Clockwise from top: VIP Road, Airport Entrance, Aishbagh Stadium, DB City Mall, Taj-ul-Masajid, Raja Bhoj Airport, Platinum Plaza
|Nickname(s): city of lakes|
|• Body||Bhopal Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Krishna Gaur (BJP)|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Vishesh Garhpale|
|• Collector||Nishant Warwade|
|• Capital city||648.24 km2 (250.29 sq mi)|
|Elevation||527 m (1,729 ft)|
|• Capital city||1,795,648|
|• Metro||2,795,648|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Pincode||462001 to 462xxx|
Bhopal (//; Hindustani pronunciation: [bʱoːpaːl] ( )) is the capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and the administrative headquarters of Bhopal district and Bhopal division. The city was the capital of the former Bhopal State. Bhopal is known as the City of Lakes for its various natural as well as artificial lakes and is also one of the greenest cities in India. Bhopal is the 16th largest city in India and 231st largest city in the world. It is basically divided into two parts - old Bhopal and new Bhopal.
A Y-class city, Bhopal houses various institutions and installations of national importance. Some of these include ISRO's Master Control Facility, AIIMS Bhopal (Established in 2012), National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) AMPRI, MANIT, IISER, SPA, IIFM, BHEL, School of Planning and Architecture (SPA Bhopal) and NLIU, Gandhi Medical College.
The city attracted international attention in December 1984 after the Bhopal disaster, when a Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide manufacturing plant leaked a mixture of deadly gases, leading to one of the worst industrial disasters in the world's history. The Bhopal disaster continues to be a part of the socio-political debate and a logistical challenge for the people of Bhopal.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Economy
- 4 Education
- 5 Government and politics
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Places of interest
- 9 Culture
- 10 Media
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
According to folklore, Bhopal is said to have been founded by the king Bhoja of the Paramara dynasty (AD 1000–1055), who ruled from his capital at Dhar. This theory states that Bhopal was originally known as Bhojpal after the king and the dam ("pal") constructed by him. No available archaeological evidence, inscriptions or historical texts support the claim about an earlier settlement founded by Bhoja at the same place, although a temple complex constructed by him exists at Bhojpur, which is located 28 km from Bhopal. An alternative theory says that the name of the city was coined from the name of another king called Bhupala (or Bhupal). (During the British Raj, the railway tickets printed in the city and the signboards on the railway station mentioned the name of the city as "Bhupal" in Hindustani and "Bhoopal" in English.)
In the early 17 th century,In the early 18th century, Bhopal was a small village in the local Gond kingdom. The modern Bhopal city was established by Dost Mohammad Khan (1672–1728), an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army. After the death of the emperor Aurangzeb, Khan started providing mercenary services to several local chieftains in the politically unstable Malwa region. In 1709, he took on the lease of Berasia estate, and later annexed several territories in the region to establish the Bhopal State. Khan received the territory of Bhopal from the Gond queen Rani Kamlapati in lieu of payment for mercenary services, and usurped her kingdom after her death.
In 1737 Marathas defeated the Mughals in the Battle of Bhopal and started collecting tributes from local chieftains. The city remained under Maratha suzerainty until the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818, when Bhopal became a British princely state. Between 1819 and 1926, it was ruled by four women, Begums, – unique in the royalty of those days - under British suzerainty, Qudsia Begum was the first woman ruler, who was succeeded by her only daughter Sikandar Begum, who in turn was succeeded by her only daughter, Shahjehan Begum. Sultan Jahan Begum was the last woman ruler, who after 25 years of rule, abdicated in favour of her son, Hamidullah Khan. The rule of Begums gave the city its waterworks, railways, a postal system and a municipality constituted in 1907.
Bhopal State was the second-largest Muslim-ruled princely state, the first being Hyderabad. After the independence of India in 1947, the last Nawab expressed his wish to retain Bhopal as a separate unit. Agitations against the Nawab broke out in December 1948, leading to the arrest of prominent leaders including Shankar Dayal Sharma. Later, the political detainees were released, and the Nawab signed the agreement for Bhopal's merger with the Union of India on 30 April 1949. The Bhopal state was taken over by the Union Government of India on 1 June 1949. Hindu Sindhi refugees from Pakistan were accommodated in Bairagarh, a western suburb of Bhopal (now renamed to Sant Hirdaram Nagar). According to the States Reorganization Act of 1956, the Bhopal state was integrated into the state of Madhya Pradesh, and Bhopal was declared as its capital. The population of the city rose rapidly thereafter.
On 3 December 1984, a Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant in Bhopal leaked around 32 tons of toxic gases, including methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas which led to the worst industrial disaster to date. The official death toll was initially recorded around 4,000. A Madhya Pradesh government report stated 3,787 deaths, while other estimates state the fatalities were significantly higher (16,000) from the accident and the medical complications caused by the accident, in the weeks and years that followed - the higher estimates have been challenged. The impact of the disaster continues to this day in terms of psychological and neurological disabilities, blindness, skin, vision, breathing and birth disorders. The soil and ground water near the factory site has been contaminated by the toxic wastes. The Bhopal disaster continues to be the part of the socio-political debate, the cleanup of environmental contamination and rehabilitation of those affected continues to challenge the people of Bhopal. 3 December is annually observed as the official day of mourning, and every year, all government offices in Bhopal remain closed on this day.
Bhopal has an average elevation of 500m metres (1401 ft). Bhopal is located in the central part of India, and is just north of the upper limit of the Vindhya mountain ranges. Located on the Malwa plateau, it is higher than the north Indian plains and the land rises towards the Vindhya Range to the south. The city has uneven elevation and has small hills within its boundaries. The major hills in Bhopal are Idgah hills and Shyamala hills in the northern region, katara hills in south region and Arera hills in the central region.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
According to current master plan, the municipality covers 697 square kilometres It has two big lakes, collectively known as the Bhoj Wetland. These lakes are the Upper Lake (now renamed to Bhojtal) and the Lower Lake. Locally these are known as the Bada Talab (literally, big lake) and Chota Talab (literally, small lake) respectively. The catchment area of the Upper Lake is 360 km² while that of the Lower Lake is 9.6 km². The Upper Lake drains into the Kolar River. The Van Vihar National Park is a national park situated besides the Upper Lake.
Bhopal has a humid subtropical climate, with cool, dry winters, a hot summer and a humid monsoon season. Summers start in late March and go on till mid-June, the average temperature being around 30 °C (86 °F), with the peak of summer in May, when the highs regularly exceed 40 °C (104 °F). The monsoon starts in late June and ends in late September. These months see about 40 inches (1020 mm) of precipitation, frequent thunderstorms and flooding. The average temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) and the humidity is quite high. Temperatures rise again up to late October when winter starts, which lasts up to early March. Winters in Bhopal are cool, sunny and comfortable, with average daily temperatures around 16 °C (61 °F) and little or no rain. The winter peaks in January when temperatures may drop close to freezing on some nights. Lowest temperature ever recorded was 0.3C. Total annual rainfall is about 1146 mm (46 inches).
|Climate data for Bhopal|
|Average high °C (°F)||24.4
|Average low °C (°F)||9.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||12.9
The Govindpura industrial area has 1044 small- and medium-scale industries involved in various kinds of production activities.
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India, has a unit in Bhopal. It occupies a large area in the Eastern Part of the city and maintains a suburb named after it. A majority of the residents of the BHEL Suburb are employed by the unit.
The major industries in the old city are electrical goods, medicinal, cotton, chemicals and jewelry. Other industries include cotton and flour milling, cloth weaving and painting, as well as making matches, sealing wax, and sporting equipment. The residents of Bhopal also engage in large retail businesses. Handicrafts, like zardozi and batua (a small string purse, usually used with Indian traditional dresses) are some of the products of the Old City. In addition, there are also a large number of garages in the Old City which specialise in automobile conversion. These garages produce custom-modified and tuned cars, SUVs and motorbikes.
Bhopal is also home to the DB Corp, informally called the Bhaskar Group (after its major publication Dainik Bhaskar), a Rs. 1700 crore (Rs. 17 billion) business conglomerate with strong presence in media. Its head office is located in Maharana Pratap Nagar. Manjul Publishing House, located in the old city, is a major publishing house made famous by the translation of the Harry Potter series of novels into Hindi.
Mandideep is an industrial suburb of Bhopal. It is located to the South of the city on the NH 12. Mandideep's total exports are worth some 2,300 crore rupees ($500m; £300m) per year, making it the largest industrial area in Madhya Pradesh. The town is home to Hindustan Electo Graphite (HEG), owning the largest graphite electrode plant in the world and is the largest industrial company in the entire state. Hindustan Electro Graphite (HEG) and Lupin Laboratories ltd. are the dominant companies in the suburb, each exports worth around 900 crore rupees. Apart from that, Mandideep also houses the manufacturing plant of Makson group of company, Eicher Tractors for the oldest tractor manufacturers in India.
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There are more than 550 state government sponsored schools and affiliated to the Madhya Pradesh Board of Secondary Education (MPBSE) located within the city limits. In addition, there are four Kendriya Vidyalayas in the city affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). The city is also served by numerous other private schools affiliated to either CBSE or MPBSE. Some schools are also affiliated to National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) and ICSE Board, Institution Of Secondary Distance Education (ISDE) or Private Non-Governmental Board of School Education.
AIIMS Bhopal is one of the apex healthcare institutes established by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India under the Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojna (PMSSY). The PMSSY has established six such institutes aimed at correcting regional imbalances in quality tertiary level healthcare in the country, and attaining self-sufficiency in graduate and postgraduate medical education and training in under- served areas of the country. The institute has been established by an Act of Parliament on the lines of the original All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi. It has started imparting undergraduate medical and nursing education and is working towards postgraduate medical education in all its branches and related fields, along with paramedical training. They aim to bring together, in one place, educational facilities of the highest order for the training of personnel in all branches of health care activity.
Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal is among the oldest medical college in Madhya Pradesh and was established in 1955. This college is associated with Hamidia Hospital, Sultania Zenana hospital, Kamla Nehru Hospital and has a Regional Institute of Ophthalmology and a National Institute for Research in Environment Health and the first of its kind Medico-Legal Institute in India.
National Law Institute University founded in 1997 is a premier law university in the city and has been ranked as the 3rd best law school in India by Outlook and India Today.The National Judicial Academy (NJA)is also situated here.
Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya Rajiv Gandhi Technical University, established in 1998, is a multi-campus affiliating university located in Bhopal. It has campuses and affiliated colleges in Bhopal and other major cities of Madhya Pradesh. 217 engineering colleges, 95 pharmacy colleges, 88 MCA colleges, 4 architecture colleges and 85 polytechnic institutions are affiliated to it. UIT RGPV, an engineering institution established in 1986 as the Government Engineering College was granted autonomous status in 2010. Other universities include the, the Barkatullah University, the Madhya Pradesh Bhoj Open University (for distance education) and the Makhanlal Chaturvedi National University of Journalism and Communication and SNGGPG college.
Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT), established in 1960, is the premier institute for technology in the city and has been categorized by the Government of India as an Institute of National Importance. There are several other public and private engineering schools (numbering almost 200) located in and around the city.
The Indian Institute of Forest Management founded in 1982 is an autonomous institution, established by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India with financial assistance from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) and course assistance from the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. It is considered as one of top sectorial MBA college in India.
The National Institute of Technical Teachers' Training and Research (NITTTR), established by Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India in 1966 as TTTI, is also located in Bhopal. It offers M. Tech., Ph.D.,MBA and Training courses. Other Central Government-run institutes in the city include Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) and School of Planning and Architecture (SPA, established 2008).
Government and politics
Bhopal is the capital of Madhya Pradesh. It houses the State Legislative Assembly, or the Vidhan Sabha, which seats 230 members of Legislative Assembly. The thirteenth (and current) Vidhan Sabha was elected in May 2013. As of April 2012[update], the party in the majority in Vidhan Sabha is Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) which is led by Shivraj Singh Chauhan. Bhopal district elects seven seats to the Assembly.
The administration of Bhopal city is handled by Bhopal Municipal Corporation, also known as BMC. The total area under BMC is 285 km². The city is divided into 66 wards. Each ward elects a corporator. The winning party elects a council of members, who are responsible for various departments. The council members chose the Mayor among themselves. At present, there are ten members in the council. The Commissioner of Bhopal is the highest officer of Municipal Corporate Office, which is responsible for the departments of public works, revenue and tax, water supply, planning and development, fire brigade, health and sanitation, finance and accounts etc.
Bhopal has been a railroad and highway transportation hub for a long time. Bhopal has its own city bus service operated by Bhopal City Link Limited. In addition, around 600 mini-buses are run by private operators. Metro or Radio Taxis and auto-rickshaws are another major means of transport. In some parts in the old as well as new city, the new Tata Magic Vans are running successfully and have replaced the older and bigger diesel rickshaws — known as "Bhat" in year 2010.
National Highway 12 passes through Bhopal which connects it to Jabalpur in the East and Jaipur in the West. National Highway 86 connects Bhopal to Sagar in the East to Dewas in the West. State Highway 17 connects the city with Indore. Apart from the long distance services, there are many services to nearby places within the state. There are number of daily buses to Indore, Ujjain, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Khajuraho, Sanchi, Pachmarhi, Vidisha and Berasia in Madhya Pradesh. There are also daily buses to Ahmedabad, Jodhpur, Kota, Nagpur, Jaipur, Shirdi, Pune, Akola, Amravati, Jalgaon, Vadodara, Surat and Nashik. Recently private bus services started to Mumbai as well. An interstate bus terminus is located near the Habibganj railway station, called the Kushabhau Thakre Inter State Bus Terminal which was inaugurated in 2011.
Bhopal lies in the West Central Railway Zone. Considering both North-South and East-West train routes, it is one of the most rail connected cities in India. It houses the Divisional Railway Managers (DRM) head office under Central railways. Some of the railway stations in Bhopal are:
- Bhopal Junction Railway Station is the largest and most important railway station in the city. Being on the main North-South line, it is connected by rail to all parts of the country except North-Eastern states. More than 150 daily trains have stoppages in Bhopal.
- Habibganj Railway Station is a major and the most developed station of Bhopal. It holds the distinction of being the first ISO 9000:2001 certified railway station in India.
- Misrod Railway Station is located in the Misrod suburb of the city.
- Mandideep Railway Station is located in the industrial town of Mandideep.
- Bairagarh is located in the north-western Bairagarh suburb.
There are three routes or ways to reach the airport: (1) Via Bairagarh, (2) Via Panchvati, (3) Via Gandhi nagar road (N.H 12). From within the city, VIP road, a four lane road connects with the airport. Bhopal Airport is the international airport of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh and lies 15 km to the north of the city. International flights began operations in 2010 although no schedule services currently run internationally.
Domestic direct flight services operate to New Delhi and Mumbai from Jet Airways, JetKonnect and Air India.
According to the 2011 census the population of the Bhopal city is 1,795,648, with 939,560 males and 856,088 females. The urban / metropolitan Bhopal population extends beyond Bhopal city, and the metro population was 1,883,381 in 2011.
The total effective literacy rate was 85.24%, with male and female literacy respectively at 89.2% and 80.1%.
The chief languages are Hindi, Urdu, and English. The common street dialect spoken in Bhopal, especially in older regions of the city is termed as "Bhopali" and is the subject of comedy in Bollywood movies.
Places of interest
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Bhojtal - formerly known as Upper Lake, is a large lake which lies on the western side of the city. It is a major source of drinking water for the residents of the city. Along with the nearby Chhota Talaab, meaning small lake in Hindi, Bhojtal constitutes the so-called Bhoj Wetland. According to the local folklore, Bhojtal was built in 11th century. The lake was created by constructing an earthen dam across the Kolans River. An eleven gate dam called the Bhadbhada dam was constructed at Bhadbhada in 1965 at the southeast corner of the Lake, and now controls the outflow to the river Kaliasote. The lake was called Upper Lake or Bada Talab ("Big Pond") until March 2011, and thereafter it was officially renamed as Bhojtaal. A statue of Raja Bhoj was also installed on a pillar on one corner of the lake.
About 10 kilometres from the city is Hathaikheda, a place for water and fishing sports.
Bhimbetka Caves are about 35 kilometers from Bhopal city. They have evidence of dwellings of pre-historic man during the Paleolithic era. Rock paintings in the caves are specimens of pre-historic settlements in India. There are about 600 caves, but only 12 are open for visitors. The caves are located in the midst of sal and teak forests. They were discovered by Wakankar in 1957. UNESCO declared Bhimbetka Caves as a World Heritage Site in 2003.
Taj-ul-Masajid, which literally means "The Crown of Mosques", is the largest mosque in Bhopal. The mosque is also used as a madrasah (Islamic school) during the day time."Taj-ul-Masajid". The mosque features Mughal architecture. The Jama Masjid of Bhopal, built in 1837, has an inner sanctum built out of marble. The Moti Masjid or the Mosque of Pearls is situated in the center of Bhopal. The Moti Masjid was built in 1860 by Sikandar Begum, and became an important landmark of Bhopal. Sikandar Begum's practice of dressing like a man and public appearances without a veil, led Bhopal to be known for its relatively liberated, progressive women.
Shaukat Mahal And Sadar Manzil is in the walled city. Designed by a Frenchman, it reflects a fusion of post-Renaissance and Gothic styles to Islamic architecture. Gohar Mahal, is situated behind Shaukat Mahal on the banks of the Upper Lake. It was built in 1820. The Mahal is an expression of the fusion of Hindu and Mughal architecture.
Lakshmi Narayan Temple is situated to the south of the Lower Lake, is a temple devoted to Vishnu and his consort Laxmi. It is also called Birla Mandir. Bud Wale Mahadev or Bad Wale Mahadev is a historic temple located in the center of the city. It is located in Old Kabadkhana adjacent to Peergate. In this temple the shivling is emerged on a 'Bud Tree' (Banyan Tree) that is why it is called Bud Wale Mahadev. Every year on the occasion of Mahashivratri a huge procession is arranged in which is called as 'Shiv Baarat'. In this procession Lord Shiva is re-married to Maa Parvati at Peergate. Gufa Mandir is a temple is located near Lalghati. A Sanskrit college is also located in the campus. Khatlapura Mandir is a Shri Ram temple is situated near lower lake. It was built in the 19th century. It features many Hindu deities and a fare is held every year on Dol-Gyaras.
Sanchi Stupa Bhopal is about 50 kilometers from city center and it displays Bhopal's place in history from the times of Emperor Ashoka. The place is one of the oldest stone structures of India and it edifies Buddhism in India over 2000 years. Other attractions such as Islamnagar, Kerwa, Raisen are points of interest are also located within 50 kilometer drive from Bhopal.
- Activity centers
Regional Science Center is a science museum located on the picturesque Shyamala Hills. This centre houses about 300 science exhibits in ‘Invention’ and ‘Fun Science’ galleries. ‘Taramandal’ and Planetarium at the centre helps the students and enthusiasts study the astral and mysterious world of stars, galaxies and the universe. Stargazing sessions are organized at the planetarium for those who want to have a real close view of these luminous bodies.
Fish Aquarium is situated near Raj-Bhavan and old assembly hall. Covering one hectare area, the fish house is built in fish like structure. Van Vihar is the city's zoo, and is located on a hill near to upper lake in natural surroundings. Spread over an area of 445 hectares, it features birds and wildlife.
The Museum of Mankind in Bhopal exhibits tribal and folk houses from all corners of India.
Bhopali dishes and food in Bhopal are comparatively mild, less spicy and unique in taste. Local and individual variations of various popular snacks and foods can be found selling around the city . Bhopali food has a large variety of non-vegetarian dishes, including Bhopali Murgh Rezala, Paneer Rezala, Bhopali Gosht Korma, Murgh Hara Masala Rice and Murgh Nizami.
Diwali and Eid are major festivals in Bhopal. Gifts and sweets are exchanged and donation are made to the poor. Diwali is celebrated by worshiping the wealth goddess Lakshmi. Eid is special to the city as all the Hindus take time out to visit their Muslim friends and greet them and get treated with delicacies, the specialty of the day being sweet sewaiya. Bhopali culture is such that both Hindus and Muslims visit each other on their respective festivals to greet and exchange sweets. During Ganesh puja and Durga Puja (Navratras), idols of Ganesh and Durga are established in jhankis throughout the city. People throng to offer prayers to their deities. At the end of Navratras, on the day of Vijayadashami (or Dussehra), huge effigies of Ravan are burnt in different parts of the city. Some of them are organized by the local administration and stand as tall as 60 feet (18 m).
Bhopal Ijtema is an annual Muslim world preachers congregation, is held at Ghasipura 11 km from Bhopal. The congregation is said to be one of the largest Islamic gathering other than Hajj at Mecca in Saudi Arabia and “Bishwa Ijtima” at Tongi in Bangladesh. The annual congregation near Bhopal draws between 500,000 to 1,000,000 Muslims from all over the globe.
Bharat Bhavan is the main cultural centre of the city. It has an art gallery, an open-air amphitheatre facing the Upper Lake, two other theatres and a tribal museum.
The Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya (IGRMS), an autonomous organization of Govt. of India, Ministry of Culture is dedicated to the depiction of story of mankind in time and space. The Sangrahalaya is involved in generating a new museum movement in India, with open, freewheeling, flexible plan, to demonstrate the simultaneous validity of human cultures and the plurality of alternatives for human articulation. The innovative aspects of the Organisation are its open air and indoor exhibitions, built with active involvement of traditional artisans and experts drawn from different community groups, and the Education, Outreach and Salvage activities for revitalisatin of vanishing but valuable cultural traditions. The headquarters of the IGRMS is located in Bhopal (M.P.) while a regional centre is functioning from Heritage building Wellington House, Mysore (Karnataka). It showcases the tribal culture of various regions and various examples of tribal art and architecture. Every year in January/February, it hosts potters' workshops, folk music and dance events and open-air plays. Tribals also demonstrate their skills in painting, weaving, and the fashioning of bell metal into works of art.
AIR Bhopal (Akashvani Bhopal) transmits on Medium Wave 1593 kHz via a 10 kW transmitter. It also simulcasts in Shortwave via a 50 kW transmitter at the following times and frequencies:
- 4810 kHz: 0025-0215 UTC
- 7430 kHz: 0225-0447 (Sun 0531/0631) UTC
- 7430 kHz: 0630/0700-0931 (Sun 0700-1031) UTC
- 4810 kHz: 1130-1742 UTC
Government-run FM channels:
- 103.5 MHz AIR Vividh Bharati (6 kW power)
- 105.0 MHz Gyan Vani (10 kW power)
Private & Commercial FM channels:
- 92.7 MHz Big 92.7 FM
- 93.5 MHz Red FM (Bajaate Raho)
- 94.3 MHz My FM
- 98.3 MHz Radio Mirchi
- 90.4 MHz Low Power (50W) Community Radio of RKDF Institute of Science & Technology, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal.
Bhopal has its own Radio and Television stations (All India Radio and Doordarshan respectively). Local Television networks include Digi Networks and BTV(Bhaskar TV). Besides, three regional satellite channels operate from Bhopal, namely ETV Madhya Pradesh & Chhattisgarh, Sahara Madhya Pradesh and Sadhana News.
Various Hindi and English newspapers are published from Bhopal. The Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Pioneer (Indian newspaper), Youth Engine, The Hitavada, etc. are the main English dailies and weekly published from the city while Dainik Bhaskar, Raj Express, nazare hind, Nava Bharat, Nai Dunia, Dainik Jagran, Patrika, News Track Network, BPN Times, Peoples Samachar,rastra ka hawhan etc. are the main Hindi dailies published from here.
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- Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka UNESCO
- "Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka". World Heritage Site. Archived from the original on 8 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-15.
- Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh), Jacques-Edouard Berger Foundation, World Art Treasures; Monuments at Sanchi (UNESCO World Heritage)
- A House of Tribal Tradition- Bhopal India Today
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- Sinha, Indra (2007). Animal's People. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-7878-9.
- Lapierre, Dominique (2002). Five Past Midnight in Bhopal. Warner Books. ISBN 0-7432-2035-8.
- Khan, Shaharyar. Begums of Bhopal, A Dynasty of Women Rulers in Raj India. ISBN 1-86064-528-3.
- Singh, J.P. (1998). City Planning in India: A Study of Land Use of Bhopal. Mittal Publications, India. ISBN 81-7099-705-4.
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- The Bhopal Story
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- bhopalonline directory
- Birds of Bhopal