Bachelor of Architecture
The Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) is an undergraduate academic degree designed to satisfy the academic component of professional accreditation bodies, to be followed by a period of practical training prior to professional examination and registration. It is awarded for a course of study that lasts up to five years. In some cases, a B.Arch can be undertaken after having completed a three-year generalized architectural degree plus an additional two years. Many architecture schools using this bi-partite structure have re-badged their B.Arch programs as M.Arch degrees.
United Arab Emirates
The American University of Sharjah is the first university outside of North America to offer a B.Arch that is officially accredited by the prestigious US-based National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB).
Architectural education in Australia varies depending on the university offering the course. All Australian Architecture schools and programs have recently moved to some variation on the 3 + 2 Bologna model, with a 3 year undergraduate degree, followed by a 2 year course-work based Master of Architecture professional degree. Some universities also require 6–12 months of practice work experience between the 2 degrees. Registration as an architect is via state-based boards and requires a minimum of 2 years practice experience under the supervision of a registered architect. In addition there are double degrees offered by many universities, such as those combining architecture with construction or landscape architecture. Some universities also offer Masters programs in Architecture via coursework or research. Many architecture faculties offer related programs in landscape architecture, urban planning, urban design, property and construction. Entry to Australian architecture programs is highly competitive and the proportion of students at some architecture schools from outside Australia is very high, up to 40%.
Universities in Australia offering professionally-accredited architecture programs:
Institutions in Australia offering other programs in architecture:
- Charles Darwin University 3-year Bachelor of Design, automatic entry into the Deakin University M.Arch program.
- Oceania Polytechnic Institute of Technology 6-year Bachelor of Architecture, partially accredited by the Australian Institute of Architects .
- Griffith University 3-year Bachelor of Environmental Design (Architectural Studies) begins February 2010. M.Arch to begin in 2013.
Architectural education differs slightly in the United Kingdom. A five year course used to exist in a similar fashion to the United States, but the 1960s saw the introduction of the sandwich course and a split of the B.Arch into a 3 year BA (Hons.) degree (or in some cases BSc) followed by a year working in practice, after which a 2 year MA, PG-DipArch, M.Arch or B.Arch is completed. A further year of work completes the student's education upon the passing of Part III final examinations (See below). Registration as an architect is then permissible by the Architects Registration Board. Many UK universities offer postgraduate programs by coursework and research in architecture and related fields such as landscape architecture, planning, and urban design.
The RIBA 3 Part Examinations
In effect, for most students to become an architect in the United Kingdom they must pass or be exempted from Part I,II and III of the RIBA's examinations. Completion of the 3 year BA or BSc gives an exemption from Part I. Completion of the 2 year DipArch, M.Arch or B.Arch gives exemption from Part II and the final two years of supervised practical training, with supplemental examinations and assignments, makes up the requirements for Part III.
An alternative route to qualification exists by sitting the exams directly - currently this administered by Oxford Brookes University on behalf of the RIBA.
Studying architecture in the UK
The Bachelor of Architecture is accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB) as a professional degree, allowing the recipient to qualify for the Architect Registration Examination (ARE). NAAB-accredited B. Arch. programs must include at least 150 semester credit hours, or the quarter-hour equivalent, of which at least 45 semester hours, or the quarter-hour equivalent are in general studies.
There are also universities that offer a four-year degree such as a Bachelor of Science in Architectural Studies or a Bachelor of Science in Architecture (B.S.Arch) or a Bachelor of Art in Architectural Studies (B.A.Arch). These are non-accredited, pre-professional degrees, and so these students must enroll in a Masters degree (M.Arch) program to be professionally-licensed. However, enrolling in a pre-professional program often gets a student into a shorter M.Arch program. Any architecturally related curriculum may eventually make licensure possible, depending upon the laws or regulations of the jurisdiction in which you wish to be licensed.
The course of study of the Bachelor of Architecture includes studio courses on design and aesthetic theory, as well as practical courses on structures, building mechanical systems, electrical systems, *plumbing and construction. Student work is often in the form of drawings and renderings, either through computer-aided design or drafting by hand. Students also build physical models and create presentation boards for drawings and graphics.
In nearly all architecture schools in the United States, student life and work revolves around a studio class. Other classes in the architecture curriculum are designed to support the concepts emphasized in studio. One particularly rigorous aspect of studio classes is the "critique" or "review." Students "pin-up" their models and presentation drawings for instructors (and students) who offer constructive criticism.
As of August 2011, there are fifty-one accredited Bachelor of Architecture programs in the United States. This number has remained relatively stable since 2006. Colleges and universities in the United States where a Bachelor of Architecture degree can be obtained are listed below:
Note: Universities denoted by a * also have accredited Master of Architecture programs at their schools
The Council of Architecture (COA) (http://www.coa.gov.in/) has been constituted by the Government of India under the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972, enacted by the Parliament of India, which came into force on 1 September 1972. The Act provides for registration of Architects, standards of education, recognized qualifications and standards of practice to be complied with by the practicing architects. The Council of Architecture is charged with the responsibility to regulate the education and practice of profession throughout India besides maintaining the register of architects. For this purpose, the Government of India has framed Rules and Council of Architecture has framed Regulations as provided for in the Architects Act, with the approval of Government of India.
Any person desirous of carrying on the profession of 'Architect' must have registered himself with Council of Architecture. For the purpose of registration, one must possess the requisite qualification as appended to the Architects Act, after having undergone the education in accordance with the Council of Architecture (Minimum Standards of Architectural Education) Regulations, 1983. The registration with Council of Architecture entitles a person to practice the profession of architecture, provided he holds a Certificate of Registration with up-to-date renewals. The registration also entitles a person to use the title and style of Architect. The title and style of architect can also be used by a firm of architects, of which all partners are registered with COA. Limited Companies, Private/Public Companies, societies and other juridical persons are not entitled to use the title and style of architect nor are they entitled to practice the profession of architecture. If any person falsely claims to be registered or misuses title and style of architect, such acts tantamount to committing of a criminal offence, which is punishable under section 36 or 37 (2) of the Architects Act, 1972.
The practice of profession of an architect is governed by the Architects (Professional Conduct) Regulations, 1989 (as amended in 2003), which deals with professional ethics and etiquette, conditions of engagement and scale of charges, architectural competition guidelines etc. Pursuant to these Regulations, the Council of Architecture has framed guidelines governing the various aspects of practice. An architect is required to observe professional conduct as stipulated in the Regulations of 1989 and any violation thereof shall constitute a professional misconduct, which will attract disciplinary action as stipulated under section 30 of the Architects Act, 1972.
There are 135 institutions, which impart architectural education in India leading to recognized qualifications. The standards of education being imparted in these institutions (constituent colleges/departments of universities, deemed universities, affiliated colleges/schools, IITs, NITs and autonomous institutions) is governed by Council of Architecture (Minimum Standards of Architectural Education) Regulations, 1983, which set forth the requirement of eligibility for admission, course duration, standards of staff & accommodation, course content, examination etc. These standards as provided in the said Regulations are required to be maintained by the institutions. The COA oversees the maintenance of the standards periodically by way of conducting inspections through Committees of Experts. The COA is required to keep the Central Government informed of the standards being maintained by the institutions and is empowered to make recommendations to the Government of India with regard to recognition and de-recognition of a qualification.
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- Purvanchal Institute of Architecture & Design, GIDA, Gorakhpur, U.P.
- http://www.aus.edu/media/news/show_article.php?Article=950 AUS architecture program becomes first outside North America to receive prestigious NAAB accreditation
- "UK Schools of Architecture with courses validated by the RIBA". RIBA.
- "Indian courses for architecture and related competitive examination"
- "Australia's Best Architecture & Design Schools"
- Master of Architecture
- List of international architecture schools
- Vocational university