Prostitution in Indonesia

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Prostitution in Indonesia is legally considered a "crime against decency/morality", although it is widely practiced, tolerated and regulated. Some women are financially motivated to become prostitutes, while others may be forced by friends, relatives or strangers. Traditionally, they have met with customers in entertainment venues or special prostitution complexes, or lokalisasi. However, recently internet forums and Facebook have been used to facilitate prostitute-client relations. Approximately 30 percent of prostitutes in Indonesia are children, and child sex tourism has become an issue at the resort islands of Batam and Bali.

Causes[edit]

In Indonesia, one of the main reasons for a prostitute to enter the business is the attractiveness of earning money quickly. The Jakarta Post reported that high-end prostitutes in Jakarta could earn Rp 15 million - Rp 30 million (USD 1,755 to 3,510) monthly, able to charge more than Rp 3 million (USD 350) per session for their services. Those entering prostitution for money come from both middle-class and poor families.[1]

Another major cause is coercion (see "Forced prostitution" for general discussion). Young women are offered employment opportunities in major cities, then raped and forced to prostitute themselves while paying money to their pimps.[2] They may also be sold by their parents. The International Labour Organization (ILO) reports that roughly 70 percent of Indonesian child prostitutes are brought into the trade by their family or friends.[3]

Forms[edit]

Prostitutes can be found working in brothels, some containing over 200 prostitutes. Prostitutes can be found in discotheques, massage parlours, and karaoke rooms.[4] They can also be booked via telephone.[5]

Online prostitution is also common. In internet forums, prostitutes and pornography are offered to registered members of good standing, as measured by their activity on the forum. A senior member of the forum posts a "free report" offering a description of the member's experience with a prostitute; contact information is provided upon request by private message. Prostitution rings on Facebook have also been reported.[6]

Legal status[edit]

Number of registered prostitutes in Indonesia, from 1984 to 1995

Prostitution is interpreted as a "crime against decency/morality" and against the law.[7] In practice prostitution is widespread, tolerated and regulated. Prostitution is most visibly manifested in Indonesia’s brothel complexes, or lokalisasi, which are found throughout the country.[8] These brothels are managed under local government regulations.[9] During or after raids by the police, the prostitutes are able to pay and be released from custody; this has led to police raids being called "nothing more than an income source for public order officers".[10]

UNICEF estimates that 30 percent of the female prostitutes in Indonesia are below 18 years of age.[11] The ILO puts the total number of child prostitutes in Jakarta at 5,000; according to the Jakarta city government, this is concentrated in Prumpung (North Jakarta), Grogol (West Jakarta) Tanah Abang (Central Jakarta), Block M (South Jakarta), as well as Jatinegara and Ciracas (both East Jakarta).[3] Child sex tourism is a problem, especially on the resort islands of Bali and Batam.[12][13]

History[edit]

Little is known about precolonial Indonesia's prostitution, although the purchase of sex slaves and "quasi-contractual" sexual relations are thought to have occurred. Following the spread of Islam in Indonesia, prostitution is thought to have increased due to Islam's disapproval of contractual weddings.[14] Javanese kings kept large stables of concubines, while Balinese widows without familial support could be prostituted by their king.[15]

During the early Dutch colonial period, European men wishing to find sexual gratification began hiring native prostitutes or concubines; this was accepted by financially motivated local women as well as some families, who volunteered their daughters. Because interracial marriage was discouraged or outright forbidden, this arrangement was accepted by Dutch leaders.[15]

Widespread prostitution began in the early 1800s, when the number of concubines kept by the Royal Netherlands East Indies soldiers and government officials declined; native men leaving their wives to look for work in other areas also contributed to its rise.[14] In 1852 the colonial government began requiring regular health checks of prostitutes to check for syphilis and other venereal diseases; prostitutes also had to carry identification cards. These did not curb the growth of prostitution, which increased dramatically during a period of extensive construction in the late 1800s.[16]

The 1852 law was later replaced by another, more stringent, public morality law in 1913, which criminalized "purposely bring[ing] about the fornication of others with a third party and make this his profession", or pimping; no mention was made of prostitutes. Enforcement of these laws proved more nearly impossible, and for a period of time investigation of brothels required a permit from the governor.[17]

During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, existing prostitutes were selected to serve the Japanese army in special brothels. Other women and girls, both native and Dutch, were forced to become "comfort women". After World War II, the migration of women from remote villages to cities, coupled with a high divorce rate, caused another increase in prostitution.[18]

Response[edit]

Government response to prostitution in Indonesia has been varied. A common response is to attempt banning it and closing brothels.[19] Another proposed response is the taxing of prostitutes' fees; such proposals have met controversy, with the revenues being considered haraam.[20]

Effects[edit]

Prostitution has been blamed for the increasing HIV/AIDS rates in various parts of Indonesia, including Central Java[4] and Bali. A lack of health control in brothels[4] and a lack of condom use have been blamed;[5] in 2010 the Bali AIDS commission reported that only 40% of clients used protection.[5]

Prostitutes themselves may fall victim to psycho-socio problems, such as multiple personality disorder. When servicing customers or dealing with their pimps, they may be physically and mentally abused. They are also at risk of catching HIV/AIDS.[3]

References[edit]

Footnotes
Bibliography