Quinoa

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For other uses, see Quinoa (disambiguation).
Quinoa
Chenopodium quinoa0.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Chenopodioideae
Genus: Chenopodium
Species: C. quinoa
Binomial name
Chenopodium quinoa
Willd.
Quinoa Ursprung Verbreitung.png
Natural distribution
Synonyms[1]
  • Chenopodium canihua Cook
  • Chenopodium ccoyto Toro Torr.
  • Chenopodium ccuchi-huila Toro Torr.
  • Chenopodium chilense Pers. nom. inval.
  • Chenopodium guinoa Krock.
  • Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.

Quinoa (/ˈknwɑː/ or /kɨˈn.ə/, from Quechua: kinwa),[2] a species of goosefoot (Chenopodium), is a grain crop grown primarily for its edible seeds. It is a pseudocereal rather than a true cereal, as it is not a member of the true grass family. As a chenopod, quinoa is closely related to species such as beetroots, spinach and tumbleweeds.

It is high in protein, lacks gluten, and is tolerant of dry soil.

Overview[edit]

Landscape with Chenopodium quinoa Cachilaya Bolivia Lake Titicaca

Quinoa (the name is derived from the Spanish spelling of the Quechua name kinwa) originated in the Andean region of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia, where it was domesticated 3,000 to 4,000 years ago for human consumption, though archaeological evidence shows a non-domesticated association with pastoral herding some 5,200 to 7,000 years ago.[3]

Similar Chenopodium species, such as pitseed goosefoot (Chenopodium berlandieri) and fat hen (Chenopodium album), were grown and domesticated in North America as part of the Eastern Agricultural Complex before maize agriculture became popular.[4] Fat hen, which has a widespread distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, produces edible seeds and greens much like quinoa, but in smaller quantities.

The nutrient composition is favourable compared with common cereals. Quinoa seeds contain essential amino acids like lysine and acceptable quantities of calcium, phosphorus, and iron.[5]

After harvest, the seeds must be processed to remove the coating containing the bitter-tasting saponins. The seeds are in general cooked the same way as rice and can be used in a wide range of dishes. The leaves are eaten as a leaf vegetable, much like amaranth, but commercial availability of quinoa greens is limited.

Biology[edit]

Quinoa seeds
Quinoa plant before flowering

Chenopodium quinoa is a dicotyledonous annual plant usually about 1–2 metres (3.3–6.6 ft) high. It has broad, generally pubescent, powdery, smooth (rarely) to lobed leaves normally arranged alternately. The woody central stem is branched or unbranched depending on the variety and may be green, red or purple. The flowering panicles arise from the top of the plant or from leaf axils along the stem. Each panicle has a central axis from which a secondary axis emerges either with flowers (amaranthiform) or bearing a tertiary axis carrying the flowers (glomeruliform).[6] The green hypogynous flowers have a simple perianth and are generally bisexual and self-fertilizing.[6][7] The fruits are about 2 millimetres (0.079 in) in diameter and of various colours—from white to red or black, depending on the cultivar.[5]

Natural distribution[edit]

Chenopodium quinoa is believed to have been domesticated in the Peruvian Andes from wild or weed populations of the same species.[8] There are non-cultivated quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa var. melanospermum) that grow in the area it is cultivated; these may either be related to wild predecessors, or they could be descendants of cultivated plants.[9]

Saponin content[edit]

Red quinoa, cooked.

In their natural state, the seeds have a coating of bitter-tasting saponins, making them unpalatable. Most of the grain sold commercially has been processed to remove this coating.[10] This bitterness has beneficial effects during cultivation, as it is unpopular with birds and therefore requires minimal protection.[11] The genetic control of bitterness involves quantitative inheritance; lowering the saponin content through selective breeding to produce sweeter, more palatable varieties are complicated by about 10% cross-pollination.[12]

The toxicity category rating of quinoa saponins treats them as mild eye and respiratory irritants and as a low gastrointestinal irritant.[13] The saponin is a toxic glycoside, a main contributor to its hemolytic effects when combined directly with blood cells. In South America, quinoa saponin has many uses, including as a detergent for clothing and washing and as an antiseptic for skin injuries.[14] High levels of oxalic acid are in the leaves and stems of all species of the Chenopodium genus, and are also in the related genera of the Amaranthaceae family.[15] The risks associated with quinoa are minimal, provided it is properly prepared and the leaves are not eaten to excess.

Nutritional value[edit]

Quinoa, uncooked, per 100 g
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,539 kJ (368 kcal)
64 g
Dietary fibre 7 g
6 g
Saturated 0.7 g
Monounsaturated 0.1.6 g
Polyunsaturated 3.3 g
14 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(0%)
1 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(31%)
0.36 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(27%)
0.32 mg
Niacin (B3)
(10%)
1.52 mg
(15%)
0.77 mg
Vitamin B6
(38%)
0.49 mg
Folate (B9)
(46%)
184 μg
Vitamin B12
(0%)
0 μg
Choline
(14%)
70.2 mg
Vitamin C
(0%)
0 mg
Vitamin E
(16%)
2.44 mg
Vitamin K
(0%)
0 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(5%)
47 mg
Iron
(35%)
4.6 mg
Magnesium
(55%)
197 mg
Phosphorus
(65%)
457 mg
Potassium
(12%)
563 mg
Zinc
(33%)
3.1 mg
Other constituents
Water 13 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Quinoa was important to the diet of pre-Columbian Andean civilizations.[16] Quinoa grain has been called a superfood.[17] Protein content is very high for a cereal/pseudo-cereal (14% by mass), but not as high as most beans and legumes. The protein content per 100 calories is higher than brown rice, potatoes, barley and millet, but is less than wild rice and oats.[18] Nutritional evaluations indicate that quinoa is a source of complete protein.[19][20][21] Other sources claim its protein is not complete but relatively high in essential amino acids. [22] The grain is a good source of dietary fiber and phosphorus and is high in magnesium and iron. It is a source of calcium, and thus is useful for vegans and those who are lactose intolerant.[23] It is gluten-free and considered easy to digest. Because of these characteristics, it is being considered a possible crop in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System for long-duration human occupied space flights.[24]

The grain may be germinated in its raw form to boost its nutritional value, provided that the grains are rinsed thoroughly to remove any saponin.[25] It has a notably short germination period: only 2–4 hours in a glass of clean water is enough to make it sprout and release gases, as opposed to 12 hours with wheat.[26] This process, besides its nutritional enhancements, softens the seeds, making them suitable to be added to salads and other cold foods.

Other pseudo grains derived from seeds are similar in complete protein levels; buckwheat is 18% protein compared to 14% for Quinoa; Amaranth, a related species to Quinoa, ranges from 12 to 17.5%

Cultivation[edit]

Climate requirements[edit]

Harvested quinoa seeds

The plant's growth is highly variable due to a high complexity of different subspecies, varieties and landraces (domesticated plants or animals adapted to the environment in which they originated). However, in general it is undemanding and altitude-hardy. It is grown from coastal regions to over 4,000 m (13,000 ft) in the Andes near the equator, with most of the cultivars being grown between 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) and 4,000 metres (13,000 ft). Depending on the variety, optimal growing conditions are in cool climates with temperatures that vary between 25 °F (−4 °C) during the night to near 95 °F (35 °C) during the day. Some cultivars can withstand lower temperatures without damage. Light frosts normally do not affect the plants at any stage of development, except during flowering. Mid-summer frosts during flowering, often occurring in the Andes, lead to sterilization of the pollen. Rainfall conditions are highly variable between the different cultivars, ranging from 300 to 1,000 millimetres (12 to 39 in) during growing season. Growth is optimal with well-distributed rainfall during early growth and development and dry conditions during seed maturation and harvesting.[6]

Quinoa has been cultivated in the United States, primarily in the high elevation San Luis Valley (SLV) of Colorado where it was introduced in 1982. In this high-altitude desert valley, maximum summer temperatures rarely exceed 85 °F (29 °C) and night temperatures are about 45 °F (7 °C). Due to the short growing season, North American cultivation requires short-maturity varieties, typically of Bolivian origin.

Sowing[edit]

Quinoa plants do best in sandy, well-drained soils with a low nutrient content, moderate salinity, and a soil pH of 6 to 8.5.

The seedbed must be well prepared and drained to avoid waterlogging. In the Andes, the seeds are normally broadcast over the land and raked into the soil. Sometimes it is sown in containers of soil and transplanted later.

Cultivation management[edit]

Yields are maximised when 150 to 180 lb (68 to 82 kg) N/acre is available.[citation needed] The addition of phosphorus does not improve yield. In eastern North America, it is susceptible to a leaf miner that may reduce crop success and which also affects the common weed and close relative Chenopodium album, but C. album is much more resistant.

Harvesting and handling[edit]

Threshing quinoa

Quinoa grain is usually harvested by hand and rarely by machine, because the extreme variability of the maturity period of most Quinoa cultivars complicates mechanization. Harvest needs to be precisely timed to avoid high seed losses from shattering, and different panicles on the same plant mature at different times. The seed yield (often around 3 t/ha up to 5 t/ha) is comparable to wheat yields in the Andean areas. In the United States, varieties have been selected for uniformity of maturity and are mechanically harvested using conventional small grain combines. The plants are allowed to stand until they are dry[clarification needed] and the grain has reached a moisture content below 10%. Handling involves threshing the seedheads and winnowing the seed to remove the husk. Before storage, the seeds need to be dried in order to avoid germination.[6] Dry seeds can be stored raw until washed or mechanically processed to remove the pericarp to eliminate the bitter layer containing saponins.

History and culture[edit]

Early history[edit]

Quinoa was first domesticated by Andean peoples around 3,000 to 4,000 years ago.[17] It has been an important staple in the Andean cultures where the plant is indigenous but relatively obscure in the rest of the world.[16] The Incas, who held the crop to be sacred,[27] referred to it as chisaya mama or "mother of all grains", and it was the Inca emperor who would traditionally sow the first seeds of the season using "golden implements".[27] During the Spanish conquest of South America, the colonists scorned it as "food for Indians",[28] and suppressed its cultivation, due to its status within indigenous religious ceremonies.[29] The conquistadors forbade quinoa cultivation for a time[30] and the Incas were forced to grow wheat instead.[31]

Rising popularity and crop value[edit]

World Quinoa Production (thousand metric tons)
Country 1961 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2011
 Peru 22.5 7.3 16.3 6.3 28.2 41.1 41.2
 Bolivia 9.2 9.7 8.9 16.1 23.8 36.1 38.3
 Ecuador 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.8
Total 32.4 17.7 25.8 23.0 52.6 78.1 80.2
Export price[32] USD/Kg $0.080 $0.492 $0.854 $1.254 $3.029
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) [33]

The grain has become increasingly popular in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, China and Japan where it is not typically grown, increasing crop value.[34] Between 2006 and early 2013 quinoa crop prices tripled.[35] In 2011, the average price was US$3,115 per ton with some varieties selling as high as $8,000 per ton.[36] This compares with wheat prices of $9 per bushel (about $340 per ton). Since the 1970s, producers’ associations and cooperatives have worked toward greater producer control of the market. The higher prices make it harder for people to purchase, but also brings a livable income for farmers and enables many urban refugees to return to working the land.[37]

The popularity of quinoa grain in non-indigenous regions has raised concerns over food security. Due to continued widespread poverty in regions where it is produced and because few other crops are compatible with the soil and climate in these regions, it has been suggested that the inflated price disrupts local access to food supplies.[35] In 2013, The Guardian compared it to asparagus cultivated in Peru, a cash crop criticized for excessive water use,[38] as "feeding our apparently insatiable 365-day-a-year hunger for this luxury vegetable[...]"[35] It has been suggested that, as people rise above subsistence-level income, they choose higher-status Western processed foods. However, anthropologist Pablo Laguna states that farmers are still saving a portion of the quinoa crop for their own use, and that the high prices affect nearby city dwellers more, but consumption in cities has traditionally been lower. According to Laguna, the net benefit of increased revenue for farmers outweighs the costs, saying that it is "very good news for small, indigenous farmers".[39] The transformation from a healthy staple food for farming families and communities into a product that is held to be worth too much to keep for oneself and one's family is an ongoing process. It is seen as a valuable resource that can bring in far greater amounts[clarification needed] of cheap, low nutrient foods such as pasta and rice. It used to be seen as a peasant food that provided farming families with a very important source of nutrition, but now occupies a spectrum from an everyday food of urban Bolivia's middle class to a luxury food in the Peruvian capital of Lima where "it sells at a higher per pound price than chicken, and four times as much as rice".[40] Efforts are being made in some areas to distribute it more widely and ensure that farming and poorer populations have access to it and have an understanding of its nutritional importance. These include incorporating it into free school breakfasts and in government provisions distributed to pregnant and nursing women in need.[40]

Kosher controversy[edit]

Quinoa has become popular in the Jewish community as a substitute for the leavened grains that are forbidden during the Passover holiday. Several kosher certification organizations refuse to certify it as being kosher for Passover, citing reasons including its resemblance to prohibited grains or fear of cross-contamination of the product from nearby fields of prohibited grain or during packaging.[41]

In December 2013, the Orthodox Union, the world’s largest kosher certification agency, announced it would begin certifying quinoa as kosher for Passover.[42]

International Year of Quinoa[edit]

Logo of International Year of Quinoa 2013
Logo of International Year of Quinoa 2013

The United Nations General Assembly declared 2013 as the "International Year of Quinoa" [43][44][45] in recognition of ancestral practices of the Andean people, who have preserved it as food for present and future generations, through knowledge and practices of living in harmony with nature. The objective is to draw the world’s attention to the role that quinoa could play in providing food security, nutrition and poverty eradication, in support of achieving Millennium Development Goals.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is as the Secretariat of the international year. Bolivia has the presidency of the Coordination Committee and Ecuador, Peru and Chile share the vice presidency, with the rapporteurship in the hands of Argentina and France.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved May 1, 2014. 
  2. ^ Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary)
  3. ^ Kolata, Alan L. (2009). "Quinoa" (PDF). Quinoa: Production, Consumption and Social Value in Historical Context. Department of Anthropology, The University of Chicago. 
  4. ^ Smith, Bruce 1999 "The Emergence of Agriculture", W H Freeman & Co., New York. ISBN 0-7167-6030-4}
  5. ^ a b J. G. Vaughn & C. A. Geissler (2009). The new Oxford book of food plants. Oxford University Press. 
  6. ^ a b c d Research Coun National Research Council (2005). The Lost Crops of the Incas: Little-Known Plants of the Andes with Promise for Worldwide Cultivation. 
  7. ^ Reinhard Lieberei, Christoph Reissdorff & Wolfgang Franke (2007). Nutzpflanzenkunde. Georg Thieme Verlag. 
  8. ^ Barbara Pickersgill (August 31, 2007). "Domestication of Plants in the Americas: Insights from Mendelian and Molecular Genetics". Annals of Botany 100 (5): 925–40. doi:10.1093/aob/mcm193. PMC 2759216. PMID 17766847. 
  9. ^ Charles B. Heiser Jr. and David C. Nelson (September 1974). "On the Origin of the Cultivated Chenopods (Chenopodium)". Genetics 78 (1): 503–5. PMC 1213209. PMID 4442716. 
  10. ^ "How To Cook Quinoa, Easy Quinoa Recipe". Savvy Vegetarian. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  11. ^ "Quinoa". Alternative Field Crops Manual. University of Wisconsin Extension and University of Minnesota. January 20, 2000. 
  12. ^ Masterbroek, H.D.; Limburg, H.; Gilles, T.; Marvin, H. J. (2000). Occurrence of sapogenins in leaves and seeds of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). New York, NY.: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. pp. 152–156. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000101)80:1<152::AID-JSFA503>3.0.CO;2-P. 
  13. ^ "Biopesticides Registration Action Document: Saponins of Chenopodium quinoa" (PDF). EPA. 2009. 
  14. ^ "Quinoa". Issues in New Crops and New Uses Proceedings of the sixth National Symposium Creating Markets for Economic Development of New Crops and New Uses, Duane L. Johnson and Sarah M. Ward, 1993. Quinoa. p. 219–221. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), New crops. Wiley, New York. the Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University. 1993. Retrieved April 11, 1997. 
  15. ^ Siener, Roswitha; Honow, Ruth; Seidler, Ana; Voss, Susanne; Hesse, Albrecht (2006). Oxalate contents of species of the Polygonaceae, Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae families. Food Chemistry, Volume 98 Issue 2. pp. 220–224. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.05.059. ISSN 0308-8146. 
  16. ^ a b Keen, Benjamin; Haynes, Keith (2008). A History of Latin America. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. p. 32. ISBN 978-0618783182. 
  17. ^ a b Keppel, Stephen (March 4, 2012). "The Quinoa Boom Is a Lesson in the Global Economy". ABC Univision. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 
  18. ^ "Wild Rice: The Protein-Rich Grain that Almost Nobody Knows About! - Yahoo! Voices - voices.yahoo.com". Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  19. ^ "Mother Grain Quinoa A Complete Protein". Oardc.osu.edu. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  20. ^ "Nutrition Facts and Analysis of Quinoa, Cooked". 
  21. ^ "Quinoa". Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  22. ^ "Nutritional quality of the protein in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds.". ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved Jan 1992. 
  23. ^ Ray, C. Claiborne (29 December 1998). "Calcium and Quinoa". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  24. ^ Greg Schlick and David L. Bubenheim (November 1993). "Quinoa: An Emerging "New" Crop with Potential for CELSS" (PDF). NASA Technical Paper 3422. NASA. 
  25. ^ Andrea Cespedes (11 January 2011). "Can You Eat Quinoa Raw or Uncooked?". livestrong.com. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 
  26. ^ "Anthocyanins Total Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity in Amaranth and Quinoa Seeds and Sprouts During Their Growth" (PDF). researchgate.net. 12 January 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  27. ^ a b Popenoe, Hugh (1989). Lost crops of the Incas: little-known plants of the Andes with promise for worldwide cultivation. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. p. 149. ISBN 0-309-04264-X. 
  28. ^ Gade, Daniel W. (1999). Nature and culture in the Andes. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 206. ISBN 0-299-16124-2. 
  29. ^ Bailey, Garrick Alan; Peoples, James (2009). Humanity: an introduction to cultural anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. p. 120. ISBN 0-495-50874-8. 
  30. ^ Bernice Kagan; Meredith McCarty (1995). Fresh from a vegetarian kitchen. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 56. ISBN 0-312-11795-7. 
  31. ^ Andy Turnbull (2005). We need to talk: about the future of Canada. Toronto: Red Ear Pub. p. 23. ISBN 0-9681258-5-9. 
  32. ^ calculated from Export volume and value of FAOSTAT
  33. ^ "FAOSTAT". FAO Statistics. Retrieved 2013-01-26. 
  34. ^ Collyns, Dan (14 January 2013). "Quinoa brings riches to the Andes". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 17 Jan 2013. 
  35. ^ a b c Blythman, Joanna (16 January 2013). "Can vegans stomach the unpalatable truth about quinoa?". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 17 Jan 2013. 
  36. ^ Collyns, Dan (14 January 2013). "IQuinoa brings riches to the Andes". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 17 Jan 2013. 
  37. ^ Dan Collyns (14 January 2013). "Quinoa brings riches to the Andes". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  38. ^ "Despite Economic Gains, Peru's Asparagus Boom Threatening Water Table". PRI's The World. 2011-01-23. Retrieved 2013-01-17. 
  39. ^ Allison Aubrey (2013-06-07). "Your Love Of Quinoa Is Good News For Andean Farmers". NPR. Retrieved 2013-08-01. 
  40. ^ a b Tom Philpott. "Quinoa: Good, Evil, or Just Really Complicated?". Mother Jones. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  41. ^ "Jews divided by great Passover debate: Is quinoa kosher? | National Post". Life.nationalpost.com. 2013-03-25. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  42. ^ Nemes, Hody (December 23, 2013). "Quinoa Ruled Kosher for Passover". Forward. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  43. ^ United Nations (2012). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly (PDF). 
  44. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2013). International Year of Quinoa. 
  45. ^ "International Years". United Nations. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Pulvento C., M. Riccardi, A. Lavini, R. d’Andria, & R. Ragab (2013). "SALTMED Model to Simulate Yield and Dry Matter for Quinoa Crop and Soil Moisture Content Under Different Irrigation Strategies in South Italy.". Irrigation and drainage. doi:10.1002/ird.1727. 
  • Cocozza C., C. Pulvento, A. Lavini, M.Riccardi, R. d’Andria & R. Tognetti (2012). "Effects of increasing salinity stress and decreasing water availability on ecophysiological traits of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).". Journal of agronomy and crop science. doi:10.1111/jac.12012. 
  • Pulvento C, Riccardi M, Lavini A, d'Andria R, Iafelice G, Marconi E (2010). "Field Trial Evaluation of Two Chenopodium quinoa Genotypes Grown Under Rain-Fed Conditions in a Typical Mediterranean Environment in South Italy". Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 196 (6): 407–411. doi:10.1111/j.1439-037X.2010.00431.x. 
  • Pulvento, C., Riccardi, M., Lavini, A., Iafelice, G., Marconi, E. and d’Andria, R. (2012). "Yield and Quality Characteristics of Quinoa Grown in Open Field Under Different Saline and Non-Saline Irrigation Regimes". Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 198 (4): 254–263. doi:10.1111/j.1439-037X.2012.00509.x. 
  • Gómez-Caravaca, G. Iafelice, A. Lavini, C. Pulvento, M.Caboni, E.Marconi (2012). "Phenolic Compounds and Saponins in Quinoa Samples (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown under Different Saline and Non saline Irrigation Regimens". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60 (18): 4620–4627. doi:10.1021/jf3002125. PMID 22512450. 
  • Romero, Simon; Shahriari, Sara (March 19, 2011). "Quinoa’s Global Success Creates Quandary at Home". The New York Times. Retrieved July 22, 2012. 
  • Geerts S, Raes D, Garcia M, Vacher J, Mamani R, Mendoza J, Huanca R, Morales B, Miranda R, Cusicanqui J, Taboada C (2008). "Introducing deficit irrigation to stabilize yields of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)". Eur. J. Agron. 28 (3): 427–436. doi:10.1016/j.eja.2007.11.008. 
  • Geerts S, Raes D, Garcia M, Mendoza J, Huanca R (2008). "Indicators to quantify the flexible phenology of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in response to drought stress". Field Crop. Res. 108 (2): 150–6. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2008.04.008. 
  • Geerts S, Raes D, Garcia M, Condori O, Mamani J, Miranda R, Cusicanqui J, Taboada C, Vacher J (2008). "Could deficit irrigation be a sustainable practice for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano?". Agric. Water Manage 95 (8): 909–917. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2008.02.012. 
  • Geerts S, Raes D, Garcia M, Taboada C, Miranda R, Cusicanqui J, Mhizha T, Vacher J (2009). "Modeling the potential for closing quinoa yield gaps under varying water availability in the Bolivian Altiplano". Agric. Water Manage 96 (11): 1652–1658. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2009.06.020. 

External links[edit]

Data related to Chenopodium quinoa at Wikispecies