Laws regarding incest
|Marriage and other
equivalent or similar unions and status
|Validity of marriages|
|Dissolution of marriages|
|Private international law|
|The Family and the Criminal Code
(or Criminal Law)
Laws regarding incest (i.e., sexual activity between family members or close relatives) vary considerably between jurisdictions, and depend on the type of sexual activity and the nature of the family relationship of the parties involved, as well as the age and sex of the parties. Besides legal prohibitions, at least some forms of incest are also socially taboo or frowned upon in most cultures around the world.
Incest laws may involve restrictions on marriage rights, which also vary between jurisdictions. When incest involves an adult and a child, it is usually considered to be a form of child sexual abuse. With several exceptions, age of consent laws do not have a bearing on incestuous sex, which is unlawful irrespective of age.
- 1 Degrees of relationship
- 2 Africa
- 3 Asia
- 4 Europe
- 5 North America
- 6 South America
- 7 Oceania
- 8 See also
- 9 References
Degrees of relationship
Laws regarding incest are sometimes expressed in terms of degrees of relationship. The consanguinity (but not affinity) relationships may be summarized as follows:
|0||identical twins; clones||100%|
|2||full siblings||50% (2−2+2−2)|
|2||3/4 siblings or sibling-cousins||37.5% (2−2+2⋅2−4)|
|2||half siblings||25% (2−2)|
|4||double first cousins||25% (2−3+2−3)|
|3||great grandparent-great grandchild||12.5% (2−3)|
|4||first cousins||12.5% (2⋅2−4)|
|6||quadruple second cousins||12.5% (8⋅2−6)|
|6||triple second cousins||9.38% (6⋅2−6)|
|4||half-first cousins||6.25% (2−4)|
|5||first cousins once removed||6.25% (2⋅2−5)|
|6||double second cousins||6.25% (4⋅2−6)|
|6||second cousins||3.13% (2−6+2−6)|
|8||third cousins||0.78% (2⋅2−8)|
|10||fourth cousins||0.20% (2⋅2−10)|
The degree of relationships is calculated by counting the number of generations back to a common ancestor. Most laws regarding prohibited degree of kinship concern relations of r = 25% or higher, while most permit unions of individuals with r = 12.5% or lower. In some US states, cousin marriages are prohibited. Also, most laws make no provision for the rare case of marriage between double first cousins. Incest laws may also include prohibitions of unions between biologically unrelated individuals if there is a close legal relationship, such as adoption.
Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
- lineally, that is, if one person is a direct descendant of the other.
- within the first degree of consanguinuity, that is, where one person is a direct descendant of a parent of the other; this category includes siblings as well as an uncle or aunt with a niece or nephew.
- within the first degree of affinity, that is, where one person is the direct ancestor or descendant of the spouse of the other person.
- as adoptive parent and adopted child.
People's Republic of China and Taiwan
In Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), Article 983 of the Civil Code prohibits marrying any lineal relative by blood or by marriage, collateral relative by blood if is within the sixth degree of relationship (except relative by adoption who is of the same rank), or if collateral relative by marriage is within the fifth degree of relationship of a different rank. Relatives by marriage or adoption are prohibited marriage and cannot marry even after the marriage or adoption has ended. The degree of relationship is calculated vertically, therefore a sibling is within the second degree of relationship. The Judicial Yuan Interpretation No.32 and No.91 allows marriage between siblings by adoption when the adoption was intended for the marriage. When the interpretation was made, it was not uncommon for parents to adopt a child so that their own child can marry the adopted child when both children have grown up. Article 230 of the Penal Code prohibits sexual intercourse between any lineal relatives by blood or collateral relatives within the third degree of relationship by blood. Violators may be imprisoned for up to 5 years. Both Taiwan (ROC) and the People's Republic of China have Civil Law based legal codes.
In Hong Kong, it is incest to have sexual intercourse with certain close relatives, even if they are consenting adults. The prohibited relationships are grandfather-granddaughter, father-daughter, brother-sister and mother-son. Punishment is up to 20 years imprisonment for male offenders and up to 14 years imprisonment for female offenders. The law does not cover sexual intercourse with more distant relatives, such as an aunt, uncle, niece, nephew and cousin. It only addresses male-on-female and female-on-male sexual intercourse, and it appears that same-sex incest is not illegal. The law makes an assumption that a female below the age of 16 has no ability to consent to sexual intercourse, therefore a female below 16 cannot commit incest.
The Indian Penal Code (IPC) does not contain any specific provision against incest, but there are general provisions relating to sexual abuse of children by their custodian, such as a parent or teacher.
In Malaysia, it is incest to have sexual intercourse with a person who under the law, religion, custom or usage that applies to the person he or she is not permitted to marry on account of their relationship.
In addition to whipping, persons convicted of incest face a minimum sentence of 6 years imprisonment and a maximum sentence of 20 years imprisonment. It is a defense against the charge if the person did not know the relationship was not permitted or if the sexual intercourse was done without his or her consent. Girls below the age of 16 and boys below the age of 13 are deemed to be incapable of giving consent. (The age of consent for sex in Malaysia is 16 for both sexes.)
While it is unclear to which family members the incest law applies, a verdict from the High Court in Sabah and Sarawak in 2011 provided some indication about the sentencing guidelines. It described incest as a "heinous crime" but that the degree of kinship between the parties dictates the "level of repulsion" which the court translates into a sentence imposed. The verdict said the worst on such a scale is incest committed by a father to his biological daughter or a brother to his biological sister, and that such offenders should receive the harshest sentence. It said an uncle and his maternal niece committing incest is not on that same level and, if there was no violence involved, the length of the sentence should reflect it.
There are more severe sentences for those who commit incest through rape. The offence of incestuous rape is punishable with not less than 8 years imprisonment and not more than 30 years imprisonment. In addition, those convicted receive not less than 10 strokes.
Malaysian law also considers sexual intercourse with the stepfamily to be incestuous.
Consensual incest between adults is legal in Turkey. Sibling marriage and avunculate marriage is prohibited, while cousin marriage is legal. Marriage between parents and offspring is also prohibited, even when there is no blood relationship, i.e. adoptive parent or parent-in-law.
Most European countries have laws against incest between lineal ancestors/descendants, and between full siblings. Countries which allow incest between consenting adults include France, Spain, the Benelux and Portugal.
In Denmark, incest is sex between lineal ancestors and descendants and between full siblings. Sex with a descendant is punishable by up to 6 years imprisonment. Sex between siblings is punishable by up to 2 years imprisonment.
In Finland, sexual acts between one's full sibling (but not half-sibling), ancestor or descendant is punishable from a fine up to 2 years in prison for "sexual act between close relative". But it will not be punished if the person in question has been under 18 years old when have performed the sexual act with parent or grandparent or the person have been forced or illegally persuaded to perform the sexual act. The marriage law defines, that marriage between one's sibling, half-sibling, ancestor or descendant is forbidden.
France - Belgium and Luxembourg
The 1810 penal code promulgated by Napoleon I and adopted throughout most of Europe abolished incest laws in France , Belgium and Luxembourg. On 27 January 2010, France reinstated laws against incest. The new law, however, defines incest as rape or sexual abuse on a minor "by a relative or any other person having lawful or de facto authority over the victim". Incest between consenting adults is not prohibited.
In Germany, incest is legally defined as vaginal intercourse between lineal ancestors and descendants (parents, grandparents, great-grandparents and their children, grandchildren, great-grandchildren) and between full and half siblings. The penalty is a fine or up to 3 years of prison. Incest between relatives who are minors (below 18 years old) at the time of offence is not punishable but remains a crime, therefore aiding and abetting of incest between related minors is punishable.
Regarding marriage, the same rules apply and prohibit marriage between aforementioned relatives.
The criminal liability of incest among consenting adults is disputed in Germany. In the case of Patrick Stübing, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled in 2008 that the criminalization of incest is constitutional in a 7:1 vote with one judge dissenting.
In September 2014 the German Ethics Council recommended that the government abolish laws criminalizing incest between siblings, arguing that such bans impinge upon citizens.
Republic of Ireland
It is illegal for a male to have sexual intercourse with his granddaughter, daughter, sister (including half-sister), or mother; and for a female (over sixteen years of age) with her grandfather, father, brother (including half-brother), or son. The act does not refer to other familial relationships (such as grandson-grandmother), or same-sex relations.
It is punishable by up to seven years imprisonment for a female and up to life imprisonment for a male. The maximum sentence for males was increased from seven years to twenty years by the Criminal Justice Act, 1993; and further increased to life imprisonment by the Criminal Law (Incest Proceedings) Act, 1995.
The maximum sentence for females has never been increased from the seven years specified in the original 1908 act. A private members' bill introduced in 2012 by Denis Naughten TD attempted to redress this inequality in sentencing by increasing the maximum sentence for females to life imprisonment. However, during a speech made during the second stage reading of the bill in March 2014, Justice Minister Alan Shatter TD stated that while he was not opposed to the bill in principle, a sexual offences bill announced by the government on 17 December 2013 will "include measures to equalise upwards the penalties for incest by male and female offenders" and also "take a more comprehensive approach to reform of the law in this area".
Incest is illegal in Italy if it causes a "public scandal". Incestuous sexual activity between two adults is punishable by up to 10 years imprisonment. If one of parties is a minor, it is punishable by up to 25 years imprisonment and the other party will be labeled a "Sex Offender" if convicted.
In Poland, incest is defined in Article 201 of the Penal Code as sexual intercourse with an ancestor, descendant, guardian, ward, brother, or sister, and is punishable by imprisonment for no less than 3 months and no more than 5 years.
Incest is not specifically prohibited under Portuguese law.
Incest with a direct descendant or between siblings is punished by Romanian criminal law by up to 7 years in prison. A new Penal Code, scheduled to enter into force in 2014, will maintain consensual incest as a criminal offense, however the maximum penalty will be reduced to 5 years.
In Russia, consensual sex between adults, including incest, is not a crime. However, under the Family Code of Russia, persons who are related lineally, siblings, half-siblings, and a stepparent and a stepchild may not marry.
Article 213 of the Swiss Penal Code prohibits incest. Intercourse among siblings or other persons related by blood in direct line is punishable by up to three years imprisonment. The federal government proposed to abolish this prohibition in 2010, arguing that in the few cases where persons were convicted of incest (three since 1984), other sexual crimes such as child sexual abuse were also committed.
Incest is illegal in Scotland, England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. It is defined as sexual intercourse between a person and their parent (including adoptive parent), grandparent, child, grandchild, brother, sister, half-brother, half-sister, uncle, aunt, nephew or niece. It is punishable with up to two years' imprisonment. For familial child sex offences (sex with a family member under 18 who lives in the same household), the relationship definitions include step-parents, step-siblings, first cousins, current and former foster parents and current and former foster siblings.
Consensuous incest between adults is also illegal in Greece and Hungary.
Under Canadian law, incest is defined as having a sexual relationship with a sibling (including half-sibling), child/parent or grandchild/grandparent while knowing the existence of the blood relationship. It is punishable by up to 14 years imprisonment. A person who commits incest with someone under the age of 16 is liable to a minimum imprisonment of 5 years. A conviction for incest also places the offenders on the Sex Offenders Registry for the rest of their life.
In the United States the District of Columbia and every state have some form of codified incest prohibition. In all states, incest is sexual acivity between a lineal ancestor and a lineal descendant (parent, grandparent with child or grandchild), siblings (brother-sister) and aunt-nephew, uncle-niece. However, individual statutes vary widely. Rhode Island has repealed its criminal incest statute; Ohio "targets only parental figures", and New Jersey and Michigan do not apply any penalties when both parties are 18 resp. 16 years of age or older. A conviction for incest attracts the following penalties by state:
- 5 years imprisonment in Hawaii, Utah (even for first-cousin relations), Florida
- 10 years imprisonment in North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and Minnesota
- 14 years imprisonment in California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska and Idaho
- 15 years imprisonment in Connecticut, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia and West Virginia
- 20 years imprisonment in Massachusetts, New York, New Hampshire, Maine, Pennsylvania, and Vermont
- 25 years imprisonment in Kansas, Nebraska, Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Colorado, Wyoming, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky
- Life imprisonment in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Montana and Tennessee.
Three convictions or more of incest also require the offenders to register as "Sex Offenders"
In some states, sex between first cousins is prohibited (see cousin marriage law in the United States by state for cousin sex, as well as cousin marriage, being outlawed in some states). Many states also apply incest laws to non-blood relations, including stepparents, step-siblings, and in-laws.
Incest in Argentina is legal if both individuals are over the minimum age of consent. Marriage between 3rd degree relatives and beyond is allowed, with the exception of marriage involving lineal ancestors and descendants, which is considered null and void disregarding the degree of separation (parent/offspring, grandparent-grandchild).
In Brazil, any kind of sexual interaction between consanguineous human beings, or between human beings in a familial relationship by adoption or by marriage of a parent, is regarded as incest. It has no criminal punishment if the involved are over the age of 14 (the clear age of consent in force; before 2011, though, sex with people as young as 12 and as elder as 17 was in a legal grey area, with legal guardian-reported sex with those aged 12 and 13 being prosecuted as statutory rape, but unlike as with those aged 11 and younger not directly prosecuted by the State without a report by either the legal guardians or the adolescents themselves – unlike now, where the police forces prosecute all statutory rape-related cases without distinction –, and legal guardian-reported sex with those aged 14, 15, 16 and 17 being prosecuted as corruption of minors, but prosecution as corruption of minors for non-commercial consented sexual activity between people out of a defined hierarchy fell), capable of acting upon their legal rights, and that consent means that the relationship is absent of any kind of coercion or fraud.
First cousin marriages, once fairly common in some regions in the 19th century, are allowed in demand as all other marriages, while avunculate ones (those between uncles or aunts and nephews or nieces), the preferred by some Amazonian Amerindian tribes, and those between half-siblings, are allowed provided that those contracting it have a health check. Marriages between parents and their children (both consanguineous and adoptive) or between siblings (both consanguineous and adoptive) are invalid, but, as stated above, non-rape sexual relationships between persons older than the age of consent are likely otherwise treated legally as all others, irrespectively of consanguinity (information over the possibility or validity of uniões estáveis in such situations are nevertheless unclear or unexistent, but since those in these relationships are already consanguineous and thus inherently inside a legal family entity, the rights offered by such unions – recognizing a family entity between unrelated single persons – are most likely pointless, with the exceptional cases being only the remote possibility of people who were adopted contracting a relationship with a biological close family member).
Brazilian law, by the Article 1521 of the Civil Code, also extends the invalidity of marriage between parents and children to grandparents and grandchildren or any other sort of ascendant-descendant relationship (both consanguineous and adoptive), parents-in-law and children-in-law even after the divorce of the earlier couple (see affinity), as well as to stepparents and stepchildren, and former husbands or wives to an adoptive parent who did this unilaterally (regarded as an equivalent, in families formed by adoption, to stepparents and stepchildren); and extends the invalidity of marriage between siblings to biological cousin-siblings. It also formerly prohibited the avunculate marriages and extended the prohibition for marriage between siblings to half-siblings, both cited above, but the Decrete Law 3.200/1941 made marriage possible for those non-ascended/descended in consanguinity of third degree (25%) provided both have health checks.
Brazilian law never held marriages between double first cousins as a reason for invalidity, even though those have a consanguinity as strong as that of half-siblings, and those, as other first cousins, are not asked health checks to marry, doing so in the same way as non-related people. Also legally treated much like non-related people are stepsiblings, while those who are stepsiblings and half-siblings (that is, those who have a half-sibling who is also child of a latter married spouse of one's parent) are treated like half-siblings who are not stepsiblings, being demanded health checks before marrying.
In Australia, under federal law, sexual conduct between consenting adults (18 years of age or older) is legal, and state incest laws are subject to the overriding federal law. Federal law prohibits marriage to an opposite-sex ancestor and descendant or sibling (including a sibling of half-blood), including those traced through adoption.
In all jurisdictions except New South Wales, incest is sexual intercourse between a lineal ancestor and a lineal descendant. In New South Wales, incest takes place between "close family members", which are "parent, son, daughter, sibling (including a half-brother or half-sister), grandparent or grandchild, being such a family member from birth". Incest generally only applies in cases where a participant is aged 16 or over (the age of consent in that state); and where the participant is aged between 10 and 16 years of age an older participant would generally be charged with sexual intercourse with a child under the age of 16, while cases in which a participant is under 10 an older participant would generally be charged with sexual intercourse with a child under the age of 10.
In Queensland, unlawful incest includes sexual intercourse between an uncle or aunt with their niece or nephew, although here its application is curtailed by the effect of the federal Marriage Act 1961, as the Queensland Criminal Code states that the crime of incest does not apply to “persons who are lawfully married or entitled to be lawfully married”. Thus it is not incest for a niece aged 16 or over to engage in sexual intercourse with their uncles and a nephew aged 16 or over may engage in sexual intercourse with their aunts, but same-sex uncle-nephew and aunt-niece sexual intercourse may be unlawful even in the case of consenting adults, as the Marriage Act does not allow same-sex marriage.
In all other jurisdictions, incest can also arise where one of the parties is below the age of consent, but this does not exclude the possibility of bringing the more general charge of sexual intercourse with a child under the age of 10 (New South Wales and Northern Territory), 12, 16 or 17 (South Australia and Tasmania) as the case may be. This is particularly relevant where a certain form of sexual conduct between related persons falls outside of the legal definition of incest in a particular jurisdiction.
In no Australian state or territory is consent a defense to incest. The maximum penalty for incest varies: eight years imprisonment in New South Wales; 10 years imprisonment in South Australia; 20 years imprisonment in Western Australia and the Australian Capital Territory; 25 years imprisonment in the Northern Territory, Victoria and Tasmania; and life imprisonment in Queensland. After one conviction for incest, the offender's name is placed on the Sex Offenders Register for 15 years, while any offender with two or more convictions for incest has their name placed on the Register for the remainder of their life.
In New Zealand, incest is sexual connection between a parent and child (both biological and adopted), grandparent and grandchild (both biological and adopted), and full and half siblings.
It is a defence if the person was unaware of the relationship at the time of the act. A conviction for incest attracts a maximum penalty of 10 years imprisonment. Incest is the only sexual crime punishable by 7 years or more imprisonment that is not subject to the country's "three-strikes" law.
It is also illegal in New Zealand to have a sexual connection with a dependent child under 18; this includes step-children, foster children and wards. A conviction for having a sexual connection, or attempting to have a sexual connection, with a dependent child attracts a maximum penalty of 7 years imprisonment.
- Levesque, Roger J. R. (1999). Sexual Abuse of Children: A Human Rights Perspective. Indiana University Press. pp. 1,5–6,176–180.
- "United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1989.
- By replacement in the definition of the notion of "generation" by meiosis". Since identical twins are not separated by meiosis, there are no "generations" between them, hence n=0 and r=1. See genetic-genealogy.co.uk.
- "Kin Selection". Benjamin/Cummings. Retrieved 2007-11-25.
- This degree of relationship is usually indistinguishable from the relationship to a random individual within the same population (tribe, country, ethnic group).
- "Limits on the Protection of Legal Interest in the Criminalization of Incest (page 29)". Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
- Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, 2007, s. 12.
- Milton, John (1996). South African Criminal Law and Procedure: Common-law crimes (3rd ed.). Cape Town: Juta. pp. 234–247. ISBN 978-0-7021-3773-0.
- CAP 200 Crimes Ordinance, Part VI, s.47-51. (22 May 1998)
- "Incest and the conspiracy of silence". Indiatogether.org. 30 April 2009.
- "Incest in India". ndtv.com. 12 August 2009.
- http://www.agc.gov.my/Akta/Vol.%2012/Act%20574.pdf Laws of Malaysia
- "Sexual Offences Laws – Malaysia – Interpol". Pdfdownload.org. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- http://malaysianlaw.my/attachments/HCSS-Suit%20No-CRA-KCH-42-5-2011Ziaddi_49489.pdf Malaysia incest case judgement
- Malaysian Penal Code
- "Charged with incest". New Straits Times. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "The Family Code of the Philippines". July 6, 1987. Article 37.
- Turkish civil law (Turkish)
- "Penal Code (No. 15/1999/QH10)". Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Geschwisterpaar bringt Inzest-Verbot ins Wanken" (in German). 22 May 2011.
- § 211 StGB: http://www.jusline.at/211_Blutschande_StGB.html
- Danish penal law, paragraph 210
- "Finnish law regarding sexual act between close relative 22 § (24.7.1998/563)".
- "Avioliittolaki - marriage law 7 § (16.4.1987/411)(in Finnish)".
- "Incest: an age-old taboo". BBC News. 12 March 2007. Retrieved 30 December 2011. "In Brazil, an uncle and niece may have a relationship provided they undergo health checks. [...] France dropped incest from the penal code under Napoleon - 200 years ago."
- Samuel, Henry. "France makes incest a crime". The Telegraph.
- Chuck Stewart (2010). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Lgbt Issues Worldwide. ABC-CLIO. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-313-34233-2.
- See de:Inzest#Rechtslage in Deutschland.
- "German Ethics Council: Incest Is a Right". The Daily Beast. 2014-09-24. Retrieved 2014-10-05.
- The law on sexual offences in Ireland
- http://www.ethikrat.org/dateien/pdf/stellungnahme-inzestverbot.pdf, p. 26 (in German)
- "Committee Experts Praise Portugal's Efforts to Promote Equality of Women". Committee on Elimination of Discrimination against Women. January 2002.
- 1969 Romanian Penal Code, art. 203
- "Noul Cod Penal (2013/2014)". Retrieved 2013-04-24.
- Agafonov A.V. (2003). "Отражение становления и развития правовых норм, предусматривающих уголовную ответственность за посягательства на права личности в сфере сексуальных отношений в законодательстве России" [A study of the effect of the establishment and development of legal norms criminalizing the encroachment on personal rights in the area of sexual relations in Russian law]. Сибирский юридический вестник (in Russian) 2. ISSN 2071-8136. Retrieved 30 October 2009.
- Family Code of Russia, article 14
- "Brottsbalken kap. 6 § 7". Retrieved 10 December 2009.
- Swiss Penal Code , SR/RS 311.0 (E·D·F·I), art. 213 (E·D·F·I)
- Masmejan, Denis (18 September 2010). "Dépénaliser l’inceste n’est pas une bonne idée". Le Temps. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
- Incest and Related Offences (Scotland) Act 1986
- "Sexual Offences Act 2003". HMSO. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- Family relationships (₴ 27, Familial relationships), Sexual Offenses Act of 2003.
- "Criminal Code R.S.C. 1985, c. C-46, s. 155".
- "Inbred Obscurity: Improving Incest Laws in the Shadow of the 'Sexual Family', p. 2469-2470". Harvard Law Review. June 2006. Retrieved 7 December 2013.
- § 16-6-22 - Incest :: 2010 Georgia Code :: US Codes and Statutes :: US Law :: Justia
- Turner, Jeffrey S. (1996). Encyclopedia of Relationships Across the Lifespan. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. p92. ISBN 0-313-29576-X.
- "Crimes against sexual integrity. Argentine Criminal Code".
- "Civil marriage legislation. Argentine Civil Code".
- People who may not marry each other (Portuguese)
- Direito Brasil – Marriage (Portuguese)
- "Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994". Commonwealth Consolidated Acts. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
- Human rights in Australian law: principles, practice and potential, (1998) edited by David Kinley. ISBN 1862873062.
- Marriage Act 1961, section 23B
- "Marriage Act 1961, s 23B".
- See NSW: "Crimes Act 1900 s 78A".; Vic: "Crimes Act 1958 s 44".; Qld: "Criminal Code s 222".; SA: "Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 s 72".; WA: "Criminal Code s 329".; Tas: "Criminal Code s 133".; ACT: "Crimes Act 1900 s 62".; NT: "Criminal Code s 134"..
- "Crimes Act 1900 (NSW), s 78A"..
- "130 Incest -- Crimes Act 1961 No 43 (as at 13 July 2011), Public Act -- New Zealand Legislation Online". Parliamentary Counsel Office. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- "86A Interpretation -- Additional consequences for repeated serious violent offending -- Sentencing Act 2002 No 9 (as at 22 January 2014), Public Act -- New Zealand Legislation Online". Parliamentary Counsel Office. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "131 Sexual conduct with dependent family member -- Crimes Act 1961 No 43 (as at 11 May 2014), Public Act -- New Zealand Legislation Online". Parliamentary Counsel Office. 11 May 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.