Assessment, 1987–1990
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Committee on Harvard Multi-City Acid Health Study, Harvard University, 1987–1993
  • Member, National Academy of Sciences, Workshop Panel, Health Risks from Exposure to Common Indoor Household Products in Allergic or Diseased Persons, 1987
  • Member, Canadian Royal Academy of Sciences Committee on Acid Aerosol Health Research, 1987
  • Member or Consultant, Science Advisory Board Subcommittees, 1984–2001, U.S. EPA: 1. Risk Assessment; 2. Integrated Air Cancer; 3. Integrated Environmental Management Project; 4. Total Exposure Assessment; 5. Clean Air Science Advisory Committee
  • Member, USEPA, Health Effects, Grant's Peer Review Committee, 1989–1992
  • Chairman, Peer Review Panel, U.S. EPA Indoor Air Pollution Program, 1984
  • Member, National Academy of Sciences Committee on Air Pollution Epidemiology, 1983–1985
  • Chairman, New Jersey Clean Air Council, 1983–1985
  • Member, New Jersey Clean Air Council, 1981–1994
  • Member, Interstate Hazardous Spill Response Committee, NJ, 1977

Books[edit]

  • Kneip TJ, Lioy PJ (eds)., Air Pollution Control Association. 1980. Aerosols, anthropogenic and natural, sources and transport. New York, NY: New York Academy of Sciences. ISBN 0-89766-064-1
  • Lioy PJ, Lioy MJY (eds). 1983. Air sampling instruments for evaluation of atmospheric contaminants. 6th ed. Cincinnati, OH: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. ISBN 0-936712-43-0
  • Lioy PJ, Daisey JM (eds). 1987. Toxic air pollution : a comprehensive study of non-criteria air pollutants. Chelsea, MI.: Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-057-6
  • Lioy PJ. 2010. DUST: The Inside Story of Its Role in the September 11th Aftermath (Forward By Tom Kean). Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 1-4422-0148-7 (Paperback and E-Book, 2011)
  • Lioy PJ, Weisel C. 2014. Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications. Oxford, UK, Academic Press, Elsevier ISBN 978-0124201675

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lioy PJ. 1990. The analysis of total human exposure for exposure assessment: a multi-discipline science for examining human contact with contaminants. Environmental Science and Technology 24:938-945.
  2. ^ Georgopoulos PG, Lioy PJ. 2006. From a theoretical framework of human exposure and dose assessment to computational system implementation: the Modeling ENvironment for TOtal Risk Studies (MENTOR). Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health B 9(6):457-483
  3. ^ Ott WR. 1995. Human exposure assessment: the birth of a new science. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 5:449-472.
  4. ^ Lioy PJ. 2010. Exposure Science: A View of the Past and Major Milestones for the Future. Environmental Health Perspectives 118:1081-1090.
  5. ^ Lioy PJ, Weisel C. 2014. Exposure Science: Basic Principles and Applications. Oxford, UK: Academic Press, Elsevier.
  6. ^ Lioy PJ. 2007. Bernardino Ramazzini: thoughts on his Treatise and linking exposure science and environmental/occupational medicine for prevention or intervention within environmental health. European Journal of Oncology 12:69-73.
  7. ^ Lioy PJ, Pellizzari E, Prezant D. 2006. The World Trade Center Aftermath and Its Effects on Health: Understanding and Learning Through Human-Exposure Science. Environmental Science & Technology 40(22):6876-6885.
  8. ^ Lioy PJ, Isukapalli S, Trasande L, Thorpe L, Dellarco M, Weisel C, et al. 2009. Using national and local extant data to characterize environmental exposures in the National Children's Study (NCS): Queens County, New York. Environmental Health Perspectives 117(10):1494-1504.
  9. ^ Pellizzari E, Lioy PJ, Quackenboss J, Whitmore R, Clayton A, Freeman N, et al. 1995. The design and implementation of phase I national human exposure assessment study in EPA Region V. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 5:327-358.
  10. ^ Lioy P.J., Nazarenko Y., Han T.W., Lioy M.J. and Mainelis G. (2010). Nanotechnology and Exposure Science What Is Needed To Fill the Research and Data Gaps for Consumer Products. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 16(4): 378-387.
  11. ^ Nazarenko Y., Han T.W., Lioy P.J. and Mainelis G. (2011). Potential for exposure to engineered nanoparticles from nanotechnology-based consumer spray products. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 21(5): 515-528.
  12. ^ Nazarenko Y., Lioy P.J. and Mainelis G. (2014). Quantitative assessment of inhalation exposure and deposited dose of aerosol from nanotechnology-based consumer sprays. Environmental Science: Nano 1(2): 161. DOI:10.1039/c3en00053b
  13. ^ NRC. 1991. Human exposure assessment for airborne pollutants: advances and opportunities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  14. ^ NRC. 2012. Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy. National Research Council. Washington, DC. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13507
  15. ^ Rombout P, Lioy PJ, Goldstein BD. 1986. Rationale for an eight hour ozone standard. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 36(8):913-916.
  16. ^ Federal Register, 68 FR 32802, June 3, 2003
  17. ^ Federal Register, 73 FR 16436, March 27, 2008
  18. ^ Gurunathan S, Robson M, Freeman N, Buckley B, Roy A, Meyer R, et al. 1998. Accumulation of chlorpyrifos on residential surfaces and toys accessible to children. Environmental Health Perspectives 106(1):9-16.
  19. ^ Lioy PJ, Freeman NC, Millette JR. 2002. Dust: a metric for use in residential and building exposure assessment and source characterization. Environ Health Perspect 110(10):969-983.
  20. ^ 15. Lioy PJ. 2006. Employing dynamical and chemical processes for contaminant mixtures outdoors to the indoor environment: the implications for total human exposure analysis and prevention. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 16(3):207-224.
  21. ^ Lioy PJ, Freeman NCG, Wainman T, Stern AH, Boesch R, Howell T, et al. 1992. Microenvironmental analysis of residential exposure to chromium-laden wastes in and around New-Jersey homes. Risk Analysis 12(2):287-299.
  22. ^ Kitsa V, Lioy PJ, Chow JC, Watson JG, Shupack S, Howell T, et al. 1992. Particle-Size Distribution of Chromium: Total and Hexavalent Chromium in Inspirable, Thoracic, and Respirable Soil Particles from Contaminated Sites in New Jersey. Aerosol Science and Technology 17(3):213-229.
  23. ^ Freeman NC, Lioy PJ, Stern AH. 2000. Reduction in residential chromium following site remediation. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 50(6):948-953.
  24. ^ Stern A.H., Gochfeld M. and Lioy P.J. (2013). Two decades of exposure assessment studies on chromate production waste in Jersey City, New Jersey--what we have learned about exposure characterization and its value to public health and remediation. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 23(1): 2-12.
  25. ^ Lioy PJ, Weisel CP, Millette JR, Eisenreich S, Vallero D, Offenberg J, et al. 2002. Characterization of the dust/smoke aerosol that settled east of the WTC in lower Manhattan after the collapse of the WTC 11 September 2001. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(7):703-714.
  26. ^ Prezant DJ, Weiden M, Banauch GI, McGuinness G, Rom WN, Aldrich TK, et al. 2002. Cough and bronchial responsiveness in firefighters at the WTC site. New England Journal of Medicine 347(11):806-815.
  27. ^ Lioy PJ, Georgopoulos P. 2006. The anatomy of the exposures that occurred around the World Trade Center site: 9/11 and beyond. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1076:54-79.
  28. ^ Lioy PJ, Pellizzari E, Prezant D. 2006. The World Trade Center Aftermath and Its Effects on Health: Understanding and Learning Through Human-Exposure Science. Environmental Science & Technology 40(22):6876-6885.
  29. ^ DePalma A. (2010). City of Dust: Illness, Arrogance, and 9/11. Upper Saddle River, NJ, FT Press
  30. ^ Lioy, P.J. 2010. Dust: The Inside Story of its Role in the September 11th Aftermath: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

External links[edit]