Ratanpur was founded by Ratanraj or Ratandeva son of Kamaladeo, the grandson on Kalingaraj, who conquered the area of Chhattisgarh and shifted his capital from Tuman to Ratanpur in 11th century AD. In 1407 Kingdom of Ratanpur was divided into two parts, with junior branch ruling from Raipur. It continued to be the capital of Haihaiyavansi Kingdom till 18th century, who ruled large parts of areas of Chhattisgarh, till the area passed into control of Bhosle & later British.
As of 2001[update] India census, Ratanpur had a population of 19,838. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Ratanpur has an average literacy rate of 59%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 70%, and female literacy is 47%. In Ratanpur, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age.
The town is popular as a religious center and many devotees come here to offer their prayers and seek the blessings at the Mahamaya Temple. Many other temples such as Bhudha Mahadev and Ramtekri are also situated there.
It is around 25 km form Bilaspur (2nd biggest town in Chhattisgarh state after Raipur). Journey up to Raipur can be done through plane, train or bus then regular buses and train are available to Bilaspur.it is only 15 km from Nirdhi.and 30 km from Pali.