Physiographic regions of the world

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search


The Physiographic Regions of the world are a means of defining the Earth's landforms into distinct regions, based upon the classic three-tiered approach by Nevin Fenneman in 1916, that further defines landforms into: 1. physiographic divisions; 2. physiographic provinces; and 3. physiographic sections.[1] This foundational model, which Fenneman used to classify the United States, was the basis for similar classifications of other continents later, and is still considered basically valid.[2]

Introduction[edit]

During the early 1900s, the study of regional-scale geomorphology was termed "physiography". Unfortunately, physiography later was considered to be a contraction of "physical" and "geography", and therefore synonymous with physical geography, and the concept became embroiled in controversy surrounding the appropriate concerns of that discipline. Some geomorphologists held to a geological basis for physiography and emphasized a concept of physiographic regions while a conflicting trend among geographers was to equate physiography with "pure morphology," separated from its geological heritage. . In the period following World War II, the emergence of process, climatic, and quantitative studies led to a preference by many Earth scientists for the term "geomorphology" in order to suggest an analytical approach to landscapes rather than a descriptive one.[3] In current usage, physiography still lends itself to confusion as to which meaning is meant, the more specialized "geomorphological" definition or the more encompassing "physical geography" definition. For the remainder of this article, emphasis will remain on the more "geomorphological" usage, which is based upon geological landforms, not on climate, vegetation, or other non-geological criteria.

For the purposes of physiographic mapping, landforms are classified according to both their geologic structures and histories. Distinctions based on geologic age also correspond to physiographic distinctions where the forms are so recent as to be in their first erosion cycle, as is generally the case with sheets of glacial drift. Generally, forms which result from similar histories are characterized by certain similar features, and differences in history result in corresponding differences of form, usually resulting in distinctive features which are obvious to the casual observer, but this is not always the case. A maturely dissected plateau may grade without a break from rugged mountains on the one hand to mildly rolling farm lands on the other. So also, forms which are not classified together may be superficially similar; for example, a young coastal plain and a peneplain. In a large number of cases, the boundary lines are also geologic lines, due to differences in the nature or structure of the underlying rocks.[1]

History[edit]

19th-century[edit]

The history of "physiography" itself is at best a complicated effort. Much of the complications arise from how the term has evolved over time, both as its own 'science' and as a synonym for other branches of science. In 1848, Mary Somerville published her book Physical Geography which gave detailed descriptions of the topography of each continent, along with the distribution of plant, animals and humans. This work gave impetus to further works along the field. In Germany, Oscar Peschel in 1870, proposed that geographers should study the morphology of the Earth's surface, having an interest in the study of landforms for the development of human beings. As the chair of geography (and a geologist by training) in Bonn, Germany, Ferdinand von Richthofen made the study of landforms the main research field for himself and his students. Elsewhere, Thomas Henry Huxley's Physiography was published in 1877 in Britain. Shortly after, the field of "physical geography" itself was renamed as "physiography". Afterwards, physiography became a very popular school subject in Britain, accounting for roughly 10% of all examination papers in both English and Welsh schools, and physiography was now regarded as an integral, if not the most important aspect of geography.[4]

In conjunction with these 'advances' in physiography, physically and visually mapping these descriptive areas was underway as well. The early photographers and balloonists, Nadar and Triboulet, experimented with aerial photography and the view it provided of the landscape. In 1899, Albert Heim published his photographs and observations made during a balloon flight over the Alps; he is probably the first person to use aerial photography in geomorphological or physiographical research. The block diagrams of Fenneman, Raisz, Lobeck and many others were based in part upon both aerial photography and topographic maps, giving an oblique "birds-eye" view.[5]

20th-century[edit]

By 1901, there were clear differences in the definition of the term physiography. "In England, physiography is regarded as the introduction to physical science in general. It is made to include the elements of physics, chemistry, astronomy, physical geography, and geology, and sometimes even certain phases of botany and zoology. In America, the term has a somewhat different meaning. It is sometimes used as a synonym for physical geography, and is sometimes defined as the science which describes and explains the physical features of the earth's surface".[6]

By 1911, the definition of physiography in Encyclopædia Britannica had evolved to be "In popular usage the words 'physical geography' have come to mean geography viewed from a particular standpoint rather than any special department of the subject. The popular Physical meaning is better conveyed by the word physiography, a geography term which appears to have been introduced by Linnaeus, and was reinvented as a substitute for the cosmography of the Middle Ages by Professor Huxley. Although the term has since been limited by some writers to one particular part of the subject, it seems best to maintain the original and literal meaning. In the stricter sense, physical geography is that part of geography which involves the processes of contemporary change in the crust and the circulation of the fluid envelopes. It thus draws upon physics for the explanation of the phenomena with the space-relations of which it is specially concerned. Physical geography naturally falls into three divisions, dealing respectively with the surface of the lithosphere - geomorphology; the hydrosphere - oceanography; and the atmosphere - climatology. All these rest upon the facts of mathematical geography, and the three are so closely inter-related that they cannot be rigidly separated in any discussion".

The 1919 edition of The Encyclopedia Americana: A Library of Universal Knowledge further adjusted the definition to be "Physiography (geomorphology), now generally recognized as a science distinct from geology, deals with the origins and development of land forms, traces out the topographic expression of structure, and embodies a logical history of oceanic basins, and continental elevations; of mountains, plateaus and plains; of hills and valleys. Physical geography is used loosely as a synonym, but the term is more properly applied to the borderland between geography and physiography; dealing, as it does, largely with the human element as influenced by its physiographic surroundings".

21st-century[edit]

Even in the 21st century, some confusion remains as to exactly what "physiography" is. One source states "Geomorphology includes quaternary geology, physiography and most of physical geography",[7] treating physiography as a separate field, but subservient to geomorphology. Another source states "Geomorphology (or physiography) refers to the study of the surface features of the earth. It involves looking at the distribution of land, water, soil and rock material that forms the land surface. Land is closely linked to the geomorphology of a particular landscape",[8] regarding physiography as synonymous with geomorphology. Yet another source states "Physiography may be viewed from two distinct angles, the one dynamic, the other passive". The same source continues by stating "In a large fashion geodynamics is intimately associated with certain branches of geology, as sedimentation, while geomorphology connects physiography with geography. The dynamic interlude representing the active phase of physiography weaves the basic threads of geologic history."[9] The U.S. Geological Survey defines physiography as a study of "Features and attributes of earth's land surface",[10] while geomorphology is defined separately as "Branch of geology dealing with surface land features and the processes that create and change them".[11]

Partly due to this confusion over what "physiography" actually means, some scientists have refrained from using the term physiography (and instead use the similar term geomorphology) because the definitions vary from the American Geological Institute's "the study and classification of the surface features of Earth on the basis of similarities in geologic structure and the history of geologic changes" to descriptions that also include vegation and/or land use.[12]

Compendium table of the world's Physiographic Regions[edit]

The landforms of the Earth are generally divided into physiographic divisions, consisting of physiographic provinces, which in turn consist of physiographic sections,[13][14][15] though some others use different terminology, such as realms, regions and sub-regions.[16] Some areas have further categorized their respective areas into more detailed sub-sections.[17][18][citation needed]

landmass division province section
Africa African Alpine System[citation needed]
Africa African Alpine System Atlas Mountains
Africa African Alpine System Atlas Mountains Mediterranean Atlas
Africa African Alpine System Atlas Mountains Southern Atlas
Africa African Alpine System Atlas Mountains High Interior Plateaus
Africa African Alpine System Atlas Mountains Canary Islands
Africa African massive[citation needed]
Africa African massive Sahara
Africa African massive Sahara Central Sahara Domes
Africa African massive Sahara Encircling Plateaus And Lowlands
Africa African massive Sahara Central Sahara Ergs
Africa African massive Sahara Western Sahara
Africa African massive Sahara Eastern Sahara
Africa African massive Sudan
Africa African massive Sudan Niger Basin
Africa African massive Sudan Chad Basin
Africa African massive Sudan Middle Nile Basin
Africa African massive Mid-African
Africa African massive Mid-African West Guinea Highlands
Africa African massive Mid-African Guinea Coast
Africa African massive Mid-African Cameroon Mountains
Africa African massive Mid-African Ubangi-Shari Upland
Africa African massive Mid-African South Guinea Highlands
Africa African massive Mid-African Coastal Lowlands
Africa African massive Mid-African Congo Basin
Africa South African Platform[citation needed]
Africa South African Platform Kalahari Region
Africa South African Platform Kalahari Region Encircling Uplands
Africa South African Platform Lunda Swell
Africa South African Platform Matabele Upland
Africa South African Platform Veldt
Africa South African Platform High Karroo
Africa South African Platform Damara-Nama Upland
Africa South African Platform Namib Desert
Africa South African Platform Cape Mountains
Africa South African Platform Natal Terrace Belt
Africa South African Platform Mozambique Plain
Africa South African Platform Madagascar
Africa East African Highlands[citation needed] Rift Valley
Africa East African Highlands Rift Valley Coastal Belt
Africa East African Highlands Rift Valley High Interior Plateau
Africa East African Highlands Rift Valley Western Rift Belt
Africa East African Highlands Rift Valley Eastern Rift Belt
Africa East African Highlands Abyssinian
Africa East African Highlands Abyssinian Somali Plateau
Africa East African Highlands Abyssinian Ethiopian Massive
Africa East African Highlands Abyssinian Abyssinian Graben
Africa East African Highlands Abyssinian Etbai Range
Americas Appalachian
Americas Appalachian Atlantic Coast Uplands
Americas Appalachian Eastern Newfoundland Atlantic
Americas Appalachian Maritime Acadian Highlands
Americas Appalachian Maritime Plain
Americas Appalachian Notre Dame And Megantic Mountains
Americas Appalachian Western Newfoundland Mountains
Americas Appalachian Western Newfoundland Mountains Newfoundland Highlands
Americas Appalachian Western Newfoundland Mountains Newfoundland Coastal Lowland
Americas Appalachian Piedmont province
Americas Appalachian Piedmont province Piedmont Upland
Americas Appalachian Piedmont province Piedmont Lowlands
Americas Appalachian Blue Ridge province
Americas Appalachian Blue Ridge province Northern section
Americas Appalachian Blue Ridge province Southern section
Americas Appalachian Valley And Ridge province
Americas Appalachian Valley And Ridge province Tennessee section
Americas Appalachian Valley And Ridge province Middle section
Americas Appalachian Valley And Ridge province Hudson Valley
Americas Appalachian St. Lawrence Valley
Americas Appalachian St. Lawrence Valley Champlain section
Americas Appalachian St. Lawrence Valley Northern section
Americas Appalachian Appalachian Plateaus province
Americas Appalachian Appalachian Plateaus province Mohawk section
Americas Appalachian Appalachian Plateaus province Catskill section
Americas Appalachian Appalachian Plateaus province Southern New York section
Americas Appalachian Appalachian Plateaus province Allegheny Mountain section
Americas Appalachian Appalachian Plateaus province Kanawha section
Americas Appalachian Appalachian Plateaus province Cumberland Plateau section
Americas Appalachian Appalachian Plateaus province Cumberland Mountain section
Americas Appalachian New England province
Americas Appalachian New England province Seaboard Lowland section
Americas Appalachian New England province New England Upland section
Americas Appalachian New England province White Mountain section
Americas Appalachian New England province Green Mountain section
Americas Appalachian New England province Taconic section
Americas Arctic Lowlands
Americas Arctic Lowlands Eastern Arctic Lowlands
Americas Arctic Lowlands Western Arctic Lowlands
Americas Atlantic Plain
Americas Atlantic Plain Continental Shelf
Americas Atlantic Plain Coastal Plain
Americas Atlantic Plain Coastal Plain Embayed section
Americas Atlantic Plain Coastal Plain Sea Island section
Americas Atlantic Plain Coastal Plain Floridian section
Americas Atlantic Plain Coastal Plain East Gulf Coastal Plain
Americas Atlantic Plain Coastal Plain Mississippi Alluvial Plain
Americas Atlantic Plain Coastal Plain West Gulf Coastal Plain
Americas Atlantic Plain Coastal Plain Gulf Coast Plain And Yucatan Peninsula
Americas Canadian Shield
Americas Canadian Shield Laurentian Upland
Americas Canadian Shield Adirondack province
Americas Canadian Shield Laurentian Upland Superior Upland
Americas Canadian Shield Kazan
Americas Canadian Shield Davis
Americas Canadian Shield Hudson
Americas Canadian Shield Hudson Hudson Bay Lowlands
Americas Canadian Shield James
Americas Innuitian Region
Americas Innuitian Region Eastern High Arctic Glacier
Americas Innuitian Region Western High Arctic
Americas Interior Highlands
Americas Interior Highlands Ozark Plateaus
Americas Interior Highlands Ozark Plateaus Springfield-Salem Plateaus
Americas Interior Highlands Ozark Plateaus Boston Mountains
Americas Interior Highlands Ouachita province
Americas Interior Highlands Ouachita province Arkansas Valley
Americas Interior Highlands Ouachita province Ouachita Mountains
Americas Interior Plains
Americas Interior Plains Interior Low Plateaus
Americas Interior Plains Interior Low Plateaus Highland Rim section
Americas Interior Plains Interior Low Plateaus Lexington Plain
Americas Interior Plains Interior Low Plateaus Nashville Basin
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains Missouri Plateau, Glaciated
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains Missouri Plateau, Unglaciated
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains Black Hills
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains High Plains
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains Plains Border
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains Arctic Coastal Plain
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains Colorado Piedmont
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains Raton section
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains Pecos Valley
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains Edwards Plateau
Americas Interior Plains Great Plains Central Texas section
Americas Interior Plains Central Lowland
Americas Interior Plains Central Lowland Dissected Till Plains
Americas Interior Plains Central Lowland Eastern Lake section
Americas Interior Plains Central Lowland Osage Plains
Americas Interior Plains Central Lowland Till Plains
Americas Interior Plains Central Lowland Western Lake section
Americas Interior Plains Central Lowland Wisconsin Driftless section
Americas Interior Plains Mackenzie Delta
Americas Interior Plains Mackenzie Delta Mackenzie River
Americas Interior Plains Mackenzie Delta Yukon Coastal Plain
Americas Interior Plains Manitoba Lowlands
Americas Interior Plains Northern Boreal Plains
Americas Interior Plains Northern Boreal Plains Great Slave Plain
Americas Interior Plains Northern Boreal Plains Great Bear Plain
Americas Interior Plains Northern Boreal Plains Anderson Plain
Americas Interior Plains Northern Boreal Plains Peel Plain And Plateau
Americas Interior Plains Northern Boreal Plains Colville Hills
Americas Interior Plains Prairie Grasslands
Americas Interior Plains Prairie Grasslands Alberta Plain
Americas Interior Plains Prairie Grasslands Saskatchewan Hills
Americas Interior Plains Southern Boreal Plains And Plateaux
Americas Interior Plains Southern Boreal Plains And Plateaux Alberta Plateau
Americas Interior Plains Southern Boreal Plains And Plateaux Saskatchewan Plain
Americas Intermontane Plateaus
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Columbia Plateau
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Columbia Plateau Walla Walla Plateau
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Columbia Plateau Blue Mountain section
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Columbia Plateau Payette section
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Columbia Plateau Snake River Plain
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Columbia Plateau Harney section
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Colorado Plateaus
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Colorado Plateaus High Plateaus Of Utah
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Colorado Plateaus Uinta Basin
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Colorado Plateaus Canyon Lands
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Colorado Plateaus Navajo section
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Colorado Plateaus Grand Canyon section
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Colorado Plateaus Datil-Mogollon Section
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Colorado Plateaus Acoma-Zuni Section
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Basin And Range Province Great Basin
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Basin And Range Province Mojave DesertMojave Ranges
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Basin And Range Province Salton TroughColorado Desert Ranges
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Basin And Range Province Sonoran DesertSonoran Desert Ranges
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Basin And Range Province Mexican Highland
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Basin And Range Province Sacramento section
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Basin And Range Province Mexican Altiplano
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Northern Plateaus
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Northern Plateaus Interior Plateau
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Yukon-Tanana Uplands
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Yukon-Tanana Uplands Yukon Plateau
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Yukon-Tanana Uplands Cassiar Mountains
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Yukon-Tanana Uplands Skeena Mountains
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Yukon-Tanana Uplands Liard Plain
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Yukon-Tanana Uplands Hyland Plateau
Americas Intermontane Plateaus Yukon-Tanana Uplands Pelly Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain System
Americas Pacific Mountain System Pacific Border province Aleutian Islands
Americas Pacific Mountain System Pacific Border province Boundary Ranges
Americas Pacific Mountain System Cascade-Sierra Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain System Cascade-Sierra Mountains Northern Cascade Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain System Cascade-Sierra Mountains Middle Cascade Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain System Cascade-Sierra Mountains Southern Cascade Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain System Cascade-Sierra Mountains Sierra Nevada
Americas Pacific Mountain System Pacific Border province
Americas Pacific Mountain System Pacific Border province Puget Trough
Americas Pacific Mountain System Pacific Border province Olympic Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain System Pacific Border province Oregon Coast Range
Americas Pacific Mountain System Pacific Border province Klamath Mountains
Americas Pacific Mountain System Pacific Border province California Trough
Americas Pacific Mountain System Pacific Border province California Coast Ranges
Americas Pacific Mountain System Pacific Border province Transverse Ranges (Los Angeles Mountains)
Americas Pacific Mountain System Lower California province Peninsular Ranges
Americas Rocky Mountain System
Americas Rocky Mountain System Wyoming Basin
Americas Rocky Mountain System Columbia Mountains
Americas Rocky Mountain System Columbia Mountains Columbia Highlands
Americas Rocky Mountain System Columbia Mountains Interior Plateau
Americas Rocky Mountain System Columbia Mountains Southern Rocky Mountain Trench
Americas Rocky Mountain System Arctic Mountains
Americas Rocky Mountain System Arctic Mountains Brooks Range
Americas Rocky Mountain System Arctic Mountains Arctic Foothills
Americas Rocky Mountain System Northern Rocky Mountains
Americas Rocky Mountain System Middle Rocky Mountains
Americas Rocky Mountain System Southern Rocky Mountains
Americas Sierra Madre System
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre Occidental
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre Occidental Lava (Rhyolite) Plateau
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre Occidental Sonoran High Ranges
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre Occidental Eastern Upland With Basins
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre Oriental
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre Oriental Northern section
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre Oriental The High Sierra
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre Oriental Cross Ranges
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre Oriental Lower Ranges
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre del Sur
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre del Sur Balsas-Mexcala Basin
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre del Sur Oaxaca Upland
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre del Sur Northeast Folded Ranges
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre del Sur Southern Slope
Americas Sierra Madre System Sierra Madre del Sur Northern section
Americas Sierra Madre System Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt
Americas Sierra Madre System Southern Mexican Highlands
Americas Baja California Peninsula Peninsular Ranges
Americas Baja California Peninsula Southern Horst
Americas Baja California Peninsula Llano De La Magdalena
Americas Baja California Peninsula Colorado Delta
Americas The Buried Ranges
Americas The Buried Ranges Sonoran Desert
Americas The Buried Ranges Deltas
Americas The Buried Ranges Sinaloa Coast
Americas The Buried Ranges Piedmont Ranges
Americas Central Meseta
Americas Gulf Coastal Lowland
Americas Neovolcanic Plateau
Americas Chiapas-Guatemala Highlands
Americas Gulf Coast Plain And Yucatan Peninsula
Americas Gulf Coast Plain And Yucatan Peninsula Pitted Lowlands
Americas Gulf Coast Plain And Yucatan Peninsula Yucatan Platform
Americas Gulf Coast Plain And Yucatan Peninsula East Coast
Americas Andean Mountain System
Americas Andean Mountain System Northern Andes
Americas Andean Mountain System Northern Andes Cordillera Occidental
Americas Andean Mountain System Northern Andes Cordillera Central
Americas Andean Mountain System Northern Andes Cordillera Oriental
Americas Andean Mountain System Northern Andes Magdalena Basin
Americas Andean Mountain System Northern Andes Maracaibo Basin
Americas Andean Mountain System Central Andes
Americas Andean Mountain System Central Andes Cordillera Occidental
Americas Andean Mountain System Central Andes Atacama Desert
Americas Andean Mountain System Central Andes Altiplano
Americas Andean Mountain System Central Andes Cordillera Oriental
Americas Andean Mountain System Southern Andes
Americas Andean Mountain System Southern Andes Fuegian Andes
Americas Andean Mountain System Southern Andes Patagonian Andes
Americas Andean Mountain System Andean Piedmont
Americas Brazilian Highlands
Americas Brazilian Highlands Brazilian Oldland
Americas Brazilian Highlands Goyaz Massif
Americas Brazilian Highlands Mato Grosso Plateau
Americas Brazilian Highlands Guiana Shield
Americas Brazilian Highlands Chiquitos Plateau
Americas Brazilian Highlands Parana Plateau
Americas Brazilian Highlands Coastal Plain
Americas Guiana Highlands
Americas Guiana Highlands Guiana Coastal Plain
Americas Amazon Plain
Americas Amazon Plain Llanos De Mojos
Americas Orinoco Basin
Americas Parana-Paraguay Plain
Americas Parana-Paraguay Plain Gran Chaco
Americas Parana-Paraguay Plain Pantanal
Americas Parana-Paraguay Plain Argentine Mesopotamia
Americas Parana-Paraguay Plain Pampas
Americas Parana-Paraguay Plain Monte
Americas Patagonian Plateau
Australia West Australian Shield
Australia West Australian Shield Yilgarn Block
Australia West Australian Shield Yilgarn Block Stirling-Mount Barren Block
Australia West Australian Shield Yilgarn Block Darling Hills
Australia West Australian Shield Yilgarn Block Recherche Shelf
Australia West Australian Shield Donnybrook Sunkland
Australia West Australian Shield Donnybrook Sunkland Naturaliste-Leeuwin Horst
Australia West Australian Shield Swan Coastal Belt
Australia West Australian Shield Swan Coastal Belt Dandaragan Plateau
Australia West Australian Shield Swan Coastal Belt Greenough Block
Australia West Australian Shield Swan Coastal Belt Rottnest-Abrolhos Shelf
Australia West Australian Shield Carnarvon Basin
Australia West Australian Shield Carnarvon Basin Shark Bay-Byro Plains
Australia West Australian Shield Nullagine Platform
Australia West Australian Shield Nullagine Platform Pilbara Block
Australia West Australian Shield Nullagine Platform Fortescue Rift
Australia West Australian Shield Nullagine Platform Hamersley Plateau
Australia West Australian Shield Nullagine Platform Onslow Coastal Plain
Australia West Australian Shield Nullagine Platform Dampier Rise
Australia West Australian Shield Canning Basin
Australia West Australian Shield Canning Basin Pindan Country
Australia West Australian Shield Canning Basin Fitzroy Valley
Australia West Australian Shield Canning Basin Rowley Depression
Australia West Australian Shield Kimberly Block
Australia West Australian Shield Kimberly Block King Leopold Range
Australia West Australian Shield Kimberly Block Durack Range
Australia West Australian Shield Kimberly Block Leveque Rise
Australia West Australian Shield Kimberly Block Browse Depression
Australia West Australian Shield Kimberly Block Londonderry Rise
Australia West Australian Shield Antrim Region
Australia West Australian Shield Antrim Region Ord Basin
Australia West Australian Shield Antrim Region Cambridge Gulf Lowlands
Australia West Australian Shield Antrim Region Bonaparte Depression
Australia West Australian Shield Arnhem Block
Australia West Australian Shield Arnhem Block Pine Creek Belt
Australia West Australian Shield Arnhem Block Van Dieman Rise
Australia West Australian Shield Arnhem Block Arafura Shelf
Australia West Australian Shield Arnhem Block Wessel Rise
Australia West Australian Shield Arunta-Sturt Block
Australia West Australian Shield Barkly Tableland
Australia West Australian Shield Barkly Tableland Mueller Plateau
Australia West Australian Shield Barkly Tableland Sandover-Pituri Platform
Australia West Australian Shield Mount Isa-Cloncurry Fold Belt
Australia West Australian Shield MacDonnell Fold Belt
Australia West Australian Shield Amadeus Sunkland
Australia West Australian Shield Musgrave Block
Australia West Australian Shield Nurrari Plain
Australia West Australian Shield Eucla Basin
Australia West Australian Shield Eucla Basin Eyre Coastal Plain
Australia West Australian Shield Eucla Basin Eucla Shelf
Australia West Australian Shield Gawler Block
Australia West Australian Shield Gawler Block Stuart Range Basin
Australia West Australian Shield Gawler Block Pimba Platform
Australia West Australian Shield South Australian Shatter Belt
Australia West Australian Shield South Australian Shatter Belt Torrens Graben
Australia West Australian Shield South Australian Shatter Belt Spencer Graben
Australia West Australian Shield South Australian Shatter Belt Vincent Graben
Australia West Australian Shield South Australian Shatter Belt Yorke Horst
Australia West Australian Shield South Australian Shatter Belt Frome Graben
Australia West Australian Shield Willyama Block
Australia East Australian Basins
Australia East Australian Basins Carpentaria Basin
Australia East Australian Basins Carpentaria Basin Gulf of Carpentaria
Australia East Australian Basins Carpentaria Basin Kynuna Platform
Australia East Australian Basins Great Artesian Basin
Australia East Australian Basins Great Artesian Basin Wilcannia Threshold
Australia East Australian Basins Murray Basin
Australia East Australian Basins Murray Basin Naracoorte Platform
Australia East Australian Basins Murray Basin Encounter Shelf
Australia East Australian Cordillera
Australia East Australian Cordillera Cape York Platform
Australia East Australian Cordillera Cape York Platform Coen Belt
Australia East Australian Cordillera Cape York Platform Torres Strait Islands
Australia East Australian Cordillera North Queensland Highlands
Australia East Australian Cordillera North Queensland Highlands Chillagoe Belt
Australia East Australian Cordillera North Queensland Highlands Normanby Platform
Australia East Australian Cordillera North Queensland Highlands Atherton Tableland
Australia East Australian Cordillera North Queensland Highlands Mount Emu Lava Plains
Australia East Australian Cordillera North Queensland Highlands Cairns Littoral
Australia East Australian Cordillera Great Barrier Reef
Australia East Australian Cordillera Great Barrier Reef Murray Islands
Australia East Australian Cordillera Central Queensland Highlands
Australia East Australian Cordillera Central Queensland Highlands Bowen-Springsure Belt
Australia East Australian Cordillera Central Queensland Highlands Buckland Basalt Tablelands
Australia East Australian Cordillera Rockhampton-Brisbane Belt
Australia East Australian Cordillera Rockhampton-Brisbane Belt Maryborough Basin
Australia East Australian Cordillera Rockhampton-Brisbane Belt Toowoomba Basalt Plateaus
Australia East Australian Cordillera New England Block
Australia East Australian Cordillera New England Block Clarence Basin
Australia East Australian Cordillera Hunter-Hawkesbury Sunkland
Australia East Australian Cordillera Hunter-Hawkesbury Sunkland Sydney Basin
Australia East Australian Cordillera Hunter-Hawkesbury Sunkland Warrumbungle-Liverpool Basalt Ranges
Australia East Australian Cordillera Hunter-Hawkesbury Sunkland Blue Mountains
Australia East Australian Cordillera Central Highlands Of New South Wales
Australia East Australian Cordillera Central Highlands Of New South Wales Western Slopes
Australia East Australian Cordillera Cobar Platform
Australia East Australian Cordillera Kosciusko Massif
Australia East Australian Cordillera Kosciusko Massif Gourock-Monaro Belt
Australia East Australian Cordillera Eastern Victorian Highlands
Australia East Australian Cordillera Western Victorian Highlands
Australia East Australian Cordillera Western Victorian Highlands Grampians
Australia East Australian Cordillera Western Basalt Plains Of Victoria
Australia East Australian Cordillera Western Basalt Plains Of Victoria Otway Hills
Australia East Australian Cordillera Gippsland
Australia East Australian Cordillera Gippsland South Gippsland Hills
Australia East Australian Cordillera Gippsland Port Phillip Sunkland
Australia East Australian Cordillera Western Tasmanian Highlands
Australia East Australian Cordillera Western Tasmanian Highlands Central Tasmanian Plateau
Australia East Australian Cordillera Bass-Midland Graben
Australia East Australian Cordillera Bass-Midland Graben Bass Strait
Australia East Australian Cordillera Ben Lomond Block
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian Shield
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian Shield Norway Upland
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian Shield Swedish Lowland
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian Shield Lake Region
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian Shield Karelian Trough
Eurasia Fenno-Scandian Shield English Lowlands
Eurasia Central European Uplands
Eurasia Central European Uplands Hibernian Uplands
Eurasia Central European Uplands Cornish-Welsh Uplands
Eurasia Central European Uplands Pennine Chain
Eurasia Central European Uplands Scottish Highlands
Eurasia Central European Uplands Armorican Massive
Eurasia Central European Uplands South Central Plateau (Massif Central)
Eurasia Central European Uplands Central Plateau (Meseta Central)
Eurasia Central European Uplands Jura Range
Eurasia Central European Uplands Vosges Mountains And Black Forest Mountains
Eurasia Central European Uplands Swiss-Bavarian Plateau
Eurasia Central European Uplands Rhenish Massif
Eurasia Central European Uplands West Hesse Highlands
Eurasia Central European Uplands East Hesse Highlands
Eurasia Central European Uplands Weser Uplands
Eurasia Central European Uplands Bohemian Massive
Eurasia Central European Uplands Cantabrian Mountains
Eurasia Alpine System
Eurasia Alpine System Pyrenees
Eurasia Alpine System Alps
Eurasia Alpine System Alps Southern Alps
Eurasia Alpine System Alps Western Alps
Eurasia Alpine System Alps Eastern Alps
Eurasia Alpine System Cantabrian Mountains
Eurasia Alpine System Apennines
Eurasia Alpine System Ebro Lowlands
Eurasia Alpine System Volcanic Lowlands
Eurasia Alpine System Spanish Meseta
Eurasia Alpine System Dinaric-Grecian Mountains
Eurasia Alpine System Dinaric-Grecian Mountains Pindus
Eurasia Alpine System Andalusian Lowlands
Eurasia Alpine System Corsardinian Highlands
Eurasia Alpine System Baetic Cordillera
Eurasia Alpine System Hungarian Basin
Eurasia Alpine System Transylvanian Basin
Eurasia Alpine System Central Balkan Ranges
Eurasia Alpine System Carpathians
Eurasia Alpine System Caucasus
Eurasia Alpine System Caucasus Greater Caucasus
Eurasia Alpine System Caucasus Lesser Caucasus
Eurasia Alpine System Caucasus Transcaucasian Depressian
Eurasia Alpine System Caucasus Kolkhida Lowland
Eurasia Great European Plain
Eurasia Great European Plain Aquitanian Plain
Eurasia Great European Plain Netherlands
Eurasia Great European Plain North German Lowlands
Eurasia Great European Plain Polesian Swamps
Eurasia Great European Plain Dnieper Lowlands
Eurasia Great European Plain Volyno-Podolian Dissected Lowlands
Eurasia Great European Plain Wallachian Plain
Eurasia Great European Plain Azovian Plain
Eurasia Great European Plain Donetz-Azovian Plateau
Eurasia Great European Plain Central Russian Rise
Eurasia Great European Plain Oka-Don Lowlands
Eurasia Great European Plain Russian Plain
Eurasia Ural Mountains
Eurasia Ural Mountains Northern Urals
Eurasia Ural Mountains Central Urals
Eurasia Ural Mountains Southern Urals
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Zagros Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Bitlis Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Kopet-Dag Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Elburz Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Elburz Mountains Western Elburz
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Elburz Mountains Central Elburz
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Elburz Mountains Eastern Elburz
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Central Iranian Plateau
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Central Iranian Plateau Dasht-e Kavir
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Central Iranian Plateau Dasht-e Lut
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Pontus Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Taurus Mountains
Eurasia Middle East Eastern Highlands Anatolian Plateau
Eurasia Fertile Crescent
Eurasia West Siberian Plain
Eurasia West Siberian Plain Taiga
Eurasia West Siberian Plain Kazakh Steppe
Eurasia Central Siberian Upland
Eurasia Central Siberian Upland Yenisei Horst
Eurasia Central Siberian Upland Irkutsk Basin
Eurasia Central Siberian Upland Vilyuy Plain
Eurasia Central Siberian Upland Aldan Basin
Eurasia Central Siberian Upland Yakutsk Basin
Eurasia Eastern Highlands
Eurasia Eastern Highlands Anadyr Range
Eurasia Eastern Highlands Kolyma Range
Eurasia Eastern Highlands Kamchatka Peninsula
Eurasia Eastern Highlands Verhoyanski Range
Eurasia Eastern Highlands Stanovoy Range
Eurasia Eastern Highlands Sikhote Alyn Range
Eurasia Eastern Highlands Sakhalin Island
Eurasia Northern Asian Mountains
Eurasia Northern Asian Mountains Kentei Hills
Eurasia Northern Asian Mountains Altai Mountains
Eurasia North Indian Plain
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain System
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain System Hindu Kush Mountains
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain System Lesser Himalayas
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain System Great Himalayas
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain System Tethys Himalayas
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain System Pamirs
Eurasia Himalayan Mountain System Tibetan Plateau
Eurasia Deccan Plateau
Eurasia Deccan Plateau Western Ghats
Eurasia Deccan Plateau Eastern Ghats
Eurasia Deccan Plateau Nagpur Basin
Eurasia Deccan Plateau vindhya Range
Eurasia Deccan Plateau Satpura Range
Eurasia Deccan Plateau Bihar Hills
Eurasia Central Asian Lowlands
Eurasia Central Asian Lowlands Taklamakan Desert
Eurasia Central Asian Lowlands Baikal Basin
Eurasia Central Asian Lowlands Dzungarain Basin
Eurasia Central Asian Lowlands Gobi Desert
Eurasia Central Asian Lowlands Qaidam Basin

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fenneman, Nevin M. (1916). "Physiographic Subdivision of the United States". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 
  2. ^ Lobeck, Armin K.; Gentilli, J. and Fairbridge, R.W. (1951). Physiographic Diagram of Australia. New York: The Geological Press, Columbia University. 
  3. ^ Baker, Victor R. (1986). "Geomorphology From Space: A Global Overview of Regional Landforms, Introduction". NASA. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  4. ^ Holt-Jensen, Arild (1999). Geography, History and Concepts: A Student's Guide. Sage Publications Inc. pp. 40–42. ISBN 0-7619-6180-1. 
  5. ^ Hayden, Robert S. (1986). "Geomorphology From Space: A Global Overview of Regional Landforms, Chapter 11: Mapping". NASA. Retrieved 2007-12-19. 
  6. ^ Adam, Graeme Mercer (1901). The Student's Reference Work: A Cyclopaedia for Teachers, Students, and Families. New York and Chicago: C.B. Beach and Company. p. 1123. 
  7. ^ "Geomorphology". The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  8. ^ "Geomorphology". Government of Alberta. 2006. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  9. ^ Glock, Waldo S. (1930). "Dual Nature of Physiography". Science 72 (1853): 3–5. doi:10.1126/science.72.1853.3. PMID 17769440. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  10. ^ "Alphabetical index, Physiography". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  11. ^ "Subject index, Geomorphology". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  12. ^ Belward, Alan S.; Valenzuela, Carlos R. (1991). Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems for Resource Management in Developing Countries. Springer. p. 430. ISBN 0-7923-1268-6. 
  13. ^ "Physiographic divisions of the conterminous U.S.". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  14. ^ "Physiographic & Landform - World, U.S.". Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  15. ^ "The Atlas of Canada - Physiographic Regions". Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  16. ^ "Defining Physiographic Realms and Regions: The Spatial Variation of Landscapes". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  17. ^ Fichter, Lynn S. (1999). "A Description of the Geology of Virginia". James Madison University. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  18. ^ Bluemle, John; Biek, Bob (2007). "No Ordinary Plain: North Dakota's Physiography and Landforms". North Dakota Geological Survey. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.