Child sexuality

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Child sexuality is concerned with the biological, psychological and social influences upon the sexual development of children, and the range of sensational, emotional and consequent sexual activities that may occur before or during puberty, but before full sexual maturity is established.

History[edit]

Human evolution of social systems seems to favor nurture kinship relations between adults and children, which implies cultures intended to protect children from harm.[1] Cultures and religions codified these principles into rules in which children learn to control their natural bodily functions by publicly pleasing adults and privately exploring the world and testing the bounds of adult tolerance.[2][3]

Ancient cultures[edit]

Main article: Pederasty

Adults are attracted to children in various ways. In some cultures, such as Ancient Greece, adults managed in a way that today would be considered child abuse.

In the traditions of Confucianism, as in humanism, sexual activity and sexual education are generally less regulated but often considered a private matter, so that discussing it may be 'very bad taste'.[4]

Christianity[edit]

In Western Europe, the predominant religion was Catholicism and theologians such as Bishop Augustine of Hippo considered orgasm a sin. Later, theologians amplified this idea and in medieval times clerics were urged to interrogate the laity and if errant, castigate them by a regime of supervised penance and a diet of bread and holy water for weeks or months (in the sixth century, the Irish St. Columban issued penitence tables which prescribed 20 days).[5]

Within the wider Christian traditions, sex of any sort, except for the deliberate purpose of conception, was variously said by clerics to cause blindness, deafness and mental confusion, as well as (in Catholicism) eternal damnation of the sinner's soul if not fully 'confessed'.[5]

Islam[edit]

In Islam, mixing between men and women is strongly discouraged, especially when in private. Although touching and kissing people beyond one's immediate family is not permissible, some socialization is encouraged so that men and women may come to know each other (Surah Al-Hujurat) as long as there is no obscenity, touching, secret meetings or flirting.[6]"In practice, though, there exists a double standard; male adolescents gaining experience may be indulgently ignored"[7]

Modern times[edit]

Little is known of child sexuality before the Age of Enlightenment, but it is presumed (considering the number of servants needed to run great households and the simple design of ordinary homes) that many children would have observed sexual activity as a frequent and natural phenomenon.[8] In the 19th century, with the arrival of industrialization and literacy, sexual repression appears to have become institutionalized and extra-marital activity generally criminalized[5] to the point where newly married couples experienced difficulty in achieving consummation of their marriage.[5]

Freud[edit]

Until Sigmund Freud published his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality in 1905, children were often regarded as asexual, having no sexuality until later development. Freud was one of the first researchers to seriously study child sexuality. While his ideas, such as psycho-sexual development and the Oedipus complex, have been rejected, acknowledging the existence of child sexuality was a significant change.[9] Children are naturally curious about their bodies and sexual functions – they wonder where babies come from, they notice anatomical differences between males and females, and many engage in genital play or masturbation. Child sex play includes exhibiting or inspecting the genitals. Many children take part in some sex play, typically with siblings or friends.[9] Sex play with others usually decreases as children go through their elementary school years, yet they still may possess romantic interest in their peers. Curiosity levels remain high during these years, escalating in puberty (roughly the teenage years) when the main surge in sexual interest occurs.[9]

Main article: Sexual revolution

Contemporary situation[edit]

In the latter part of the 20th century, sexual liberation probably arose within a massive cultural explosion in the United States of America known as Age of Aquarius following the upheaval of the Second World War, and the vast quantity of audiovisual media distributed worldwide by the new electronic and information technology. Children are apt to gain access and be influenced by material, despite censorship and content-control software.[10]

Child sexualization in Western cultures[edit]

Children can discover the pleasure of genital stimulation naturally at an early age.[11] Boys often lie on their stomachs and girls may sit and rock.[11] Manual stimulation occurs about the time of adolescence and mutual masturbation or other sexual experimentation between adolescents of similar ages may also occur,[11] though cultural or religious coercion may inhibit or occult such activity if there is negative peer pressure or if authority figures are likely to disapprove.[11]

Some cultural critics in the Western world have postulated that over recent decades, children have been subject to a premature sexualization, as indicated by a level of sexual knowledge or sexual behavior inappropriate for their age group.[12] The causes of this premature sexualization that have been cited include portrayals in the media of sex and related issues, especially in media aimed at children; the marketing of products with sexual connotations to children, including clothing;[13] the lack of parental oversight and discipline; access to adult culture via the internet; and the lack of comprehensive school sex education programs.[14][15] For girls and young women in particular, studies have found that sexualization has a negative impact on their "self-image and healthy development".[16]

When an adult or older adolescent has a sexual relationship with a child, it is considered to be a form of child abuse known as child sexual abuse.[17][18] This can also bring on the premature sexualization of the child.[citation needed] Other effects of child sexual abuse include depression,[19] post-traumatic stress disorder,[20] anxiety,[21] propensity to further victimization in adulthood,[22] and physical injury to the child, among other problems.[23] Child sexual abuse by a family member is a form of incest, and can result in more serious and long-term psychological trauma, especially in the case of parental incest.[14][24]

Theories and research[edit]

Research into youthful sexuality has been largely conducted over the 20th century in the Western World and is mostly concerned with suppression for reasons of religion and/or fears about the spread of sexually transmitted infections.[25]

Freud and Kinsey[edit]

Sigmund Freud in his 1905 work Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality outlined a theory of psycho-sexual development with five distinct phases: the oral stage (0–1.5 years), the anal stage (1.5–3.5 years), the phallic stage (3.5–6 years) which culminates in the resolution of the Oedipus complex, latency phase (6–12 years of age), and the genital (or adult) stage.

Alfred Kinsey in the Kinsey Reports (1948 and 1953) included research on the physical sexual response of children, including pre-pubescent children (though the main focus of the reports was adults). While there were initially concerns that some of the data in his reports could not have been obtained without observation of or participation in child sexual abuse,[26] the data was revealed much later in the 1990s to have been gathered from the diary of a single pedophile who had been molesting children since 1917.[27][28] This effectively rendered the data-set nearly worthless, not only because it relied entirely on a single source, but the data was hearsay reported by an a highly unreliable observer. In 2000, Swedish researcher Ing-Beth Larsson noted, "It is quite common for references still to cite Alfred Kinsey", due to the scarcity of subsequent large-scale studies of child sexual behavior.[29]

Current methodology of study[edit]

Empirical knowledge about child sexual behavior is not usually gathered by direct interviews of children, partly due to ethical consideration.[29] Information about child sexual behavior is gathered by the following methods:

  • Observing children being treated for problematic behavior, such as use of force in sex play,[30] often using dolls having genitals[31]
  • Recollections by adults[32]
  • Observation by caregivers[33]

Behavior[edit]

As mentioned above, most published sexual research material emanates from the Western World, and a great deal of dramatic audio-visual material which might influence social attitudes to child sexuality are generated either in the United States of America or else for that audience. 'Normative' may therefore relate to Western culture rather than to the general complexity of human experience.[25]

Normative and non-normative behaviors[edit]

Although there are variations between individual children, children are generally curious about their bodies and those of others, and explore their bodies through explorative sex play.[34][35] Playing doctor is one example of such childhood exploration. Such games are generally considered to be normal in young children. Child sexuality is considered fundamentally different from adult sexual behavior, which is more goal-driven. Among children, genital penetration and oral-genital contact are very uncommon,[36] and may be perceived as imitations of adult behaviors.[37] Such behaviors are more common among children who have been sexually abused.[29]

A 1997 study based on limited variables found no correlation between early childhood (age 6 and under) peer sexual play and later adjustment.[38] The study notes that its results do not demonstrate conclusively that no such correlation exists.[38] The study also does not address the question of consequences of intense sexual experiences or aggressive or unwanted experiences.[38]

Symptomatic behaviors[edit]

Children who have been the victim of child sexual abuse sometimes display overly sexualized behavior,[39][40] which may be defined as expressed behavior that is non-normative for the culture. Typical symptomatic behaviors may include excessive or public masturbation and coercing, manipulating or tricking other children into non-consensual or unwanted sexual activities, also referred to as "child-on-child sexual abuse". Sexualized behavior is thought to constitute the best indication that a child has been sexually abused.[39]

Children who exhibit sexualized behavior may also have other behavioral problems.[40] Other symptoms of child sexual abuse may include manifestations of post-traumatic stress in younger children; fear, aggression, and nightmares in young school-age children; and depression in older children.[39]

Normative behavior in early childhood[edit]

From the ages of three to seven, the following behaviors are normal among children:

  • Children are curious about where babies come from.[41]
  • Children may explore other children's and adults' bodies out of curiosity.[41]
  • By age four, children may show significant attachment to the opposite-sex parent.[41]
  • Children begin to have a sense of learned modesty and of the differences between private and public behaviors.[41]
  • For some children, genital touching increases, especially when they are tired or upset.[41]

Normative behavior in early school age[edit]

Early school age covers approximately ages five to seven, and masturbation is common at these ages.[41][42] Children become more aware of gender differences, and tend to choose same-sex friends and playmates, even disparaging the opposite sex.[43] Children may drop their close attachment to their opposite-sex parent and become more attached to their same-sex parent.[41]

During this time, children, especially girls, show increased awareness of social norms regarding sex, nudity, and privacy.[44] Children may use sexual terms to test adult reaction.[41] "Bathroom humor" (jokes and conversation relating to excretory functions), present in earlier stages, continues.[42]

Normative behavior in middle childhood[edit]

"Middle childhood" covers the ages from about six to eleven, depending on the methodology and the behavior being studied, individual development varies considerably.

As this stage progresses, the choices of children picking same-sex friends becomes more marked and extending to disparagement of the opposite sex.[45]

By the age of 8 or 9 children become aware that sexual arousal is a specific type of erotic sensation and will seek these pleasurable experiences through various sights, self-touches, and fantasy.[46]

Sex play among siblings[edit]

Further information: Sibling sexual abuse

In 1980, a survey of 796 undergraduates, 15 percent of females and 10 percent of males reported some form of sexual experience involving a sibling; most of these fell short of actual intercourse. Approximately one quarter of these experiences were described as abusive or exploitative.[47] A 1989 paper reported the results of a questionnaire with responses from 526 undergraduate college students in which 17 percent of the respondents stated that they had preadolescent sexual experiences with a sibling.[48]

In non-Western cultures[edit]

At seven or eight years of age, children of the Trobriand Islands begin to play erotic games with each other and imitate adult seductive attitudes. About four or five years later, they begin to pursue sexual partners in earnest. They change partners often. Girls are just as assertive and dominant as boys in pursuing or refusing a lover. This is not only allowed but encouraged.[49]

A much earlier study (1915–1920) of Trobriand children reports that these children attempted to imitate adult sexual intercourse by the time they were 10 years old.[50] Similar behavior at the same or earlier age was observed among the children in traditional families of the Tahagmyut of Ungava Peninsula, Canada; the Tunumiit of Angmagssalik, Greenland;[51][52] and the children of the San in Southern Africa.[53]

Observations of early Tahitian society indicate childhood sexual activity was more openly encouraged than normally found in other societies.[54]

The Marquesas[edit]

Explorers and researchers discovered that the Marquesas had unique sexual customs, considered deviant to Westerners. Contact with Western societies has changed many of these customs, so research into their pre-Western social history has to be done by reading antique writings.

Yuri Lisyansky in his memoirs[55] reports that "age was no test of innocence [...] practised all the arts of lewd expression and gesture to get aboard.... Among them were some not more than ten years of age. These infants rivaled their mothers in wantonness of their motions and the arts of allurement." Several authors reported about children (eight to twelve years old) who "offered" themselves and had sex.[56][57][58]

According to Ralph Linton:[59]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Blaffer Hrdy, Sarah (2009). Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding. Belknap Press of Harvard University. ISBN 9780674032996. 
  2. ^ Milgram, Stanley (1983). Obedience to Authority. Harper. ISBN 978-0061319839. 
  3. ^ Zimbardo, Philip G. (1971). "Stamford Prison Experiment". Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  4. ^ Beck, Sanderson (2006). Confucius and Socrates: Teaching Wisdom. World Peace Communications. ISBN 978-0976221081. 
  5. ^ a b c d Ranke.Heinman, Uta (1988). Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven - the Catholic Church and Sexuality. Penguin Books USA. ISBN 0 385 26527 1. 
  6. ^ Sexuality in Islam
  7. ^ Booth, Marilyn. "Enduring Ideals and Pressures to Change." The world's youth: Adolescence in eight regions of the globe (2002): 207.
  8. ^ Martinson, Floyd M. (1994). The Sexual life of Children. ISBN 978-0897893763. 
  9. ^ a b c Santrock, J.W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development (4thed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  10. ^ Dill, Karen (2009). How Fantasy Becomes Reality: Seeing Through Media Influence. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195372083. 
  11. ^ a b c d Kelly, Garry (2003). Sexuality Today: The Human Perspective Edn 7. McGraw-Hill Tx USA. ISBN 978-0072558357. 
  12. ^ Kaeser, Fred, Ed.D., Director of Health Services for Community School District Two, NYC (2001-10-30). "The effects of increasing sexualization on children". Towards a Better Understanding of Children's Sexual Behavior. NYU Child Study Center. Retrieved February 22, 2007. We know that exposure to sexualized messages, particularly those that are incomprehensible, can have several effects on children. 
  13. ^ Chambers, Suzanna (2002-04-14). "Outrage as Argos sells G-strings for children". the Daily Mail. Retrieved February 22, 2007. High Street chain Argos has been branded irresponsible for promoting a range of sexually provocative lingerie designed for primary schoolgirls. 
  14. ^ a b Lamb, Sharon; Zurbriggen, Ellen L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Roberts, Tomi-Ann; Tolman, Deborah L.; Ward, L. Monique; Blake, Jeanne (2007). "Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls". American Psychological Association (APA). 
  15. ^ Lamb, Sharon (2006). Sex, therapy, and kids: addressing their concerns through talk and play. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 9780393704792. 
  16. ^ Lamb, Sharon; Zurbriggen, Ellen L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Roberts, Tomi-Ann; Tolman, Deborah L.; Ward, L. Monique; Blake, Jeanne (2007). "Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls". American Psychological Association (APA). The proliferation of sexualized images of girls and young women in advertising, merchandising, and media is harming girls' self-image and healthy development. This report explores the cognitive and emotional consequences, consequences for mental and physical health, and impact on development of a healthy sexual self-image 
  17. ^ "Child Sexual Abuse". Medline Plus. U.S. National Library of Medicine,. 2008-04-02. 
  18. ^ "Guidelines for psychological evaluations in child protection matters. Committee on Professional Practice and Standards, APA Board of Professional Affairs". The American Psychologist 54 (8): 586–93. August 1999. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.54.8.586. PMID 10453704. Abuse, sexual (child): generally defined as contacts between a child and an adult or other person significantly older or in a position of power or control over the child, where the child is being used for sexual stimulation of the adult or other person. 
  19. ^ Roosa, Mark W.; Reinholtz, Cindy; Angelini, Patti Jo (February 1999). "The relation of child sexual abuse and depression in young women: comparisons across four ethnic groups". Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 27 (1): 65–76. PMID 10197407.  Pdf version.
  20. ^ Widom, CS; DuMont, K; Czaja, SJ (January 2007). "A prospective investigation of major depressive disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown up". Archives of General Psychiatry 64 (1): 49–56. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.64.1.49. PMID 17199054. Lay summaryScienceDaily (January 3, 2007). 
  21. ^ Levitan, Robert D.; Rector, Neil A.; Sheldon, Tess; Goering, Paula (2003). "Childhood adversities associated with major depression and/or anxiety disorders in a community sample of Ontario: issues of co-morbidity and specificity". Depression and Anxiety 17 (1): 34–42. doi:10.1002/da.10077. PMID 12577276. 
  22. ^ Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Long, Patricia J. (2000). "Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization in the Form of Adult Sexual Abuse, Adult Physical Abuse, and Adult Psychological Maltreatment". Journal of Interpersonal Violence 15 (5): 489. doi:10.1177/088626000015005003. 
  23. ^ Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Heath, Andrew C.; Dunne, Michael P.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Slutske, W.S.; Bierut, Laura Jean; Statham, Dixie J.; Martin, Nicholas G. (January 2000). "Early sexual abuse and lifetime psychopathology: a co-twin-control study". Psychological Medicine 30 (1): 41–52. doi:10.1017/S0033291799001373. PMID 10722174. 
  24. ^ Courtois, Christine A. (1988). Healing the incest wound: adult survivors in therapy. New York: Norton. p. 208. ISBN 0-393-31356-5. 
  25. ^ a b History of sexual research(PDF)
  26. ^ Salter, Ph.D., Anna C. (1988). Treating Child Sex Offenders and Victims: A Practical Guide. Sage Publications Inc. pp. 22–24. ISBN 0-8039-3182-4. 
  27. ^ Pool, Gary (Sep–Oct 1996). "Sex, science, and Kinsey: a conversation with Dr. John Bancroft - head of the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction". Humanist. Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
  28. ^ "Kinsey Institute director denies allegations by Reisman". Kinseyinstitute.org. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  29. ^ a b c Larsson, IngBeth. Child sexuality and sexual behavior (2000), Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare (report), Article number 2000-36-001. English translation (Lambert & Tudball) Article number 2001-123-20.
  30. ^ Gil & Cavanagh Johnson, 1993, op. cit.; Cavanagh Johnson, T., Feldmeth, J. R. (1993). "Sexual behaviors – a continuum". In I. E. Gil & T. Cavanagh Johnson. Sexualized Children (pp. 39 – 52); Friedrich, W. N., Grambsch, P., Damon, L., Hewitt, S., Koverola, C., Lang, R., Wolfe, V., Broughton, D. (1992). "Child sexual behavior inventory: Normative and clinical comparisons". Psychological Assessment, vol. 4, no.3:303 – 311. Cited in Larsson, 2000, op. cit.
  31. ^ Cohn, D. S. (1991). "Anatomic doll play of preschoolers referred for sexual abuse and those not referred". Child Abuse & Neglect 15:455 – 466.; Everson & Boat, 1991; Jampole, L. & Weber, M. K. (1987). "An assessment of the behavior of sexually abused and nonabused children with anatomically correct dolls". Child Abuse & Neglect: 11 187 – 192.; Sivan, A., Schor, D., Koeppl, G., Noble, L. (1988). "Interaction of normal children with anatomic dolls". Child Abuse & Neglect, 12:295 – 304. Cited in Larsson, 2000, op. cit.
  32. ^ Haugaard, J. J. & Tilly, C (1988). "Characteristics predicting children’s responses to sexual encounters with other children". Child Abuse & Neglect 12:209 – 218.; Haugaard, J. J. (1996). "Sexual behaviors between children: Professionals’ opinions and undergraduates’ recollections". Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 2:81 – 89.; Lamb & Coakley, 1993; Larsson, Lindell & Svedin, publication datat not available; cited in Larsson, 2000, op. cit.
  33. ^ Friedrich, W. N., Grambsch, P., Broughton, D., Kuiper, J., Beilke, R. L. (1991). "Normative sexual behavior in children". Pediatrics 88: 456 – 464; Phipps-Yonas, S., Yonas, A., Turner, M., Kauper, M, (1993). "Sexuality in early childhood". University of Minnesota Center for Urban and Regional Affairs Reports, 23:1 – 5. ; Lindblad, F., Gustafsson, P., Larsson, I., Lundin, B. (1995). "Preschooler’s sexual behaviour at daycare centers: an epidemiological study". Child Abuse & Neglect vol. 19, no. 5:569 – 577.; Fitzpatrick & Deehan, 1995; Larsson, I., Svedin, C-G. (1999). Sexual behaviour in Swedish preschool children as observed by their parents. Manuscript.; Larsson, I., Svedin C-G., Friedrich, W. "Differences and similarities in sexual behaviour among preschoolers in Sweden and USA". Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. Printing information unavailable.; Smith & Grocke, 1995; cited in Larsson, 2000, op. cit.
  34. ^ SEX PLAY: parenting strategies by Dr. Marilyn Heins
  35. ^ PPP: Health and Safety || When Children's Play Involves Sexuality || Sex play is normal
  36. ^ Friedrich, William N.; Fisher, Jennifer; Broughton, Daniel; Houston, Margaret; Shafran, Constance R. (1998). "Normative sexual behavior in children: a contemporary sample". Pediatrics 101 (4): E9. doi:10.1542/peds.101.4.e9. PMID 9521975. 
  37. ^ Larsson & Svedin, 1999, op. cit.; Larsson & Svedin, publication data unavailable; cited in Larsson, 2000, op. cit.
  38. ^ a b c Okami, Paul; Olmstead, Richard; Abramson, Paul R. (1997). "Sexual experiences in early childhood: 18-year longitudinal data from the UCLA family lifestyles project - University of California, Los Angeles". Journal of Sex Research 34 (4): 339–347. doi:10.1080/00224499709551902. 
  39. ^ a b c Friedrich et al., 1992, 1993, op. cit.; Kendall-Tackett, K. E., Williams, L., Finkelhor, D. (1993). "The impact of sexual abuse on children: A review and synthesis of recent empirical studies". Psychological Bulletin, 113:164 – 180.; Cosentino, C. E, Meyer-Mahlenburg, H., Alpert, J., Weinberg, S., Gaines, R. (1995). "Sexual behavior problems and psychopathology symptoms in sexually abused girls". Journal of American Academy Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 8:1033–1042.; cited in Larsson, 2000, op. cit.
  40. ^ a b Friedrich et al. (1992), op. cit.; cited in Larsson, 2000, op. cit.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h GH6002 Sexuality and Your Child: For Children Ages 3 to 7, MU Extension
  42. ^ a b Planned Parenthood - Sexuality Development
  43. ^ Sex education: Talking to toddlers and preschoolers about sex - MayoClinic.com
  44. ^ Richardson, Justin, M.D., and Schuster, Mark, M.D., Ph.D. Everything You Never Wanted Your Kids to Know About Sex (But Were Afraid They'd Ask), 2003, Three Rivers Press
  45. ^ "Child & adolescent sexuality". South Easter CASA Centre Against Sexual Assault. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  46. ^ Reinisch, June (1991). The Kinsey Institute new report on sex: what you must know to be sexually literate. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312063863. 
  47. ^ Finkelhor, D. (1980). "Sex among siblings: A survey on prevalence, variety, and effects". Archives of Sexual Behavior 9 (3): 171–194. doi:10.1007/BF01542244. PMID 7396691.  edit
  48. ^ Greenwald, Evan; Leitenberg, Harold (October 1989). "Long-term effects of sexual experiences with siblings and nonsiblings during childhood". Archives of Sexual Behavior (Springer) 18 (5): 389–399. doi:10.1007/BF01541971. PMID 2818170. 
  49. ^ Weiner, Annette B. The Trobrianders of Papua New Guinea. United States of America: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 1988.
  50. ^ Malinowski, B.; H. Ellis (1929). The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia. An Ethnographic Account of Courtship, Marriage, and Family Life Among the Natives of the Trobriand Islands, British New Guinea. London.
  51. ^ Kjellström, Rolf. (1973). "Eskimo Marriage: An Account of Traditional Eskimo Courtship and Marriage." Stockholm : Nordiska museet.
  52. ^ "Eskimo Marriage: An Account of Traditional Eskimo Courtship and Marriage." OCLC WorldCat. Accessed 3 February 2014.
  53. ^ Tobias, Phillip V. (1978). The bushmen : San hunters and herders of southern Africa. Cape Town : Human & Rousseau.
  54. ^ GUS
  55. ^ Voyage round the world in the Ship "Neva", Lisiansky, London 1814, p67
  56. ^ Adam Johann von Krusenstern: Reise um die Welt in den Jahren 1803, 1804, 1805 und 1806 auf Befehl Seiner Kaiserliche Majestät Alexanders des Ersten auf den Schiffen Nadeschda und Newa (Journey around the World in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805, and 1806 at the Command of his Imperial Majesty Alexander I in the Ships Nadezhda and Neva) published in Saint Petersburg in 1810. volume I,p116
  57. ^ Theodor Waitz: Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker (1872) volume6 p124
  58. ^ Charles Pierre Claret de Fleurieu and Étienne Marchand: Voyage autour du monde, précédé d'une introduction historique ; auquel on a joint des recherches sur les terres australes de Drake, et un examen critique de voyage de Roggeween, avec cartes et figures, Paris, years VI-VIII, 4 vol. p109
  59. ^ Linton, Ralph. Marquesan Culture (July 1925), American Anthropologist Volume 27. Issue 3 (p. 474-478)

Further reading[edit]

  • Gittins, Diana (1998), "Children's sexuality: why do adults panic?", in Gittins, Diana, The child in question, Basingstoke: Macmillan, ISBN 9780333511091 
  • Goldman, Ronald; Goldman, Juliette (1982). Children's sexual thinking: a comparative study of children aged 5 to 15 years in Australia, North America, Britain, and Sweden. London Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 9780710008831. 
  • Jackson, Stevi (1982). Childhood and sexuality. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 9780631128717. 
  • Moore, Susan M.; Rosenthal, Doreen A. (2006). Sexuality in adolescence: current trends. London New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415344968. 
  • Lamb, Sharon (2001). The secret lives of girls: what good girls really do - sex play, aggression, and their guilt. New York: Free Press. ISBN 9780743201070. 
  • Lamb, Sharon (2006). Sex, therapy, and kids: addressing their concerns through talk and play. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 9780393704792. 
  • Lamb, Sharon; Brown, Lyn Mikel (2007). Packaging girlhood: rescuing our daughters from marketers' schemes. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 9780312370053. 
  • Gil, Eliana; Cavanagh Johnson, Toni (1993). Sexualized children: assessment and treatment of sexualized children and children who molest. Rockville, MD: Launch Press. ISBN 9781877872075.