# Cost of electricity by source

For the price of electricity, see Electricity pricing.
Comparison of the levelized cost of electricity for some newly built renewable and fossil-fuel based power stations in in euro per kWh (Germany, 2013)
Note: employed technologies and LCOE differ by country and change over time.

The cost of electricity generated by different sources is a calculation of the cost of generating electricity at the point of connection to a load or electricity grid. The cost is typically given per kilowatt-hour or megawatt-hour. It includes the initial capital, discount rate, as well as the costs of continuous operation, fuel, and maintenance. This type of calculation assists policy makers, researchers and others to guide discussions and decision making.

LCOE is the levelized cost of electricity, which attempts to compare different methods of electricity generation in cost terms on a comparable basis. It is an economic assessment of the cost to build and operate a power-generating asset over its lifetime divided by the total power output of the asset over that lifetime. The LCOE can also be regarded as the cost at which electricity must be generated in order to break-even over the lifetime of the project.

## Cost factors

While calculating costs, several internal cost factors have to be considered.[1] (Note the use of "costs," which is not the actual selling price, since this can be affected by a variety of factors such as subsidies and taxes):

• Capital costs (including waste disposal and decommissioning costs for nuclear energy) - tend to be low for fossil fuel power stations; high for wind turbines, solar PV; very high for waste to energy, wave and tidal, solar thermal, and nuclear.
• Fuel costs - high for fossil fuel and biomass sources, low for nuclear, and zero for many renewables.
• Factors such as the costs of waste (and associated issues) and different insurance costs are not included in the following: Works power, own use or parasitic load - that is, the portion of generated power actually used to run the stations pumps and fans has to be allowed for.

To evaluate the total cost of production of electricity, the streams of costs are converted to a net present value using the time value of money. These costs are all brought together using discounted cash flow.[2][3]

### Levelized cost of electricity

The levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), also known as Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) is the cost to build and operate a power-generating asset over its lifetime divided by the total power output of the asset over that lifetime. It is the cost at which electricity must be generated from a specific source to break even over the lifetime of the project. It is an economic assessment of the cost of the energy-generating system including all the costs over its lifetime: initial investment, operations and maintenance, cost of fuel, cost of capital, and is very useful in calculating the costs of generation from different sources.

It can be defined in a single formula as:[4]

$\mathrm{LCOE} = \frac{\sum_{t=1}^{n} \frac{ I_t + M_t + F_t}{\left({1+r}\right)^t} }{\sum_{t=1}^{n} \frac{E_t}{\left({1+r}\right)^{t}} }$

where

• $\mathrm{LCOE}$ = Levelized cost of electricity
• $I_t$ = Investment expenditures in the year t
• $M_t$ = Operations and maintenance expenditures in the year t
• $F_t$ = Fuel expenditures in the year t
• $E_t$ = Electricity generation in the year t
• $r$ = Discount rate
• $n$ = Life of the system

Typically the LCOE is calculated over 20 to 40 year lifetime, and given in the units of currency per kilowatt-hour, for example AUD/kWh or EUR/kWh or per megawatt-hour, for example AUD/MWh (as tabulated below).[5] However, care should be taken in comparing different LCOE studies and the sources of the information as the LCOE for a given energy source is highly dependent on the assumptions, financing terms and technological deployment analyzed.[5] In particular, assumption of capacity factor has significant impact on the calculation of LCOE. For example, Solar PV may have a capacity factor as low as 10% depending on location. Thus, a key requirement for the analysis is a clear statement of the applicability of the analysis based on justified assumptions.[5]

Paul Joskow of MIT has determined that the "Levelized cost of electricity" metric is a poor means of comparing electricity sources as it hides the extra costs, such as the need to frequently operate back up power stations, incurred due to the use of intermittent power sources such as wind energy, while the value of baseload power sources are underpresented.[6] Nevertheless, it is widely used.

### System boundaries

When comparing LECs for alternative systems, it is very important to define the boundaries of the 'system' and the costs that are included in it. For example, should transmissions lines and distribution systems be included in the cost? Typically only the costs of connecting the generating source into the transmission system is included as a cost of the generator. But in some cases wholesale upgrade of the Grid is needed. Careful thought has to be given to whether or not these costs should be included in the cost of power.

Should R&D, tax, and environmental impact studies be included? Should the costs of impacts on public health and environmental damage be included? Should the costs of government subsidies be included in the calculated LEC?

### Discount rate

Another key issue is the decision about the value of the discount rate $r$. The value that is chosen for $r$ can often 'weigh' the decision towards one option or another, so the basis for choosing the discount must clearly be carefully evaluated. See internal rate of return. A UK government study in 2011 concluded that the appropriate discount rate to analyse UK government programs was not the actual cost of capital, but 3.5%.[7]

### Marginal cost of electricity

A more telling economic assessment might be the marginal cost of electricity. This value would serve the purpose of comparing the added cost of increasing electricity generation by one unit from different sources of electricity generation (see Merit Order).[citation needed]

### Avoided cost

The US Energy Information Administration has cautioned that levelized costs of non-dispatchable sources such as wind or solar should be compared to the avoided energy cost rather than the levelized cost of dispatchable sources such as fossil fuels or geothermal. This is because introduction of fluctuating power sources may or may not avoid capital and maintenance costs of backup dispatchable sources.[8]

### External costs of energy sources

Typically pricing of electricity from various energy sources may not include all external costs - that is, the costs indirectly borne by society as a whole as a consequence of using that energy source.[9] These may include enabling costs, environmental impacts, usage lifespans, energy storage, recycling costs, or beyond-insurance accident effects.

The US Energy Information Administration predicts that coal and gas are set to be continually used to deliver the majority of the world's electricity,[10] this is expected to result in the evacuation of millions of homes in low lying areas, and an annual cost of hundreds of billions of dollars' worth of property damage.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

Furthermore, with a number of island nations becoming slowly submerged underwater due to rising sea levels,[18] massive international climate litigation lawsuits against fossil fuel users are currently[when?] beginning in the International Court of Justice.[19][20]

An EU funded research study known as ExternE, or Externalities of Energy, undertaken over the period of 1995 to 2005 found that the cost of producing electricity from coal or oil would double over its present value, and the cost of electricity production from gas would increase by 30% if external costs such as damage to the environment and to human health, from the particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, chromium VI, river water alkalinity, mercury poisoning and arsenic emissions produced by these sources, were taken into account. It was estimated in the study that these external, downstream, fossil fuel costs amount up to 1%-2% of the EU’s entire Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and this was before the external cost of global warming from these sources was even included.[21][22] Coal has the highest external cost in the EU, and global warming is the largest part of that cost.[9]

A means to address a part of the external costs of fossil fuel generation is carbon pricing — the method most favored by economics for reducing global-warming emissions. Carbon pricing charges those who emit carbon dioxide (CO2) for their emissions. That charge, called a 'carbon price', is the amount that must be paid for the right to emit one tonne of CO2 into the atmosphere.[23] Carbon pricing usually takes the form of a carbon tax or a requirement to purchase permits to emit (also called "allowances").

Depending on the assumptions of possible accidents and their probabilites external costs for nuclear power vary significantly and can reach between 0.2 to 200 ct/kWh.[24] Furthermore nuclear power is working under an insurance framework that limits or structures accident liabilities in accordance with the Paris convention on nuclear third-party liability, the Brussels supplementary convention, and the Vienna convention on civil liability for nuclear damage[25] and in the U.S. the Price-Anderson Act. It is often argued that this potential shortfall in liability represents an external cost not included in the cost of nuclear electricity; but the cost is small, amounting to about 0.1% of the levelized cost of electricity, according to a CBO study.[26]

These beyond-insurance costs for worst-case scenarios are not unique to nuclear power, as hydroelectric power plants are similarly not fully insured against a catastrophic event such as the Banqiao Dam disaster, where 11 million people lost their homes and from 30,000 to 200,000 people died, or large dam failures in general. As private insurers base dam insurance premiums on limited scenarios, major disaster insurance in this sector is likewise provided by the state.[27] Also of note is that more modern reactors than those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant vintage, such as the proven Onagawa nuclear plant design,[28] demonstrated that it can survive 13 meter high tsunamis and safely shut down without incident, despite being the closest nuclear plant to the epicenter of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami.[28]

Calculations often do not include wider system costs associated with each type of plant, such as long distance transmission connections to grids, or balancing and reserve costs. Calculations do not include externalities such as health damage by coal plants, nor the effect of CO2 emissions on the climate change, ocean acidification and eutrophication, ocean current shifts. Decommissioning costs of nuclear plants are usually not included (The USA is an exception, because the cost of decommissioning is included in the price of electricity, per the Nuclear Waste Policy Act), is therefore not full cost accounting. These types of items can be explicitly added as necessary depending on the purpose of the calculation. It has little relation to actual price of power, but assists policy makers and others to guide discussions and decision making.[citation needed]

These are not minor factors but very significantly affect all responsible power decisions:

• Comparisons of life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions show coal, for instance, to be radically higher in terms of GHGs than any alternative. Accordingly, in the analysis below, carbon captured coal is generally treated as a separate source rather than being averaged in with other coal.
• Other environmental concerns with electricity generation include acid rain, ocean acidification and effect of coal extraction on watersheds.
• Various human health concerns with electricity generation, including asthma and smog, now dominate decisions in developed nations that incur health care costs publicly. A Harvard University Medical School study estimates the US health costs of coal alone at between 300 and 500 billion US dollars annually.[29]
• While cost per kWh of transmission varies drastically with distance, the long complex projects required to clear or even upgrade transmission routes make even attractive new supplies often uncompetitive with conservation measures (see below), because the timing of payoff must take the transmission upgrade into account.

## Estimates

### Australia (2006)

The following table gives a selection of LCOE from two major government reports from Australia.[30][31] These figures do not include any cost for the greenhouse gas emissions (such as under carbon tax or emissions trading scenarios) associated with the different technologies.

Levelised energy costs for different generation technologies in Australian dollars per megawatt hour (2006)
Technology Cost
Nuclear (to COTS plan)[31]   40–70
Nuclear (to suit site; typical)[31]   75–105
Coal   28–38
Coal: IGCC + CCS   53–98
Coal: supercritical pulverized + CCS   64–106
Open-cycle Gas Turbine   101
Hot fractured rocks   89
Gas: combined cycle   37–54
Gas: combined cycle + CCS   53–93
Small Hydro power   55
Wind power: high capacity factor   63
Solar thermal   85
Biomass   88
Photovoltaics   120

### France (2011)

The International Agency for the Energy and EDF have estimated for 2011 the following costs. For the nuclear power they include the costs due to new safety investments to upgrade the French nuclear plant after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster; the cost for those investments is estimated at 4 €/MWh. Concerning the solar power the estimate at 293 €/MWh is for a large plant capable to produce in the range of 50-100 GWh/year located in a favorable location (such as in Southern Europe). For a small household plant capable to produce typically around 3 MWh/year the cost is according to the location between 400 and 700 €/MWh. Currently solar power is by far the most expensive renewable source to produce electricity, although increasing efficiency and longer lifespan of photovoltaic panels together with reduced production costs could make this source of energy more competitive.

French energy costs for different generation technologies in Euros per megawatt hour (2011)
Technology Cost (€/MWh)
Hydro power 20
Nuclear (with State-covered insurance costs) 50
Natural gas turbines without CO2 capture 61
Onshore wind 69
Solar farms 293

### Germany (2013)

In November 2013, the Fraunhofer Institute assessed the levelised generation costs for newly built power plants in the German electricity sector.[32] PV systems reached LCOE between 0.078 and 0.142 Euro/kWh in the third quarter of 2013, depending on the type of power plant (ground-mounted utility-scale or small rooftop solar PV) and average German insolation of 1000 to 1200 kWh/ per year (GHI). There are no LCOE-figures available for electricity generated by recently built German nuclear power plants as none have been constructed since the late 1980s.

Germany levelized cost of electricity generation in 2013
Technology Cost range (EUR/MWh)
Coal-fired power plants (brown coal) 38–53
Coal-fired power plant (hard coal) 63–80
CCGT power plants (cogeneration) 75–98
Onshore wind farms 45–107
Offshore wind power 119–194
PV systems 78–142
Biogas power plant 135–250
Source: Fraunhofer Institute- Levelized cost of electricity renewable energy technologies[32]

### United Kingdom (2010)

In March 2010, a new report on UK levelised generation costs was published by Parsons Brinckerhoff.[33] It puts a range on each cost due to various uncertainties. Combined cycle gas turbines without CO2 capture are not directly comparable to the other low carbon emission generation technologies in the BP study. The assumptions used in this study are given in the report.

More recent UK estimates are the Mott MacDonald study released by DECC in June 2010 [34] and the Arup study for DECC published in 2011.[35]

UK energy costs for different generation technologies in pounds per megawatt hour (2010)
Technology Cost range (£/MWh)[citation needed]
Natural gas turbine, no CO2 capture 55 – 110
Natural gas turbines with CO2 capture 60 – 130
Biomass 60 – 120
New nuclear 80 – 105 (92.50 guaranteed from 2023[36][37])
Onshore wind 80 – 110
Coal with CO2 capture 100 – 155
Solar farms 125 – 180
Offshore wind 150 – 210
Tidal power 155 – 390

Divide the above figures by 1000 to obtain the price in pounds per kilowatt-hour.

### United States

The tables below list the estimated cost of electricity by source for plants entering service in 2018. The tables are from a January 2014 report of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) called "Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2014".[38]

Total System Levelized Cost (the rightmost column) gives the dollar cost per megawatt-hour that must be charged over time in order to pay for the total cost. These calculations reflect an adjustment to account for the high level of carbon dioxide produced by coal plants. From the EIA report: —

In November 2012, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency published a report with the title System effects in low carbon energy systems. In this report NEA looks at the interactions of dispatchable energy technologies (fossil and nuclear) and variable renewables (solar and wind) in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These grid-level systems costs differ from the levelized cost of electricity as they also include costs related to the electricity grid, such as extending and reinforcing transport and distribution grids, connecting new capacity to the grid, and the additional costs of providing back-up capacity for balancing the grid. NEA calculated these costs for a number of OECD countries with different levels of penetration for each energy source.[47] This report has been criticized for its adequacy and used methodology.[48][49] Swedish KTH in Stockholm published a report in response, finding "several question marks concerning the calculation methods".[50]:5 While the grid-level systems costs in the 2012 OECD-NEA report is calculated to be $17.70 per MWh for 10% onshore wind in Finland, the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology concludes in their analysis, that these costs are rather$0 to $3.70 per MWh (or 79% to 100% less than NEA's calculations), as they are either much smaller or already included in the market.[50]:23–24 Estimated Grid-Level Systems Cost, 2012 (USD/MWh)[47]:8 Technology Nuclear Coal Gas Onshore Wind Offshore Wind Solar Penetration Level 10% 30% 10% 30% 10% 30% 10% 30% 10% 30% 10% 30% Backup costs (adequacy) 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.00 0.00 5.61 6.14 2.10 6.85 0.00 10.45 Balancing costs 0.16 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.00 5.00 2.00 5.00 2.00 5.00 Grid connection 1.56 1.56 1.03 1.03 0.51 0.51 6.50 6.50 15.24 15.24 10.05 10.05 Grid reinforcement & extension 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.20 2.20 1.18 1.18 2.77 2.77 Total Grid-level System Costs 1.72 1.67 1.07 1.07 0.51 0.51 16.30 19.84 20.51 28.26 14.82 28.27 #### California Energy Commission (2007) A draft report of LECs used by the California Energy Commission is available.[51] From this report, the price per MWh for a municipal energy source is shown here: California levelized energy costs for different generation technologies in US dollars per megawatt hour (2007) Technology Cost (US$/MWh)
Coal   74–88
Gas   87–346
Geothermal   67
Hydro power   48–86
Wind power   60
Solar   116–312
Biomass   47–117
Fuel Cell   86–111
Wave Power   611
Note that the above figures incorporate tax breaks for the various forms of power plants. Subsidies range from 0% (for Coal) to 14% (for nuclear) to over 100% (for solar).

### Other estimates

A 2010 study by the Japanese government (pre-Fukushima disaster), called the Energy White Paper, concluded the cost for kilowatt hour was ¥49 for solar, ¥10 to ¥14 for wind, and ¥5 or ¥6 for nuclear power. Masayoshi Son, an advocate for renewable energy, however, has pointed out that the government estimates for nuclear power did not include the costs for reprocessing the fuel or disaster insurance liability. Son estimated that if these costs were included, the cost of nuclear power was about the same as wind power.[52][53][54]

In 2014, Brookings Institute published The Net Benefits of Low and No-Carbon Electricity Technologies which states, after performing an energy and emissions cost analysis, that "The net benefits of new nuclear, hydro, and natural gas combined cycle plants far outweigh the net benefits of new wind or solar plants", with the most cost effective low carbon power technology being determined to be nuclear power.[55][56]

The Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland commissioned a former Director of Operations of the British National Grid, Colin Gibson, to produce a report on generation levelised costs that for the first time would include some of the transmission costs as well as the generation costs. This was published in December 2011 and is available on the internet :.[57] The institution seeks to encourage debate of the issue, and has taken the unusual step among compilers of such studies of publishing a spreadsheet showing its data available on the internet :[58]

On 27 February 2015 Vattenfall Vindkraft AS agreed to build the Horns Rev 3 offshore wind farm at a price of 10.31 Eurocent per kWh. This has been quoted as below 100 UK pounds per MWh.

#### Comparison different studies (2004–2009)

Several studies compared the levelized cost of nuclear and fossil power generation. These include studies from the Royal Academy of Engineering (UK 2004), University of Chicago (US 2004), Canadian Energy Research Institute (CAN 2004), the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry (UK 2006), the European Commission (BEL 2008), the House of the Lords, Select Committee on Economic Affairs (UK 2008) and MIT (US 2009).

#### Analysis from different sources (2009)

 █ Conventional oil █ Unconventional oil █ Biofuels █ Coal █ Nuclear █ Wind Colored vertical lines indicate various historical oil prices. From left to right: — 1990s average — January 2009 — 1979 peak — 2008 peak

Price of oil per barrel (bbl) at which energy sources are competitive.

• Right end of bar is viability without subsidy.
• Left end of bar requires regulation or government subsidies.
• Wider bars indicate uncertainty.
Source: Financial Times (edit)

## Longterm trends

### Photovoltaics

European PV LCOE range projection 2010–2020 (in €-cts/kWh)[59]
Price history of silicon PV cells since 1977

Photovoltaic prices have fallen from $76.67 per watt in 1977 to an estimated$0.36 per watt in 2014, for crystalline silicon solar cells.[60][61] This is seen as evidence supporting Swanson's law, an observation similar to the famous Moore's Law, that states that solar cell prices fall 20% for every doubling of industry capacity.

By 2011, the price of PV modules per MW had fallen by 60% since 2008, according to Bloomberg New Energy Finance estimates, putting solar power for the first time on a competitive footing with the retail price of electricity in some sunny countries; an alternative and consistent price decline figure of 75% from 2007 to 2012 has also been published,[62] though it is unclear whether these figures are specific to the United States or generally global. The levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) from PV is competitive with conventional electricity sources in an expanding list of geographic regions,[5] particularly when the time of generation is included, as electricity is worth more during the day than at night.[63] There has been fierce competition in the supply chain, and further improvements in the levelised cost of energy for solar lie ahead, posing a growing threat to the dominance of fossil fuel generation sources in the next few years.[64] As time progresses, renewable energy technologies generally get cheaper,[65][66] while fossil fuels generally get more expensive:

The less solar power costs, the more favorably it compares to conventional power, and the more attractive it becomes to utilities and energy users around the globe. Utility-scale solar power can now be delivered in California at prices well below $100/MWh ($0.10/kWh) less than most other peak generators, even those running on low-cost natural gas. Lower solar module costs also stimulate demand from consumer markets where the cost of solar compares very favorably to retail electric rates.[67]

It is now evident that, given a carbon price of $50/ton, which would raise the price of coal-fired power by 5c/kWh, solar PV, Wind, and Nuclear will be cost-competitive in most locations. The declining price of PV has been reflected in rapidly growing installations, totaling about 23 GW in 2011. Although some consolidation is likely in 2012, due to support cuts in the large markets of Germany and Italy, strong growth seems likely to continue for the rest of the decade. Already, by one estimate, total investment in renewables for 2011 exceeded investment in carbon-based electricity generation.[68] In the case of self consumption, payback time is calculated based on how much electricity is not brought from the grid. Additionally, using PV solar power to charge DC batteries, as used in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicles, leads to greater efficiencies, but higher costs. Traditionally, DC generated electricity from solar PV must be converted to AC for buildings, at an average 10% loss during the conversion. Inverter technology is rapidly improving and current equipment have reached over 96% efficiency for small scale residential, while commercial scale three-phase equipment can reach well above 98% efficiency. However, an additional efficiency loss occurs in the transition back to DC for battery driven devices and vehicles, and using various interest rates and energy price changes were calculated to find present values that range from$2,057.13 to $8,213.64 (analysis from 2009).[69] ### Wind power NREL projection: the LCOE of U.S. wind power will decline by 25% from 2012 to 2030.[70] Estimated cost per MWh for wind power in Denmark In 2004, wind energy cost a fifth of what it did in the 1980s, and some expected that downward trend to continue as larger multi-megawatt turbines were mass-produced.[71] As of 2012 capital costs for wind turbines are substantially lower than 2008–2010 but are still above 2002 levels.[72] A 2011 report from the American Wind Energy Association stated, "Wind's costs have dropped over the past two years, in the range of 5 to 6 cents per kilowatt-hour recently.... about 2 cents cheaper than coal-fired electricity, and more projects were financed through debt arrangements than tax equity structures last year.... winning more mainstream acceptance from Wall Street's banks.... Equipment makers can also deliver products in the same year that they are ordered instead of waiting up to three years as was the case in previous cycles.... 5,600 MW of new installed capacity is under construction in the United States, more than double the number at this point in 2010. Thirty-five percent of all new power generation built in the United States since 2005 has come from wind, more than new gas and coal plants combined, as power providers are increasingly enticed to wind as a convenient hedge against unpredictable commodity price moves."[73] This cost has additionally reduced as wind turbine technology has improved. There are now longer and lighter wind turbine blades, improvements in turbine performance and increased power generation efficiency. Also, wind project capital and maintenance costs have continued to decline.[74] For example, the wind industry in the USA is now[when?] able to produce more power at lower cost by using taller wind turbines with longer blades, capturing the faster winds at higher elevations. This has opened up new opportunities and in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio. The price of power from wind turbines built 300 feet to 400 feet above the ground can now compete with conventional fossil fuels like coal. Prices have fallen to about 4 cents per kilowatt-hour in some cases and utilities have been increasing the amount of wind energy in their portfolio, saying it is their cheapest option.[75] ## See also ## Further reading ## References 1. ^ A Review of Electricity Unit Cost Estimates Working Paper, December 2006 - Updated May 2007 2. ^ "Cost of wind, nuclear and gas powered generation in the UK". Claverton-energy.com. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 3. ^ "David Millborrows paper on wind costs". Claverton-energy.com. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 4. ^ Nuclear Energy Agency/International Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Projected Costs of Generating Electricity (2005 Update) 5. ^ a b c d K. Branker, M. J.M. Pathak, J. M. Pearce, “A Review of Solar Photovoltaic Levelized Cost of Electricity”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15, pp.4470-4482 (2011). Open access 6. ^ Comparing the Costs of Intermittent and Dispatchable Electricity-Generating Technologies", by Paul Joskow, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, September 2011 7. ^ 8. ^ US Energy Information Administration, Levelized cost of new generation resources, 28 January 2013. 9. ^ a b "Subsidies and costs of EU energy. Project number: DESNL14583" Pages: 52. EcoFys, 10 October 2014. Accessed: 20 October 2014. Size: 70 pages in 2MB. 10. ^ International Energy Outlook: Electricity "Although coal-fired generation increases by an annual average of only 1.9 percent, it remains the largest source of electricity generation through 2035. In 2008, coal-fired generation accounted for 40 percent of world electricity supply; in 2035, its share decreases to 37 percent, as renewables, natural gas, and nuclear power all are expected to advance strongly during the projection and displace the need for coal-fired-generation in many parts of the world. World net coal-fired generation grows by 67 percent, from 7.7 trillion kilowatthours in 2008 to 12.9 trillion kilowatthours in 2035." 11. ^ The economic impact of global warming 12. ^ Climate change threatens Australia's coastal lifestyle, report warns | Environment | The Guardian 13. ^ Tufts Civil Engineer Predicts Boston’s Rising Sea Levels Could Cause Billions Of Dollars In Damage 14. ^ Rising Sea Levels' cost on Boston 15. ^ Tufts University slide 28, note projected Bangladesh evacuation 16. ^ The Hidden costs of Fossil fuels 17. ^ Rising Sea Level 18. ^ Five nations under threat from climate change 19. ^ Tiny Pacific nation takes on Australia 20. ^ See you in court: the rising tide of international climate litigation 21. ^ New research reveals the real costs of electricity in Europe 22. ^ 23. ^ IPCC, Glossary A-D: "Climate price", in IPCC AR4 SYR 2007. 24. ^ Viktor Wesselak, Thomas Schabbach, Thomas Link, Joachim Fischer: Regenerative Energietechnik. Springer 2013, ISBN 978-3-642-24165-9, p. 27. 25. ^ 26. ^ 27. ^ 28. ^ a b "Japanese nuclear plant survived tsunami, offers clues". Reuters. 20 October 2011. 29. ^ "New Harvard Study Examines Cost of Coal". Environment.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 30. ^ Graham, P. The heat is on: the future of energy in Australia CSIRO, 2006 31. ^ a b c Switkowski, Z. Uranium Mining, Processing and Nuclear Energy Review UMPNER taskforce, Australian Government, 2006 32. ^ a b "Levelized cost of electricity renewable energy technologies". FRAUNHOFER. 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 33. ^ "Powering the Nation". Parsons Brinckerhoff. 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 34. ^ "Mott MacDonald study released by DECC in June 2010" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-04. 35. ^ Ove Arup & Partners Ltd (October 2011). "Review of the generation costs and deployment potential of renewable electricity technologies in the UK" (PDF). London: Department of Energy and Climate Change. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 36. ^ "UK nuclear power plant gets go-ahead". BBC News. 21 October 2013. 37. ^ Roland Gribben and Denise Roland (21 October 2013). "Hinkley Point nuclear power plant to create 25,000 jobs, says Cameron". London: Daily Telegraph. 38. ^ a b c [1] Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2014]. Released April, 2014. Report of the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). 39. ^ a b [2] Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2013]. Released January, 2013. Report of the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). 40. ^ a b Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2012. June 2012, DOE/EIA-0383(2012). 41. ^ 42. ^ 43. ^ Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2011. Released January 23, 2012. 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