are a major group of life
forms and include familiar organisms
such as trees
, and green algae
. About 350,000 species
of plants, defined as seed plants
and fern allies
, are estimated to exist currently. As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering
and 15,000 bryophytes
. Green plants
, sometimes called metaphytes
, obtain most of their energy from sunlight
via a process called photosynthesis
Aristotle divided all living things between plants (which generally do not move), and animals (which often are mobile to catch their food). In Linnaeus' system, these became the Kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae) and Animalia (also called Metazoa). Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts, both technical and popular. Indeed, an attempt to perfectly match "plant" with a single taxon is problematic, because for most people the term plant is only vaguely related to the phylogenic concepts on which modern taxonomy and systematics are based.
is a dioecious
species of tree
in the Simaroubaceae
family, found in the rainforests
and Central America
and the Caribbean
. It was first described
in French Guiana
in 1775 and is one of six species of Simarouba
. The tree is evergreen
, but produces a new set of leaves once a year. It requires relatively high levels of light to grow and grows rapidly in these conditions, but lives for a relatively short time. The small yellow flowers are thought to be pollinated by insects
, the resulting fruits are dispersed
by animals including monkeys, birds and fruit-eating bats and the seeds are also dispersed by leaf cutter ants
The leaves of S. amara are eaten by several species of caterpillar, particularly those in the Atteva genus. Several species of termite and ants live on or around the tree and lianas and epiphytes grow on the tree. The bark of S. amara has been used by people in its range to treat dysentery and diarrhea, as well as other diseases, and was also exported to Europe in the eighteenth century to treat these illnesses. A number of compounds have since been isolated from the bark and have been shown to have antimicrobial effects. Local people use the wood of the tree for various purposes and it is also grown in plantations and harvested for its timber, some of which is exported.
- Describe all families, genera and species of the kingdom Plantae.
- For species, describe botanical properties, distribution, multiplication, usage (medicine, food, etc.), botanical history, cultivation information.
- Develop and implement a robust method of naming plant article for the ease of navigation and searching for Wikipedia users.
- Maintain Category:Plants and its subcategories.
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