August 11, 1932 |
Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe
City of Culture of Galicia
Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932) is an American architect. Eisenman's professional work is often referred to as formalist, deconstructive, late avant-garde, late or high modernist, etc. A certain fragmenting of forms visible in some of Eisenman's projects has been identified as characteristic of an eclectic group of architects that were (self-)labeled as deconstructivists, and who were featured in an exhibition by the same name at the Museum of Modern Art. The heading also refers to the storied relationship and collaborations between Peter Eisenman and post-structuralist thinker Jacques Derrida.
Peter Eisenman's writings have pursued topics including comparative formal analyses; the emancipation and autonomization of the discipline; and histories of Architects including: Giuseppe Terragni, Andrea Palladio, Le Corbusier and James Stirling. While he has been referred to as a polarizing figure, such antagonistic associations are likely prompted by Colin Rowe's 1972 criticism that the work pursues physique form of European modernism rather than the utopian social agendas (See "Five Architects," (New York: Wittenborn, 1972)) or more recent accusations that Eisenman's work is "post-humanist" (Perhaps because his references to the Renaissance are 'merely' formal). While his apathy towards the recent "green" movement is considered polarizing or "out-of-touch", this architect-artist (with drawings held by major collections) was also an early advocate of computer aided design. Eisenman employed fledgling innovators such as Greg Lynn and Ingeborg Rocker as early as the 1989. Despite these claims of polarity and autonomization, Eisenman has famously pursued dialogues with important cultural figures internationally. These include his English mentor Colin Rowe, the Italian historian Manfredo Tafuri, George Baird, Fredric Jameson, Laurie Olin, Rosalind Krauss and Jacques Derrida.
Eisenman was born in Newark, New Jersey. As a child he attended Columbia High School located in Maplewood, New Jersey. He discovered architecture as an undergraduate at Cornell University and gave up his position on the swimming team in order to immerse himself in the architecture program there. Eisenman received a Bachelor of Architecture Degree from Cornell, a Master of Architecture Degree from Columbia University's Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Cambridge. He received an honorary degree from Syracuse University School of Architecture in 2007.
Eisenman currently teaches theory seminars and advanced design studios at the Yale School of Architecture. He is Professor Emeritus at the Cooper Union School of Architecture. Previously, he taught at the University of Cambridge, Harvard University, the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, and Ohio State University.
Eisenman first rose to prominence as a member of the New York Five (also known as the Whites, as opposed to the Grays of Yale: Robert A.M. Stern, Charles Moore, etc.), five architects (Eisenman, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk, Richard Meier, and Michael Graves) some of whose work was presented at a CASE Studies conference in 1967. Eisenman received a number of grants from the Graham Foundation for work done in this period. These architects' work at the time was often considered a reworking of the ideas of Le Corbusier. Subsequently, the five architects each developed unique styles and ideologies, with Eisenman becoming more affiliated with the Deconstructivist movement.
Eisenman's focus on "liberating" architectural form was notable from an academic and theoretical standpoint but resulted in structures that were both badly built and hostile to users. The Wexner Center, hotly anticipated as the first major public deconstructivist building, has required extensive and expensive retrofitting because of elementary design flaws (such as incompetent material specifications, and fine art exhibition space exposed to direct sunlight). It was frequently repeated that the Wexner's colliding planes tended to make its users disoriented to the point of physical nausea; in 1997 researcher Michael Pollan tracked the source of this rumor back to Eisenman himself. In the words of Andrew Ballantyne, "By some scale of values he was actually enhancing the reputation of his building by letting it be known that it was hostile to humanity."
Eisenman's House VI, designed for clients Richard and Suzanne Frank in the mid 1970s, confounds expectations of structure and function. Suzanne Frank was initially sympathetic and patient with Eisenman's theories and demands. But after years of fixes to the badly specified and misbegotten House VI (which had first broken the Franks' budget then consumed their life savings), Suzanne Frank was prompted to strike back with Peter Eisenman's House VI: The Client's Response, in which she admitted both the problems of the building, as much as its virtues.
Eisenman has also embarked on a larger series of building projects in his career, including the recently completed Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin and the new University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona. His largest project to date is the City of Culture of Galicia in Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
Eisenman is featured in wide print and many films, including the 30 minute 2008 film Peter Eisenman: University of Phoenix Stadium for the Arizona Cardinals where he provides a tour of his recent construction.
In 2001, Eisenman won the National Design Award for Architecture from the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum.
Buildings and works
- Falk House (House II Eisenman), Hardwick, Vermont, 1969
- House VI (Frank residence), Cornwall, Connecticut, Design: 1972.
- Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1989
- Nunotani building, Edogawa Tokyo Japan, 1991 
- Greater Columbus Convention Center, Columbus, Ohio, 1993 
- Aronoff Center for Design and Art, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1996
- City of Culture of Galicia, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain, 1999
- Il giardino dei passi perduti, Castelvecchio Museum, Verona, 2004
- Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, Berlin, 2005
- University of Phoenix Stadium, Glendale, Arizona, 2006
- Peter Eisenman, Houses of Cards. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-19-505130-0
- Peter Eisenman, Diagram Diaries (Universe Architecture Series), Thames and Hudson, 1999. ISBN 0-7893-0264-0
- Blurred Zones: Investigations of the Interstitial : Eisenman Architects 1988-1998
- Peter Eisenman, Giuseppe Terragni: Transformations, Decompositions, Critiques, New York, The Monacelli Press 2003 ISBN 1-885254-96-2
- Peter Eisenman, Eisenman Inside Out. Selected Writings 1963-1988, New Haven-London, Yale University Press 2004 ISBN 0-300-09008-0
- Peter Eisenman, Ten Canonical Buildings 1950-2000, New York, Rizzoli International Publications inc. 2008 ISBN 0-8478-3048-9
- Blank, Peter. "Presidential Lectures: Peter Eisenman". Stanford University. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- Derrida's Garden by Eleanor Morgan in Fillip
- Peter Eisenman, Great Buildings Online. Accessed September 19, 2008.
- "Peter Eisenman Faculty Profile". Yale School of Architecture. Retrieved 2010-08-24.[dead link]
- "Faculty Profile Peter Eisenman". Cooper Union School of Architecture. Retrieved 2010-08-24.[dead link]
- "Profile of Peter Eisenman". Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- Interview: Peter Eisenman, Threshold, Rizzoli, 1983.
- Kari Jormakka, Interview with Peter Eisenman, Datutop 14, 1991.
- What Is Architecture?, Andrew Ballantyne, Routledge, 2002.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peter Eisenman.|
- Eisenman Architects official website
- Peter Eisenman archive at the Canadian Centre for Architecture
- Video interview with Eisenman from 1996
- Archinect.com interview
- designboom.com interview
- Eisenman's politics an interview with Robert Locke
- "Being Eisenman" video 2004, a personal interview with famous architecture friends