The Encarta (2007) holds that the proventriculus is:
The first part of a bird's stomach, where digestive enzymes are mixed with food before it goes to the gizzard. It is analogous to the gizzard in insects and crustaceans.
Dr. Thomas Caceci (undated) discusses the proventriculus of the avian stomach and opines that:
The proventriculus is the glandular portion of the avian compound stomach, and a rather peculiar organ it is. There's nothing like it in mammals.
- Encarta World English Dictionary [North American Edition] (2007). Proventriculus. Source:  (accessed: December 18, 2007)
- Source:  (accessed: December 18, 2007)
- Caceci, Thomas (undated). Proventriculus. Source:  (accessed: December 18, 2007)
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